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Vol.  Inf..  1962. 


JNE  HUNDREi 
ILLINOIS   VOLU^ 

WAR 
O  C  O  C  O 


THE    HISTORY 

OF  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH   REGIMENT  OF 
ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEER  INFANTRY. 

WAR    OF    THE 

GREAT    REBELLION 

1862-1865 

BY 

WILLIAM   WIRT   CALKINS 

FIRST    LIEUTENANT    OF   COMPANY    E,    ONE    HUNDRED    AND 

FOURTH    REGIMENT,    AND    AIDE  DE  CAMP    STAFF 

OF  GENERAL  JOHN   BEATTY. 


HISTORICAL  COMMITTESv 


FRANK  M.  SAPP,  JOHN  H.  WIDMER, 

MILTON  B.  BUSHNELL,         WILLIAM  W.  CALKINS. 


(;hica(;o: 

DONOHUE  &  HENNEBERRY, 

Printers,    Enuravkks  and   Binders, 

1895. 


.V'H 


PREFACE. 

Comrades: — 

Those  of  yon  who  have  attended  the  annnal  renuions 
<»t'  the  One  llnudred  and  Fourth  are  familiar  witli  the 
measures  taken  to  insure  the  writing-  and  i)ul)li(ation 
of  the  militai-y  liistory  of  the  Keoiment  in  the  war  of 
the  Great  Rebellion.     Nearly  thirty  years  had  rolled 
away  and  nothino-  in  the  matter  accomplished,  while 
all  felt  that  the  work  had  been  ue.olected  too  long-.  The 
ranks  were  o-rowin.^-  thinner  from  year  to  year  as  one 
and  another  answered  to  the  ^'roll  call"  above.     The 
survivors  had  passed,  or  were  passing  into  the  sere  and 
yellow  leaf  of  autumn.     There  was  a  conviction— in 
which  I  earnestly  shared,  that  the  glorious  record  of 
the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  should  be  embodied  in  the 
permanent  form  of  history,  in  order  that  it  might  be 
handed  down  to  our  children  and  those  who  will  soon 
follow  us  on  the  stage  of  human  action,  to  show  them 
the  sacrifices  made,  the  sufferings  and  labors  endured 
that  the  Union  might  be  preserved  and  the  blessino-?^ 
of  liberty  maintained  and  secured,  for  them  and  man- 
kind.   At  the  annual  reunion  held  in  Streator,  in  Sep- 
tember, 1892,  all  the  previous  feeble  attempts  to  initiate 
the  movement  for  a  history  assumed  definite  shape 
m   the  "Resolutions"   presented   upon   that   occasion, 
ihese  were  heartily    and    unanimouslv  adopted  and 
more  than  one-half  of  the  monev  required  for  expenses 
subscribed  then  and  there.    By  a  process  which  seems 
like  a  fatality,  the  choice  of  an  Historian  to  chronicle 
your  achievements,  fell  upon  the  writer.     1  desire  to 
say,  that  whatever  the  wisdom  that  led  to  this  result 
1  did  not  evade  a  call  that  seemed  like  a  dutv.    ITnder 
such  circumstances  the  task  was  undertaken  and  has 
been  carried  forward  under  difficulties  and  discourao-e- 
ments  hard  to  appreciate,  as  well  as  at  the  sacrifice^'of 
personal  interests.    It  is  now  completed,  and  in  writino- 


••r 
nn<i 


till-  HUf<>r\  my  tiiiii  Iiiik  Imimi  to  kIiou  rl«-:ii-|\   wliai  ilic 
•  •iii|ilii»li<'4l  iiM  a  piiri  of  till*  <iraiiil  Annies 
li,\  ilctailiii;:  iiiiinilfly  your  iiiovt'iiu'iits, 
.>!  lialllfN;  (••  It'll  ihr  tniili  :iit<l  i  he  Tacts, 
III    **riif    willioiii     iircjihiirc.       \\  lirn-     I     li:nc 
«^.  .1     ••■•iiiiuiih    it     is    wiilioiii     piMJiMlit  I*.       An 
iMfii    inmlf  to  jjivi*  i-n'tlit    wln-ir   ii    is 
il  will  Im*  mi-ii  lliiil,  uilli  tlir  iiu'aiis  of  iiif'ttr- 

III.  iiaiiil,  afh-r  liiiriy  years,  il  roiilil  not  always 

Im*  <ioii**.  My  alleiii|>lK  to  icarli  every  sui'viviii;;  sol- 
«ll«*r,  ami  to  Irani  alMUit  those  who  are  dead,  entailed 
utHiii  iiii>  a  vast  aiiioiiiii  of  extra  laltoi-,  time  and 
••\|wii«»«-,  and  e\en  then  were  not  always  successful, 
tiiif  oM  I  he  wliide  I  was  eiiconra;:ed  Ity  the  «4i-eat  miijor- 
ilic  living;  iiienihers.  A  nnmlH'r  sent  m<'  valii- 
.lOK  material,  siicli  as  diaiics,  iioirs  of  personal  ex- 
|M'rii-iii  i-».  ei«-.  Tln'se  have  heeii  Utilized  as  far  as 
|Mir»»iMi-.  Tlif  tlir«*e  chaptcrK  of  Kt'iuinisceiices  au<l 
Incidents  wrilleii  l>y  nieiidters  of  iIk*  Ke^imeni,  will 
Im*  f«iiiiid  inl«*restiiij:.  While  I  luive  been  encoura^ied 
l»y  all,  yet  tin*  followin;:  couirades  who  hav«'  aidt'd 
iiif  deM'rve  mention:  Sherman  Lehunl,  <;e«»ri;«'  .Marsh, 
Marshall  |{a;:will,  William  II.  Conard,  ('a|ilaiii  \\  . 
SiraMii.  i'.  i'  t'onrtri;:ht.  r.  tl.  IMiillijts,  taptaiu  \\  . 
l*r<N-tor.  Major  .1.  II.  \N  idmer.  Lieutenaui  A.  riescn, 
.1.  t*.  I»e«*j.'aii.  II.  \Ninleischci«lt,  S.  \\  .  Ilniiicss.  Lieu- 
leiiant  I*.  Talliot,  Lieutenant  S.  \  .  Ani<dd,  .\.  .Monilt. 
.Ii»fu'|»li  Itiirkart.  Captain  F.  M.  Sa|»p.  I  desire  also 
lo  fXpri'S).  my  oldi;:alions  t«»  .Mrs.  I>ou;:las  llapeman, 
Mi-H.  .la^.  M  l^'i;;hton  and  .Mrs.  Sarah  I*.  < 'enter  for 
iM-ceHs  to  valualde  papcix;  also  to  I  >r.  ( 'liarles  .M.  ( 'laiU, 
the  arciiiiiplihhed  histi»rian  of  the  'Phirtyninih  Illinois 
liifaiilry,  for  kindly  ad\ice  and  su;,';:«'stions.  My 
lliiitiks  for  miin\  favors  are  also  extended  to  Cidoiiel 
Pou^laM  lla|N'man.  It  is  due  myself  to  say  that 
hi  addition  to  the  ;:eneral  wrilin;;  of  the  History, 
nil  the  Hkeiih«>x  of  companies,  e.xcept  that  of  K. 
iiiid  all  the  ldo;:nipliics  hut  twn  or  three.  \\<rc 
'  ^  file  from  iiiM-i'Kxity,  and  hcoiiise  no  one 
'I    itr    could    «lo    the    wiuK.     This    lalioi-    wis 


Very   tedious   and    ivijiiiicd    -real    care   and    patience. 
The  rosters   after   beiiio-  written   were  siibniitted    to 
officers  and  members  of  the  com])anies  for  correction, 
and  when  returned,  re-written.     The  utmost  care  has 
been  taken  to  have  the  bio.iirai>hies    as    correct    and 
complete  as  p()ssibh\     Hundreds  of  letters  were  writ- 
ten by  me  on  this  subject  akme,  and  the  most  persist- 
ent efforts  made  to  obtain  the  record  of  evei-y  soldier. 
No  one  can  justly  com])lain  if  his  bio;4Tai)hv  is  mea-er. 
The  numerous  i»ictures  of  members  will  be  of  interest, 
thou<;h  some  now  ^rizzled  veterans  will  hardly  recoo-' 
nize  themselves  or  others,  as  they  looked  thirty  years 
a^-o.     And,  now,  I  will  say  in  closing-,  that  after  lulv- 
ino-  o-iven  so  much  of  my  thought,  time  and  labor,  for 
so  long  a  period,  to  the  preparation  and  writing  of  the 
History  of  our  gallant  Regiment,  I,  at   last,  lav   down 
the  pen  with  some  reluctance,  owing  to  the  fact  that 
while  engaged  in  the  work  I  lived  Over  the  old  war 
times  and  the  past  became  a  present  reality.    I  mingled 
again  in  the  novel  and  stirring-  scenes  connected  with 
the  organization  of  our  R(\giment,  its  departure  for  the 
front,  and  its  various  fortunes  in  nearly  three  yeai-s  of 
marches,  campaigns  and  battles.     Absorbed  On    the 
subject,  it  was  hard  to  realize  that  all  was  over  and 
buried— except  in  memory;  that  'The  mill   will  not 
grind  with  the  water  that  is  passed,"  and  those  of  us 
who  still  survive— fortunately  or  unfortunately— have 
only  recollections  left,  pleasing  or  otherwise,'  in  i)ro- 
portion  to   the  manner  in   which   we  performed   our 
duty  in  the  days   of    the   Nation's  distress.      If    tin- 
objects  for  which  I  set  out  have  been  accomplished 
to  the  satisfaction  of  my  comrades  of  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth,  I  shall  feel  that  my  time  and  labor 
have  not  been  spent  in  vain. 

Wn.LlAM   W.   (VVLKTNS. 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER    I. 


Remarks  on  the  Impending  Struggle— rhe  Fall  of  Fort  Sumter- 
Call  for  Troops-Disasters  of  1861-2-The  Crisis  of  1862-Up- 
rismg   of   the   Nation-600,000  Men  Enlisted  in  Two  Months...! 

CHAPTER  11. 


What  La  Salle  County  Had  Done-The    Organization  of    the    One 
Hundred  and  Fourth— Election  of  Field  Officers 7 

CHAPTER  III. 


Flag  Presentation-March  to  Camp  Wallace-Scenes  in  the  Camp 
-Runnmg  the  Guard-Marching  Orders  Received-The  Field 
and  Staff— Packing  Up ^ 

CHAPTER  IV. 


-issue  of  Cot.  "'~t"""^  "'  ^"'"P  Holt-Getting  Settled 
^  tv!  .?.  C  othmg  and  Arms-Drilling-Removal  to  "Camp 
Bnckbat'^-March  Over  the  Ohio-Buckner's  Plantation-Grand 
Review-Exciting  News-March  to  Louisville-Camp  Wilder- 
TV  ork  on  the  Fortifications-Killing  of  General  Nelson-Presi- 
dent s  Proclamation— Under  Marching  Orders I7 

CHAPTER  Y. 


Leavmg  Camp  Wilder-A  Hard  March-Arrive  at  Shelbyvllle- 
Confiscate  Wagons-Attempt  to  Recover  Contrabands-March 
to  Frankfort-Hasty  Retreat  of  the  Rebels-Colonel  Limberg's 
Arrest-Company  E  Raises  a  Flag-Wild  Goose  Chase  After 
Morgan-March  to  Bowling  Green-Suffering  by  the  Way- 
Arrival  at  Bowling  Green-Review  and  Speech  by  Gener- 
al Rosecrans-Thirty-Ninth  Brigade  Detached-Colonel  Scott 
Assumes    Command oa 


(•ii.\i*ti:k  \  1. 


U^rrh  I  -Arrtval     «i     Tomi.kJnHvllle— Cha«- 

i,j^  ttir    IMck«-ti»— Thr.-Mt«»nlnK    IX-mon- 

„  Ha«iy    KxU    liiul    NlK>it    March— 

^•  >,-     (Vl.-I)ruie<l— Arrival     at 


11^ 


.mmun.1— Th.-   Situation 


•Dd  Troop*— Purtvnta  of   l>anK' '  -^^ 

niAi'Ti:i:   \ii. 


Tr.f    lUllle   of    Ilarts%in4>.    Trnnc»n<f.    nntl    Capture    of    the   One 
Hundred  and  Fourth  61 

niAi'TKi:  \  III. 


Oo  In  l*«rol«>  Camp  at  Columbua— Taklnjr  French  Furloughs— De- 

tii   ('an)|i  Doujclaa— CJuardlng  Hehel  Prisoners 

UflM'l    l*rl»on»'r8— off  fur  Nashville — Guarding 

f  <••.   to  Hr««nt«iM«l  — Ufturn  to  Nashville — At   Mur- 

ff  ill    It^atty'a    HrlKadi*— Prepare    to     Advance — Order 

f..r    M    \<in<-nt    I»sue<l 77 

(IIAPTKK    IX. 


Th*  I    OmpalKn— Advance    to    Hoover's    Gap— Wllder's 

«"■  •  ■  .  w    ;it    I.llN-rty    (Jap — (Occupation    of   Manchester 

tit   to    Hlllsboro— Attacked    by    Cavalry — 

It-  .  .  iKK   ll««trfats— Tullah<iniH    Occupied— Ileat- 

l>  •    Atlvancr    to    KIk    Hlver— Seven  Miles  of  FlghtlnK— Stock- 

a\'     <\iiiur^l     by     a    I><'lnchment   of  the   One   Hundred   and 

■     ItfU-ls    Fall     Hack— Hejolclng    over    Gettysburg 

'  virif  — In     Camp KS 

<  llArTKU    X. 


Tr.r   Chlrkamauga  CamiMilKn  and  luttle  of  Chlckamauga 101 

«n\i'Ti:i:   xi 

Th*  IMrffr  ..f  Chattaaooca..  153 

<-ii  \i"i!:i:   \  II 

■     ......    K..i.  ...166 


CHAPTER  XIII. 

The  Flanking  of  Dalton-Advance  to  the  Etowah-Battles  of  Re- 
saca  and  New  Hope  Church-Seizure  of  Allatoona 192 

CHAPTER  XIV.    • 

The  Battles  Around  Kenesaw  Mountain-Johnston's  Withdrawal 
Beyond  the  Chattahoochee— Battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek-Bat- 
tle of  Atlanta „, , 

Zl4 

CHAPTER   XV. 

The  Siege  and  Fall  of  Atlanta 229 

CHAPTER  XVI. 

Pursuit  of  Hood  and  Return  to  Atlanta 243 

CHAPTER  XVII. 

The^March  from  Atlanta  to    the    Sea-Siege    and   Fall   of    Savan- 
255 

CHAPTER  XVIII. 

'^'^  Ben?onvili'e'''°"^''    '"'"  Carolinas-Battle    of    Averysboro    and 
•  ■  ■  • 283 

CHAPTER    XIX. 

The   Last    Campaign-March  to  Raleigh-President  Lincoln's  As- 
sassination— Johnston's  Surrender— End  of  the  War 311 

CHAPTER    XX. 

Off  for  Washington-Race  With    the    Twentieth    Corps    to   Rich- 
mond-The  Grand  Review-Muster  Out  and  Return  Home.. 318 


rHATTlIK    X\l. 


<t      Our      Flr»t    Thr«^    Months"    Service.     Includ- 
'.f.   by  0«pt»ln    William    Strawn,    Company     F  — 
iir  '    the   Atlanta  Campaign,  etc..  by  Henry  Wln- 

Irr  iny   H— A  M'vable  Fort,  by  Sergeant  William 

H  .iJt»any   •  -s   Without    Horns,   by  Charles 

R!  nv    !— N  r   Peter   Dinger.   Company   G — 

J<a  i:    C.airr.>e.  Company  B  —  Recollections 

of  :  ri  and  Other«.  etc..  by  Robert  West,  Com- 

p*  ..f   Lieutenant  Arnold  of  Company  A— 

R.  .■-!tHw-  Mountain  and  the  Siege  of  Atlanta, 

b>  Strawn.  Company    F— Personal    Recol- 

Ir^  Mummer,  by  Jacob  Bane,  Company  I..32S 

«  !i  \1'ti:k  XX 11. 


K-ntucky   Campaign.     Hartsville    and    Elk 
riant     A.    Prescotl.    Company    A — My    Experl- 
m  V    at    Sir   u  Is    Mill.     ..r   Fishing  Creek.   S.   C.   by  John   E. 
Merrltt.    Company    H  — Incidents  of  Chlckamauga.  the  Atlanta 
Campaign  and  Raleigh,    by  Corr>oral   D.   L.   Mitchell.  Company 
C — Wh..  Hud  !h^  N'Ightmare    at    Hlllsboro    and    Chattanooga? 
b>                                          Moffltt.  Company  I— Milking    Cows,    by 
O-                                       >•  r> — Reminiscence  of  Tompklnsvllle  and 
Ml»s:-  li      KiJi;*..      L>      Edgar    L.    Stevens.     Company     C — My 
Eii--rVn'v.    at     Chlckamauga.   by   Philip  A.    Hawk,   Company 
G                     -nee   of  Glasgow.   Ky.,  by  Captain  Wlllard  Proc- 
tc-                    V  I— The  Exp«-rlence   of   Company   I    In    the    Skir- 
ls                       Atlanta.     July     r.'d.     1864.     by     Captain     Wlllar3 
*•'                    Mj.any  I— Recollections    of     Utoy    Creek,    Ga..    by 
!    Procter.  Company  I— Extracts  from  Captain 
n*  to  the  Oi>eratlons  of  the  Regiment  Around 
•    Cr\'«-k   and    New    Hope   Church — Recol- 
"f  <'hattanooga  and  the  Battle  of  Look- 
wul  M«ui*Uin.  by  Captain  William  Strawn 347 

«  iiArriiK  xxiii. 


TW  FI»I4  aod  StAff— Noa-CommlMloned     Staff— Roster    and     Bi- 
ocrmphix  366 

rilAI'TKi:  \XI\  . 


OPiPMy    A— How     and     Wh#r«  Organised— Roster  and  Blogra* 
phi—    Bf  ttotlf»  376 


CHAPTEK   XX\'. 

Companr    B— How    anf     W>^-^-  '-'-eariz^--_P-^  ,.  =„^   t>- 

phies-Statisti«  ^..:..    T^    .  ^*'^; 

CHAPTER  XXVL 


CompaDv     C— How     and     Wherv  C-rg^niz^i— t>--^-  =---   -     - 
phJe« — Statistic-s  '' 

CHAPTER  XXVIL 


Company     I>-How     and     Where  Cn-aniz-i-R-^--  and  K— a 
phies — Statistics   ...  "''" 

415 

CHAPTER  XXVIIL 

Com^ny     E-How    and     Where  Cn^nizM-E  c^.er  and  Kogra- 
phies— Statistics   ^^^ 

CHAPTER    XXIX. 

""'TSls^lSSr.    ^^  ^^^^^^i^^^^^anixed-Roster  and  Bio^- 
447 


CHAPTER  XXX 

phies — Statistics 


Company     G-How     ar  i     Where  Or^aiuz^i_Rc«er  and  Biogra- 


45S 

CHAPTER    XXXL 


Company    H— How    and     W^^-i-^  .-.t^t-^-t^     -d--.  ^  -^ 

phies-Siatistics   ";:...: .'.';!r^"r*'^  Biogra- 

CHAPTER    XXXII. 

company     I-How     and     Where  Or^anixed-Roster  and  Biosra- 

phies— Statistics    .  ^^  ^Jtugra 

-15^ 

CHAPTER    XXXIIL 


Company     K-How    and    Where  Orgaruz^l-Rc^er  and  Biogra- 
phies—Statistics      ^^  «t«ra 


CHArTKU   xx.\i\ 


Kamllv*  of  th«  Iinprt«..nm*nl  of  ll.peman  and  Wldmer.  by  col- 
onel iv.u<l«.  lUprmnn  -Hrinln!»o.-nc*  of  Utoy  Cret-k.  by  Ma- 
jor John  H  Wiamrr-WUIUm  M.  Wllaon  of  Company  K.  In 
Uccvtl  lo  Colonel  H.p-man  at  Peaeh  Tree  Creek-RemlnlB- 
crooc  of  IVi.h  Tree  Cr«-k,  by  Corporal  John  Shapland.  Com- 
Miiy  I>-How  •  UclM-l  Ij»dy  cJul  Kxen  with  the  Major,  by  Cor- 
poral   John    Kh-j.lan.l.  r-mimny    D-CuncludlnK    Hemark«.    by 

.  507 

ihr   Hlaturlan.. 

rilAl'TKK  XXXV. 


Th*  Xarraclve  of  My  EmrajM-  fr-.m  the  Confederate  Military 
Prison  al  Columbia.  8.  C.  NovemU-r  28,  1864.  After  Fourteen 
Month*-  lmi.rta^.nment.  by  Lieutenant  William  W.  Calkins. 
«    -mi^any   K 


LLUSTRATIONS  AND  PORTRAITS. 


J  View  of  Lookout  Mountain  Battle  Field 153 

View  of  Mission  Ridge  Battle  Field 1 66 

/View  of  the  104th  Veterans  in  1888 327 

>y  Arnold,  Lieut.  S.  V Co.  A.  378 

V  Burgess,  S.  W Co.  B.  389 

y  Brown,  C.  H Co.  E.  430 

y  Bagwill,  M.  O Co.  G.  458 

V  Brown,  Corp.  S Co.  H.  470 

V'  Bane,  J Co.    I.  482 

V  Burkart,  J Co.  K.  496 

/Conarroe,  G.  R Co.  B.  '669 

y  Collins,  Capt.  W.  H Co.  D.  415 

V  Clark,  Capt.  Thos Co.  D.  415 

>/  Clark.   G.  C Co.  D.  418 

n/  Calkins,  Lieut.  W.  W Co.  E.      430  &  506 

V  Conard,  Sergt.  W.  H Co.  E.  43a 

V  Campbell,  H Co.  G.  458 

^/  Cook.  Sergt.  C.  B  Co.  G.  506 

v'  Craig,  aergt.  W.  H Co.  K.  496 

y  Dyer,  Surgeon  R.  F 373 

y  Daugherty,  Sergt.  F.  M Co.  F.  377 

v  Deegan,  Corp.  J.  C Co.  G.  405 

V  Doty,  Capt.  J.  S.  H Co.  E.  430 

V  Dewey,  Capt.  R.  P Co.  E.  430' 

y  Davidson,  Lieut.  O.  S Co.  H.  470' 

/Ford,  Corp.  J.  J Co.  D.  418^ 

N/Frink,  Corp.  W.  E Co.    I.  482 

/Fitzsimmons,  Capt.  J.  P Co.  K.  495 

V  Favor,  Lieut.  O.  S Co.  K.  49T 

,'  Gage,  R.J Co.  D.  418 

■/Hapeman,  Col.  D 367 

/  Howe,  Capt.  G.  W  Co.  B.  389 

V  Heslet,  Capt.  S.  M Co.  C.  405 

Harrold,  Sergt.  W Co.  C.  405 

'^  Hills,  J.  M Co.  E.  433 

/Hawk.  P.  A Co.  G.  458 

/  Johnson,  Lieut.  C.  M Co.  F.  377 

V  Jones,  W.  M Co.  G.  458 

/  Kirkpatrick,  Sergt.  M Co,  D.  415 

I'Kain,  W,  A Co.  E.  430 


V  Uw.  M  J 


4  y 

J  y. 
4  y 


I  I: 


...Co.  A. 

377 

...Co.  E. 

433 

Co.  H 

470 

.  Co.  D. 

483 

noo 

...Co.  F. 

377 

.  Co.  D. 

41ft 

Co.  1). 

418 

....Co.  0. 

458 

Co.  K. 

496 

.  ...Co.  F. 

49U 

Co.  E. 

506 

Co.  G. 

458 

Co.  A. 

»77 

Co.  IJ. 

388 

. .  .Co.  D. 

415 

Co.  I). 

470 

Co.  1. 

482 

Co.  H. 

889 

('...  H. 

889 

Co.  E. 

432 

Co.  E. 

506 

871 

1   ( 

•rr, 

105 

(  u.  1). 

415 

Co.  I). 

418 

(  O.  I). 

500 

Co.  I). 

418 

Co.  E. 

432 

c..  n 

470 

(  ,.  K 

496 

i  ...  i  . 

405 

Co.  I. 

482 
800 

(k».  B. 

405 

Co.  E. 

488 

C...  K. 

.(  ...  n 

432 
470 
4^2 

I  ..  K 

45»6 

('IIAPTEU    I. 


Remarks  on  the  Impending  Strugsle-The   Fan    nf   tj^     .    c 

■i:.?;:;;r;, -H  i=H;r ■"";!■"?" 

WW  i"iii«  SC  Vi",~ V',"'' - "" 

tioii^  nf  fi.<.  TT   •       \^>-^^^^  DeiAveen  the  two  o-reat  see- 


rv 


•  ii'Viiwwii    ANI»   F<»rKTH 


,n  rn-t.i.|.M»i  of  lilt  >..iinMrii  •  oni.a.-rary,  w.-  iiuix 
jUHih  x^oiMlrr  whv  iIm-  L.val  ni.-ii  of  tlu-  nation  wtMr 
not  i;*H,iu.r  iiroUMnI  to  a  tnu-  n-;,li/.aiion  of  tlu-  uuan- 
11...  an.l  pnriH.M-H  of  tli.-  rouKi.irators.  Hut  when,  on 
tl.r.  lltl.  ..f  April,  isr.l,  Fort  Sumt.-r  fell,  the  Hn.l.lrn 
.';.,|.|H-aran.i-  of  a  .omintMil  fn.ni  the  ;:.M.;rrai.liy  of 
ih.  w.rl.l  toul.l  not  hav,.  rauMMl  j:nalri-  suii.nsr  ;iii.l 
ftMir  lliiiii  »lul  thin  llnal  Hl.-p  anion-  the  loval  .iti/ens 
..f  the  liiioii.  Their  in.li^Miation  was  nnhonn.led.  lint 
tiM-  insan.-  .I.imI  was  .lone.  Hy  that  aet,  the  most  oiit- 
nipM.iis  \i-t  att.-nipt.MJ.  th.-  Sontli  op.nly  an.l  vn.lently 
m-vt-nil  thrir  r.-lati.»ns  with  the  I'nion.  .l.liautly  .lial- 
li'iipil  It  to  the  wapT  of  hattle;  ami  inv.iked  the  clod 
of  liattl.-s  an*l  tlo-  opinions  of  inankitHl  as  to  th«'  jiist- 
Ui-%H  of  their  eauKe. 

Then  iM'pin  the  greatest  war  of  niiMhrn  iiiins,  if 
not  of  all  tini.-;  on  oin-  side  for  the  eslal.lishiiuMH  of 
uu  in.le|M.ii.l.ni  nation,  of  whieh,  to  use  the  laiij;uaj;e 
of  ll*«  Vi...  rr.-si.hin,  Alex.  II.  Stevens,  "Slavery  is 
to  b*-  the  ehirf  rorinr  stone,"  ami.  on  the  oilirr  si.le, 
for  the  prewTvation  of  tin*  Tnion  of  our  fatlu*rs  in 
all  ItH  national  int.-^Mily.  Hnt  wli.>  in  the  rarly  days 
of  Isr.I  fully  n-ali/..d  ihr  meaning;  and  scope  ol  ih.- 
im|M-iidin;:  hi  ni;:;:lr'.'  Tin-  North  was  slow  to  hrlieve 
that  till-  South  was  in  .armst,  and,  ev«ii  aft«r  the 
«-lai«h  of  aniiM,  that  rtmipromise  wuk  impossible.  rii<y 
thoii^iht  that,  at  all  i-v.-nts.  tli.'  sup«'rior  stren^Mli  and 
ri'Hi.urri't*  of  tin-  loNal  states  would  make  the  coiilt'st 
n  Hhort  om*.  and  that  a  hatth-  or  two  would  de.  idr  in 
ftt%*or  of  the  riiioii.  \V«-  know  how  vain  w<*re  all  ili<'.>>r 
ho|M*M.  The  rlliiiax  of  Sumter  arousi'd  the  nation.  The 
I»n-^id«-nt  immtMlialrly  ralhd  for  To.tMM)  men  f«»r  llire*' 
inonthH*  jM-rvin*.  Tin*  pnMlamation  was  hai<lly  ^iveii 
fnilii  the  hand  that  immiiuhI  it  lufiue  the  rutin'  iiiim- 
!mt  hail  volnnteiTi'.l.  and  niatiy  of  them  wrre  mi  their 
wnv  to  tin*  front.  Tin*  Hurr«*Hsive  rails  that  follnwrd 
ui-ri"  tpitikly  l\lh*«l  l»y  viduntiM'rs.  mon*.  in  fa<t.  hrinjr 
teiidereil  than  wi'r«'  nskrd  for.  Tin*  South  was  iMjually 
aliTt.  Thiin,  while  twith  Miden  were  niakiiifr  the  most 
iitn|M'n<loiiM  pn'paratloiiK  for  war,  aetiv«'  operations  in 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  3 

the  flekl  were  ciii-ried  0.1  ovei-  nu  extensive  territoi-v 
more  especuilly  i„  the  ^Vest.    Those  iu  the  North  wh,; 
piedic  e,l  the  early  defeat  and  collapse  of  the  rebellion 
were  doomed  to  bitter  disappointment.     The  "On  to 
Richmon.l"  cry  of  a  foolish  and  in.putient  press  soon 
had  Its  logical  resiilt  in  the  lesson  of  ISnll  Jtiin.  There- 
after we  made  haste  slowly.     The  year  1S61  clo.sed 
with  .some  minor  advantages  in  the  fiehl  and  a  con 
siderab  e  redemption  of  t<.rritorv  in  the  AVest    tlmt 
res  ored  a  degree  of  conhdenee.-  The  .-itizen  a'rn   es 
had  learned  something  of  that  military  drill  and  dis 
ciplme  so  necessary  in  the  day  of  battle.    In  the  East 
nothing  of  importance  had  been  done.     A  "n    sterlv 
inactivity 'seems  to  have  seized  npon  the  lea  ler  o^ 
her  magnificent  army,  which  lay  inactive  before  the 
qm  leer  g^.ns   of  Manas.sas,   while  the  coveted   pr.e 

BifwinV ''■''"  "^  ''"■  °«  =^"'1  unattainable  aslver' 
But  .with  January,  18(i2,  came  a  new  era  of  ho„e  -in  1 
a  welcome  change.  The  battle  of  Mills,  rii  "s  Kv 
fought  and  won  by  (ien.  «eo.  H.  Thonias'  iufwf^t-' 
e rn  troops,  was  a  decisive  victorv,  and  the  first  vet 
obtained      The  results  were  imooi.  ant,  as  the  enemy 

wresteV?    "'"?""'•'■   ■■'   '••"•8'^   l'"rti""    "f   Kent uc  i 
"rested  from  l„s  grasp,  and  the  rebel  plans  of  cam 

im.gn  demoralized   beyond  repair.     There  was  .^rent 

rejoicing  in  the  North,  whilst  public  atte   t  on'w;* 

ixed  up,,,,  the  (ieneral  who  was  destined  to  wn  more 

distinguished    laurels   „„    wider    battlefields,    andJo 

leaZ:    tfJer  H  -"f^"  '-"V'  '«-'>  "'  «"  "'"'iniH  ar ' 
leadeis.    After  this  followed  the  victories  of  Fort  Don 
e  son,  Pea  Kidge  and  Pittsburg  J.audin,      Bv  t^ese' 

™n..u?,re  7V"n?''''  ■"«''''"^"  '"  the  Uni?:' 
ine  laptuie  of  New  Orleans  and  some  other  sennoits 

had  been  effected,    ^-hile  these  results  were  of  i  1  L- 

tance,  and  reassured  the  North,  thev  were  no     Z 

elusive,  simply  .serving  to  .lispei  the  cloud  ofll^om 

and  disappointment  that  had  settled  down  upon  tie 

Northern   people.    But   with   summer  came  rev  rses 

The  Army  of  tlie  Potomac,  of  which   so  mii  ■  >   w^^' 

expected,  had  not  taken  the'rebel  ca    ti^       ts    seven 


I  THK  ONK  Hl'VPHU'    aM.   K.  THTH 

tlllXHof  l.aill.V  »M-f..n.  Kirl,.....MM.  u.Ml  llM-  h.ruir  li^hl- 
M,:.  or  ilH  M.l.lu-r..  ha.l  iHfi.  ..f  iM'  avail.        IH-  suaiups 
.f   ll„.  nilrkalioiiiiiiv   w.-rt.  whH.-i,..»    wnl.   tlu-  bon.s 
f  tl...  Hinhi.  aii.l  .liwaM.  xvuk  .loin-  a  iiioif  .ka.llv  xvork 
„  il...  raiik»,  of  thr  liviiij:  ihaii  iiuiimt..iis  battl.'s  lia.l 
aiiM-il.     AfTain.  in  t  Im-  NN 'st   xvrir  at  a  slau.lslill.     1  In- 
..ull.M.k   wan  iioi   promiMii;;.     TIm-  n-Lrl  rausr  s.mmh.-.I 
lo  Ih.  piiiiiiiu  HtnMij,lli  111   hoiiir  ami  al.n.a.l.     I  m  »i 
,aii,ix   aii.l  alarm   piwaiLnl  anion-  loval  mm    whilst 
that  ".-l.-nM-nt   in  tin-  Noitli  ahvavs  oppos.-.l  to  tin-  war 
vx.-n-  lou.l    in   ilH-ir  asM-rtions,    •Voii   rauiiot    ,on.nMr 
III.-  S«.ulli"    Tliir*  was  tlw  ...n.liti.Mi  i.f  allaiis  in  .Inn.- 
Im;2.     Il  wan  appan-nt  to  all  that  a  .lisis  l.a.l  arnw.l 
rtipiirin;:  prompt   ariion. 

Hni  thin  |M-ri.M|  of  j:lo..ni  ami  .l.-spon.l.-mv  .|uii  ki.v 
.|iwip|H-anil,  an.la  lirm.-r  .Irtmiiination  that  thm-lH-l^ 
lion  hIiouI.I  not  Irinmpli  was  maiiif.st.     Th.-  haii.ls  «.f 
|*n-Mi«li*nl   Limoln  wm-  now  iipli.*M  ami  stiviij^tlu'mMl 
in    a    wav    llial    was   MiMiiin-lv    an    inspiration.     The 
inij:l»tv    voirr   of    ili.-    I.»val    nation    foiiml    .-xpn-ssnui 
throiiuli  iIm-  <i«»v«TnorH  t»f    tin-  loval   statos,  in    th.  ir 
■       .  lo  liini  of  .Inly  1st.  IStil!.  ph-.l-in-  am-w  tluir 
n-sonrr.-h  of  in*-n  :iml   mom-y  to  rarr\    on   ili»' 
war,  ami  aKsnrin^  him.  in  ii"  iimrrtain  t«Mnis.  of  tluir 
nym'patlix   ami  il«-voiion  to  tin-  raiisr.     Thr  ••IT<m  t   was 
«-'l.i  irirai.     Tin-    l*n*si«l«Mit's    pio.Iamai  ion    rallin;.!    f«»r 
t     xolnntii-rs    f«»r    tlir****    yrars    soon     folJowiMl. 
in;:  lM-;;an  at  t.m.-.  ami  .-v.-ry  rm-r-y  was  hrnt 
to  IIm»  urn-  pnr|MiH<-  of  lillin;:  up  tin-  tpiotas  «  allr.l  for. 
TIh*  mil.  r.imiii;:  in  tin-  mi«lst  tif  harvrst.  rails. ■<l  iiiaiiy 
to  .l.'lay    who   intrmltMl    to   .Milist    lat.r.      .\u-iist     Ith 
unollM-r   f.r.M  lamati.in   f.»r  ".{mi.diMI   mon"   was   issii«'«l 
ami  a  «lraft    \mi»  onl«-nil.      Ton    ii.>w.  tho  pn'ssm*'  of 
hitiiK*  •InlU'x   Im'Iiij:   ovi'r.   vo|nnt«MMin-   iMM-aiii.*   rapid 
ami  tin*  "Irafl  wan  onl«TiM|  to  Itr  Knsp«'ml«M|.     An  a.l.li 
tioiial    imlm»Mm*nl    wan   ofTi'ml    t.»    v«»lnnt»'«'rs    Ity    th.- 
lioviTiimi-nf    pmvi.lin-   lMinnti«'s  of  onr  hnn.lr.'.l    »h»l- 
lani.     Mam   nlaii-s  an«l  •••untii's  also  voicl   lnniiiti('H. 
TlMtM>  iiiilm>«'«l  iiM'ii  of  famili<i«  to  rnlist  wh.>  lirf.nc  ha.l 
li«<«ilntiil.      A»  lln*  monlliH  of  .Inly  ami    An-usl    w.tn- 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  5 

away  a  vast  wave  of  eiiTliusiasiii  swept  over  the  conn- 
try.  Re<^iiiieiits  and  companies  were  raised  and  ten- 
dered to  the  Government  faster  than  they  could  be 
armed  or  cared  for.  Every  city,  town  and  village  was 
a  scene  of  excitement,  only  equaled  bv  that  of  the  fall 
of  Sumter.  Business  became  of  se<-ondarv  importance, 
and,  (hiy  after  day,  on  the  corners  and  public  places 
mio-ht  be  seen  groups  of  citizens,  representing  all  occu- 
pations, eagerly  discussing  the  war  and  encouraging' 
those  who  thought  of  enlisting.  Rut  the  main  intei-est 
centered  around  tlie  little  recruiting  tent  on  the  pub- 
lic square,  where  "the  boys"  were  putting  down  their 
uames  for  "three  years"  or  "during  the  war."  Meet- 
ings were  held  nightly  at  the  usual  jdaces  of  assem- 
blage, where  orators  declaimed  and  recruits  were  gath- 
ered to  swell  the  mighty  armies  of  the  Union.  S^)me- 
times  a  company  or  regiment  was  filled  in  a  single 
day,  and  to  overflowing.  This  is  but  a  faint  picture 
of  those  exciting  times  which  manv  of  mv  readers  wit- 
nessed. 

At  last,  when  the  ranks  are  full,  come  marching 
orders,  and  the  trying  day  of  departure  for  the  froiK 
arrives. 

"Ah!   then  and  there  was  hurrying  to  and  fro, 
And  gathering  tears,  and  tremblings  of  distress. 
And  there  were  sudden  partings,  such  as  press 
The  life  from  out  young  hearts, 
And  cholcing  sighs." 

The  relations  that  bind  men  to  their  homes  and 
families  must  be  severed,  perhaps  forever.  :Many  wlio 
enlisted  will  never  return — never  have  returned.  Tiieir 
remains  have  long  since  moldered  to  dust  on  the  bat- 
tletields  of  the  Rebellion.  The  majoritv  are  voung, 
some  in  middle  life,  but  all  their  hearts  filled  with' 
high  hopes  and  expectations,  coupled  with  an  under- 
standing of  what  they  enlisted  for,  and  have  sworn 
to  do,  and  of  the  chances  of  war,  which  do  not  cause 
them,  in  this  last  hour,  to  regret  or  falter.  Dutv  and 
patriotism  alike  call  upon  them.  But  there  'is  no 
excess  of  mirth  on  this  last  day.     Here  are  o-athered 


.Ni:   in   N1>UKU  AND  ForMTH 


(IN.1,1  rouiiiiN   ai...   ......  Il»«-»r  rflaliv»-s  ami  fiuu.is  lu 

,^»>      fart-urll^     TIm-  aptl  iii..llH-r  t^ivi-s  lu-r  <.nlv  son, 
>;.  hupiH.rl  ..f  Imt  .I.m  lining'  v.aih;  tlu-  wiff  Ih  r  Ims 
•   !•  il.r  uiai.lrii  hrr  L.vrr.     All  of  Um-s..  an-  ivpiv 
,1  ill  ihr  aKH«'ml.lanr.  ami  all  f.^-l  tin-  H..lrini.iiy 
^..•11.     Thr  iiiiniHUT  als..  is  tli.Tc  to  luvoUr 
..f  tin-  (Jo.l  of  liatilt-s  ii|Min  th«»se  >vlu»  have 
l.iiH  lai.l  lli.-ir  livrs  U|h.ii  Hi.-  altiir  of  ili..ir  '"""yT; 
1  In-  lasl  iiioiiH-iil  arrivrs,    Th«-  .•.>lou.-rs  loiiiiiiamK  "fal 
,1,  ••  ,^li.M^  alon^'  thf  lim-,  ami,  with  proiul  steps  an.l 
lirm  M-l  lips.  xxhi.  h  Imt  ill  roiirt-als  th.-  emotK.ii  Nvillnii, 
!hi.  iirw   re;:iiiM-iit   of  voluin.-..|s   iiianlu-s  away   from 
lioiiic  aiitl  friemlK. 

Surh  a  sr.-m-  as  this  is  only  a  \\\>r  of  many  o,-,iii-- 
riiij:  almobt  .laily  al  th«-  time  of  w  hit  li  1  write. 


CHAPTEK  II. 


What  La   Salle  County  Had  Done-The    Organization  of    the    One 
Hundred     and    Fourth-Election   of  Field   Officers. 


hriP^v    -''Z  ^''''"'   ^^'"^   ^'''^"^'    '^'^^^    ^^■^'"^'^    Sketched 
briefly   m   tlie   previous    elia])ter   to    uotc^   wliat   was 

transpiring-  in  La  Salle  County  in  its  military  relations 
to  the  national  cause,  and  to  trace  the  organization 
and  narrate  the  achievements  of  a  new  reo-inient,  the 
One  Hnndred  and  Fourth    Illinois    Volunteers,  (-om 
monly  called  the  La  Salle  Countv  Kegiuient 

The  times  and  circumstances  that  called  it  into 
beino-  were  somewhat  different  from  those  existin-  at 
the  beginning-  of  the  war,  when  an  insulted  nation  ?ose 
in  its  might  and  the  swelling  waves  of  indignation 
and  enthusiasm  caused  armies  to  spring  into  beino-  in 
a  day   as  by  a  magician's  wand.     Fifteen  months  had 
passed  and  the  holiday  anticipations  of  the  sanouiue 
assumed  a  more  sober  hue    in    correspondence  "with 
actual  conditions  and  the  bitter  lessons  of  experience 
La  Salle  County  had  already  sent  into  the  field  the 
following   commands,   all   either   whollv  or   partiallv 
recruited  on  its  soil:    The  Eleventh  Illinois,  of  which 
Geneml  W.  H.  L.  Wallace  went  out  as  Colonel;  the 
Fourth  Cavalry    Col.  T.  Lyle  Dickey;  the  Fiftv-third 
Infantry,  Col.  W.  H.  W.  Cushman;  Capt.  Cogswell's 
Battery;  Capt.  Ford's  magnificent  companv  of  cavalry 
—the  two  latter  organizations  forming  with  the  Fiftv- 
third  what  was  at  first  known  as  Cushman's  Brigade 
There  were  also  Campbell's,  Henshaw's  and  Ilough- 
taling's  Batteries-later  Capt.  M.  H.  Prescott's,  and 
Company  A  of  the  Sixty-fourth    Illinois,    raised    bv 
Capt.  (afterward  Gen.)  John  Morrill. 

These  commands  had  proven  their  valor  on  numer- 
ous battlefields,  and  their  deeds  illumine  manv  pao-es 


»  THK  ••Ki:  HTNI.in:!'   ANT'  roritTH 

III    till-    iiiiiit.iijk     III-.,..,,     ..,     ,iM      \\,-i.lll    ailllirs    UlltliT 

<iniiif,  Slirriiiaii  iiimI  miIum-  roiiiiiiaiiilrrs.  Km  iniiiilM'rs 
hail  falli-ii.  ami  tin-  mihi'  suliil  raiikK  lia<l  Immmi  ili-ci- 
uui!«-*l  U\  ball  If  ami  iliwasr.  Tin*  hnivi*  ami  ;:ifl«Ml 
Wiillar**  wai*  iii>  iiion*,  and  won***  «»f  •mImt  lirav**  sons 
«»f  Iji  Sallf  <'«niiil>  \vi«n-  sIiM-piii^  lln-ir  last  slci-p  mi 
luiiiilifrii  Ktiil. 

Smli  uaM  tin*  iiMonl  u  Ihmi  «iiir  |mm»|»|<'  wm*  auain 
cull«*<l  u|MHi  hi  iiiakf  furihi-r  sarrifui's.  Aiioiln-i-  i«'^i- 
uifiit  wa»*  fall«*«l  for  fitmi  La  Salli-  (oimiv.  I'Ik 
rf^|MiiiH«'  wiiH  |iroiii|ii  ami  lii-ailv.  'Pin-  Ifii  <oiii|iaiiics 
Itiiil  iMMaiiM*  ilii'<Mi«'  iliimlr«M|  ami  l■^Mll-tll  iiriziiiifiil 
iM'^aiii  lo  aHfiiiiiif  r<»riii  in  tin*  last  davs  of  .hil\.  ami 
««•!*«•  lilliNl  ill  Au^nKi.  I'nrilHT  on  will  In*  ^ivni  full 
«li*lailM  iif  tlifir  oi-;:ani7.alioii  ami  ni<MiilMM'slii|i.  while 
we  will  oiN'ak  now  of  iln*  material  ami  nioiale  oT  iliis 
H|i|c||<li<l  Imn|\  of  liMMI,  who,  wiihoiil  |ii-eiii«li<-<-  to  the 
viMfran  miMiers  iM'fon*  in<'nlion<Ml,  iMM-aim'  rclel»rate«l 
for  their  valor  on  nian.v  l>attleti<'lils.  ami  made  the 
eoiiiiiiaiid  known  as  one  of  "the  li;:hlin<j  re;L;itiienls." 

1'he    men    eoni|Hisili;^'    the    laiik    and    tile   oT   the   <  >lle 

Ihindriil  and  l'*onrih  did  not  enlist  under  any  suilHeu 
ilii|Mils4*M.  TIk'V  iindei*siood  what  war  meant.  The 
illiiHi>e  rliarni  that  envelops  the  soldier's  lif«*  had  l»ui 
little  lieariif^'  with  the  majority.  They  realized  that 
iioi  only  must  they  endure  sepa  rat  ion  from  loved  homes 
and  frieiidH,  linl  iiiust  he  pre|iared  for  privation,  suf- 
ffriii;;,  woiiiidK  and  ileatli  itself,  when  on.  ••  sworn  into 
the  M'rvire.  .Nejirix  all  Were  of  La  Salle  t'ouuJy  hy 
birth  or  ailoplion,  while  the  ;:reater  portion  wi-re  in 
that  fiioKt  pmiiiisiii^  |N«riod  of  life,  from  seNrniecu  iu 
lw«Mityfoiir  or  twenty  five.  A  very  few  had  heeii  in 
the  tlm**'  iiMiiiiliH,  or  other  servire,  and  were  r«';:;arded 
with  r<MiHiderable  awe  li\  their  i-omrades,  who  as  yet 
|Hi»<jMfuMi|  (  rude  ideas  of  military  drill  and  disripline, 
«ir  Ihi*  MliTli  n-allthf*  of  a  siddier's  life.  These  niliv 
die*!  our  eiirl>  ramp  firen  with  fairy  tah*s  «tf  hair- 
brejidlh  eH<-a|N'f<  anil  warlike  di*4M|s,  well  ralrulaled  to 
<*xi-ite  admiral iiiii  and  reH|MMt.  Nearly  all  iMiu|iations 
niid  prof«tM»ion«.  wt-n-  repn'senietl.  then*  liein^  not  a  few 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  9 

ministers  of  tlio  ^osjx'l  in  tlio  ranks,  three  or  four  of 
M  hoin  ^\ere  ofilicers.  These  (h'terniined  to  ti<4l»t  the 
i-ebels  with  tlie  same  si>irit  and  zeal  tliey  had  disjthiyed 
in  iiiiliting- the  world,  the  tiesh  and  the  devil,  from  their 
puli)its  at  home,  bnt  with  carnal,  and  not  spiritual, 
\\(Ni]tons.  One  of  tlu'in,  the  loved  an<l  lamented  Lieu- 
tenant iiandolph,  yielded  np  his  younj;-  life  in  battle 
at  Ilartsville,  a  eostly  sacrifice  to  the  moloch  of 
treason! 

^Vhile  all  classes  were  represented  in  the  Regiment, 
that  strongest  and  safest  bulwark  of  our  fail-  land,  on 
which  it  must  ever  rely  in  times  of  trouble,  the  farm- 
ing popnlation,  contributed  the  majority  of  the  recruits. 
These  swelled  the  ranks  of  the  companies  to  the  full 
comi)lement  prescribed  by  army  regulations.  And 
the  fact  that  the  residents  of  all  the  thirty-seven  town- 
shii)S  in  this  large  count}'  had  relatives  and  friends 
in  the  Eegiment  explains  why  it  ever  held  a  warm 
place  in  the  hearts  of  the  i)eople,  who  watched  its 
progress  from  the  day  of  its  departure  to  the  front,  a 
thousand  strong,  followed  it  with  their  prayers  and 
blessings  on  long  marches,  through  fierce  campaigns 
and  battles,  from  the  Ohio  River,  through  Kentucky, 
Tennessee,  Alabama  and  Georgia,  to  Savannah,  ''This 
day  fair  Savannah  was  onrs," — thence  through  the 
Carolinas,  to  see  its  bullet-torn  flag  waving  amid  the 
smoke  of  the  last  battle  at  Bentonville;  over  Johnston's 
surrender  at  Raleigh,  and  on  the  Grand  Review  at 
Washington,  winning  the  plaudits  of  a  half  million 
epectators  until,  at  last,  the  mission  on  which  the  Regi- 
ment went  performed,  the  people  welcomed  the  battle- 
scarred  veterans,  in  numbers  less  than  three  compa- 
nies, to  their  homes  and  the  peace  they  had  helped  to 
conquer,  the  country  and  flag  they  had  helped  to  save! 

Such  is  a  passing  glimpse  of  the  Regiment  the  his- 
toiw  of  Avhich  we  propose  to  chronicle  from  its  enlist- 
ment to  the  day  of  its  discharge. 

B}'  the  middle  of  August  it  was  known  at  Ottawa, 
the  county  seat,  which,  naturally  enough,  had  been  the 
rendezvous  and  headquarters  of  all  the  military  forces 


iM  THK  nVK  HfXDUKn   AND   FOURTH 

tiiMH  I. II  .». m  liii-.  111.  lifM  fnuu  La  SalU*  l'»»uui>.  iliat 
Ihr  It'll  oiiii|»aiiii*M  wrn*  imw  iimuIx.  willi  a  surplus  in 
»«tliif  iif  Ihriii.  Tliii*  fart  wan  l«-l«-;:ia|»lnMl  lo  iSovniior 
Viihti,  u  lio  onlt-nil  ail  iiiiiiii*«liair  »»r;;aiii/.ali»tii  1«»  be 
rullctl  tlt«*  (iiii*  IhiiiiinMl  ami  Fourth  K<';;iiiu'iii.  n.\ 
Kti|iiilatii»ii.  llu"  H<«l«Mtinii  of  lii'M  oflij-iTs  was  l»fi  it» 
tin*  I{i';:iiii«Mil.  It  iu-<il  not  In*  su|»|M»stMi  tlial  tlu'ic  was 
tiiiv  lark  «»f  tainll«lat«'H  fur  tln-st*  iiiii»oriani  olVicfs. 

Ill  pn-paratioii  for  tin*  t-vnit  thf  followiii;;  conipa- 
iilit*  ;:allifrf<l  at  Ottawa,  tlif  h'ttfn*  ;:ivtMi  iM-iiij;  thoso 
by  wliitli  tliry  w«Tf  «I«'si;;!iai«M|  aft»T  tin*  or^aiii/ation: 

('oiii|iaii\  A.l'apiaiii  .laiiM's  M.  Loi^xliioii. 

Coiiipaiix   1(,  ('aptaiii  loMir^^r  W.  llo\\«\ 

(*oiii|iaii\  t',  I'aplaiii  Saiiiiicj  II.  llcslct. 

roiiipaiiv  l>.  I'apiaiii  \\  illiaiii  il.  Collins. 

( 'oiiipanx  I).  <  'apiain  .lolin  S.  II.  I  >oi  v. 

I'oiiipaiix    l-\  ('a|ttain  .laiiirs  .1.  .Mi-Ki*rnaii. 

<oiiipaiiv  ( !,  ( 'aptain  .lojinsoii  Misiicr. 

Coiiipaiiy  11,  ( 'apiain  Lewis  Ltitiin;:ton. 

i'oiiipaii,\   1. 1 'aptain  John  \\  a)ll)i;:li. 

(*oiiipan\   K.  I 'aptaiii  •iiisi  us  \\  .  l'a)uM-r. 

An  iiiMiMM  ii«Mi  of  tin*  muster  rolls  shows  less  than 
thirty  tiH'ii  who  ciilisttMl  as  fi-om  oulside  the  coniity, 
iiml.  aliMi,  that  mon-  than  niiiei  \ -tive  \h-v  <-i-nl  cni-ollcd 
their  iiamef*  l»ei\\«H'n  the  1st  and  ir»th  <»f  .\ui:ust. 

Tint**'  eiimpainit*s.  imw  roneeiit latiil  ai  the  (uunty 
eapitiil  for  tin*  first  time,  where  they  were  (HuirteiiMl 
leiii|Mirarily  in  the  hotels  aiml  l»oanlin<^  hous<*s,  at  oixe 

.It  1 1  .!•  ti<|    puMie   inlereNt. 

I  III-  lime  lieiuti'ii  the  l.'ttli  aiul  L'ltili  was  iui|)r<)Ne<| 
liy  the  iiM'iiilierN  ill  \arioiiH  ways,  siu-h  as  s(|ua*l  aixl 
eoiiipaiiy  drill,  ^ettin^  ariinainteil  with  each  other  ami 

niliiparill^  lioteti  oil  till*  impiM'lailt  i|Uestio|is  tif  the 
hour.  Threi*  prominent  ramlidates  for  the  ('ohmeh  y 
WfM'  ill  the  liehl.  .MiHalom  It.  .Moore,  I  Uiver  ( '.  ( Jray  aiitl 
William  IL  ColliiiM.  Karh  rlaimiMl,  of  cotirse,  that  h(> 
roiiM  lead  the  |{e^iiiieiit  ill  the  paths  of  ;:loiv  ami  savi> 
the  r«iiiiitr,\  •|iii«keraiid  heiter  than  an\  ImmIv  else.  Tlu* 
timl  iiaiiietl  WHH  n  prominent  |>oliiirian  hohlin;;  the 
■  •nil  ••  of  till- I 'III  L  ..r  I  !.•■  I'ii.iiii  I'onrl  and  |{«Torder  «»f 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  11 

Deeds;  he  also  had  been  a  local  preacher  in  the  Metho- 
dist Episcopal  Church,  a  gentleman  of  ability,  tine, 
large  physique,  imposing  appearance  and  pleasant 
address,  and  was  in  fact  a  Aery  popular  man.  The 
second  was  one  of  the  brightest,  most  learned  and  dis- 
tinguished members  of  the  Illinois  and  La  Salle  County 
bars,  had  served  with  credit  in  the  Mexican  war,  was 
at  one  time  a  brigadier  general  in  the  Ohio  militia, 
and  was,  before  the  war,  cjiptain  of  a  local  military 
company,  the  Washington  Light-Guards  of  Ottawa, 
The  writer,  as  a  mere  boy,  remembers  following  this 
command  on  imblic  occasions  through  the  muddy 
streets,  wrapt  in  profound  admiration,  and  wishing  he 
was  big  enough  to  be  a  soldier  and  wear  a  bearskin 
cap!  The  third  candidate  was  not  less  able  or  less 
popular  than  the  other  two,  lived  in  the  west  end  of 
the  county  and  possessed  qualities  well  entitling  him 
to  consideration.  He  had  also  been  in  the  field  as  chap- 
lain of  the  Tenth  Illinois  Infantry.  There  were  a  few 
men  in  the  Begiment  who  favored  giving  the  Colonelcy 
to  some  one  of  our  La  Salle  County  boys  at  the  front 
who  had  shown  ability  for  high  command.  They  said 
we  should  have  as  Colonel  a  man  of  military  experi- 
ence, one  who  has  smelled  gunpowder  if  not  lived  on 
it.  Such  were  the  candidates,  but  as  the  contest  waxed 
warmer  William  H.  Collins  withdrew  in  favor  of  Moore 
and  then  the  fight  narrowed  down  to  him  and  Graj', 
with  all  the  voting  forces  arrayed  on  one  side  or  the 
other.  Two  of  these  men  are  now  numbered  with  the 
dead,  and  the  writer,  who  was  one  of  the  bojs,  does 
not  consider  it  necessary  to  enter  into  the  details  and 
merits  of  the  short  and  sharp  electioneering  campaign 
that  preceded  the  election.  As  a  participant  and 
observer  he  believes  that  each  member  of  the  Regi- 
ment acted  and  voted,  as  he  thought  at  the  time,  for 
the  best  interests  of  the  Regiment. 

The  result  of  the  election  was  that  Absalom  B. 
Moore  became  Colonel  by  a  large  majority.  There  were 
several  aspirants  for  the  offices  of  Lieutenant  Colonel 
and  Major,  but  it  appears  of  record  that  William  H. 


i'ollniH  was  fliMiitl  l.iiMiu-uani  «  .'|.>ipI.  :iii<l  .lii>nis  \\  . 
TaliiM-r  Maj«»r. 

<»ii  .\u;;iiKi  27lli  lln»  Oiu«  llnmlnMl  and  I'»»iiit h,  Tol- 
«iii«*l    .M<Miri>   ill   niiiiiiiaiHl,   iiiiininMl    lo   ilic  «)l«l    "(-"air 
linnimlh"  ami   wan   iiiiiKii'in>4l   iiiin  tin*  s»*rvi««'  <.r  ilit- 
I'lilliil    Slalii*,    "for    tlinM*    y««ai-s    unless    souihm-    (lis- 
rharj*!**!,**  hv  raiplaiii  .lulm  <J.  r|irisl«»|»lnT,  of  tin-  K**;;- 
ular  Armv,  who  ha«l  roim*  fiom  ('liita^o  f<»r  iliis  piir- 
|MM««'.     Tin*  KiM'iif  wan  iiiiprcsKivr,  as  iIm*  l{«*;:iiiH'nt   «»f 
licarlv  «iii«*  lliiMiHainl  iin*n,  iliaw  ii  up  in  a  IioIImw  stpiart', 
t'Mik   iIm*  ••alli   thai    finally    ImmhkI   ihrni   l**  snvr  ihrir 
roiiiiirv,   maintain    jtml    pioiiMt    its  < 'onsiii  iii  ion    and 
liiWH,  ami  nphohl  its  hun«»r  and  tin*  "Siari'v  ilaiiiDi'  mT 
fhf  rn-**"  rviMi  nnto  d«'ath.      II«t\v  \\«dl  this  iiiist   was 
iMTfoiiiHil  flu*  pa^rs  »if  this  IxMd;  will  shnw.     The  fcn*- 
inony  ociMipitMl  a  ronsidfiahh*  part   mT  the  aftt'inoon, 
IIh*    mnHt«*rin^    ofllrrr    in-in;;    «hdav<Ml    sunifwhai     by 
iiii-«>HHarv  examinations  into  tin*  fitm'ss  of  soim-  .tf  Hie 
Miruils  on  arioiini  of  tln*ii'  htin^  too  (dd  or  too  younj::. 
Th(*r«*  is  no  doiilii  inn  that  a  niniilM-i- of  siirli  niana^tMl 
to  H<|uc<>£«'   llirou;:li   *'l»y    tin*  skin   of   iln-   icfth"   as  it 
wiTi*.  and  that  sonn*  of  tlicni  sulisnuicm  ly  pi-ovcd  thoir 
rapatiiy  as  Holdi«*rs  is  within  th<*  writer's  knowhMl^e. 
Al    lh<*  roiiiliiHioii   till*  roiiipan,\    i-oniniMiidi  I'i   ]Mi-ii)it- 
t«il  many  of  ihi-ir  mm   to  ;;o  honir  iniiil   tlic  lirst   of 
H^'plfmlwr  ill  order  that  they  mi;:ht  make  iIiimI  arr:in};t»- 
iih'IiIh   for  a    hui;:   .ilisem-e.     The    t  Mie     Ihnidred     and 
l-'oiirth  then  marehed  hark  to  the  rity.  the  linn  ^oinir 
!«•   their   honii'H  or  «|nariers.   no  donhi    with    ii<u    and 
Ktraii^e  fei'liii;:^  in  their  hearts  when  they   ihoii;;ht  of 
lh«»  tMTioiiH    ret«|MinHihilities    assumed,    whii  h   w  eie  so 
Nliortl\    lo  M'parate  them   from   home  and   its  assoria- 
tioiiH,   and    link    their    li\es    with    that    of   ihe   sohjier. 
Here  we  lejive  f  hem  to  enj«»y  for  a  few   more  hours  tho 
iMH-ieiy  of  loviil  oiii*M.  nor  will  \\f  vent  ure  to  draw  aside 
Ihi'  Hjirr*"*!  Veil  roiirealiie^'  the  fears  and  a^^oni/.innr  sor- 
Mtw  of  tlioM*  Ml  H«»oii  to  |m>  ih'priM'd  i.f  father,  hiishand, 
or  lover. 


(ILVrTEli  111. 


Flag  Presentation — March  to  Camp  Wallace — Scenes  in  the  Camp 
— Running-  the  Guard — Marching  Orders  Received — The  Field 
and  Staff — Packing  Up. 


Oil  Sei>teiiil)er  1st,  1802,  the 'Due  IIuiidrcMl  jiiid 
Fourth,  piu'siiaiit  to  orders,  marched  to  the  court  house 
in  Ottawa,  and  were  presented  with  a  beautiful  silken 
iiag'  bv  a  number  of  Ottawa's  j)atriotic  ladi<'s.  The 
usual  stirrin<4  speeches  were  made  by  i)rominent  citi- 
zens. Then  the  banner  was  unfurled  to  the  breeze,  and 
amidst  cheers  and  soul-inspiring-  music  the  Kejiiment 
took  u])  the  line  of  march  to  Cam])  Wallace,  or  the  Fair 
Grounds,  which  was  situated  two  miles  west  of  the 
city  on  the  banks  of  the  Illinois.  Cushman's  Brigade 
and  other  commands  had  been  organized  here.  We 
arrived  in  due  time  and  assumed  the  regular  routine  of 
military  duties,  so  far  iis  we  knew  them.  A  thousand 
men,  fresh*  from  the  pursuits  of  peace,  could  not  be 
expected  to  come  under  strict  military  discipline  imme- 
diately. The  weather  on  this  first  day  was  perfect,  and 
consequently  all  were  in  high  spirits.  There  were  a 
few  tents,  and  these,  with  the  buildings  on  the  grounds, 
were  to  be  our  quarters.  The  Quartermaster,  Ed.  Iler- 
rick,  was  much  in  demand,  and  the  first  attack  made 
by  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  on  his  stores  of 
provisions.  The  da}'  was  a  sort  of  picnic,  and  Ave  had 
appetites  to  correspond.  There  Avas  more  or  less  fault 
found  with  the  menu  and  some  of  the  boys  resolved  to 
piece  it  out  in  town. 

We  had  no  arms  or  uniforms,  but  a  line  of  sen- 
tinels, armed  with  canes,  was  throAvn  around  the  camp 
to  prevent  free  ingress  and  egress.  An  order  was 
issued  from  regimental  headquarters  that  no  one  AAould 
be  permitted  to  lea^e  camp  without  a  pass  duly  signed 


II 


Ji.    .»1»UK''     ^"^  ''    »■'  ''HTH 


liv  hiH  roiii|iaiiy  coiiiiiuiiiilfi-  ami  r.MiiiK  i  si-ii.  <1  ii\  i  In* 
Adjiilaiit.  TIiIk  liiul  lln-«-fT.M  i  »»f  MUiinhiiif:  like  a  ««»1(1 
HlKtwcrlmih  in  .liiiu*.  and  «li«Mk«*«l  tlio  hmhIiihv  on  tlit* 
IMirt  of  our  nion-  (luring;  antl  n-KlIfSs  spiiii*^  i"  *^««'1<  the* 
allnr«*nii'ntM  of  tin*  i'it>. 

TlH-r»*  wiiH  nior«-  or  Ii'sh  «oiiipanv  ami  >tjua«l  drill 
that  da>,  >\  hirli  alTord«Ml  anniKfnuMii  io  nuiin*n>ns  vis- 
itunt,  lx>tirniu{;  to  ctMik  t»Vfr  a  iani|»  lin*  orcuidtMl  con- 
Hidcraldf  linn*.  Tin*  first  nij:lit  in  ramp  will  nrvcr  be 
forj:otii-n.  Mnrin;;  ilif  da.v  M-vt-ral  l»»ads  «d  straw  had 
Imimi  liauli**!  in  for  our  I»«mIs,  and  at  nine  or  tfii  o'rltnk 
la|iH  Hounddl  for  li;:lits  t»nt,  aftrr  wlii«h  «*v«*r\  solditT 
wuM  Hn|i|MiH4Ml  to  l>4>  in  liin  litth*  IkmI,  pcrclnince  to  ilitaiii 
of  ^lor.v  and  his  sw«i'l In-art, 

<  Ml  Sf|»trinlH-r  -d,  tin-  morning:  was  nslnM«'d  in  rarlv 
l»v  n-vrilif.  Kojl-rall  l».v  tompaiiirs  fojlitwcil.  Tin* 
ImMikfast  and  sirk  rails  wrn-  nt*xt  in  order:  xcrv  frw 
ni(|Mindin;;  to  tin*  latter.  Tlu*r«'  w«*re  many  novel 
K!ori«*s  relatiil  of  tlie  first  ni;;lit's  exju'rirmt'.  'Pin* 
jond  hiiorcrs  who  Iia*l  disturlM>d  iIh*  sIuuiImm's  of  Hmmi- 
roiimMlcs  wen*  H|»ott<'<l.  (Mm  or  several  of  iIm-  Imys 
had  run  the  ^nard  line,  and  tin*  nearest  sentinels, 
ignorant  of  their  duly  or  for  fun,  had  ;;one  in  imrsuit. 
It  is  to  !»«•  inft-rred  thai  the  runaways  *';:ot'  there"  an«l 
Hiiw  their  Kliza  .lane,  or  obtained  the  sedut  ii\e  soda 
water  their  thirst  deiininded. 

Then*  was  nimh  «lrillinj;  ne\i  da\.      11  le  lone  ..f  i  Im- 

rami*  **"♦*  more  subdue«|.     We  knew  that  the  maiehini: 

-  nii;;ht  (-om«*  al  any  hour. 

I     '•  .'hi,  lih  and  ."iih  passed  with  ihe  usual  muud  of 

diitii'N  and  the  aiiiionnr«Mnent  liy  <Vdonel  Motuc  of  the 

reri'ipt  of  orders  to  leave  on  the  I'.fh  for  the  front. 

.Meant  illie  < 'oloiirl  .M  oore  bei  u  ^  d  issa  t  jslied   with  th" 

eliiiioii  of  Mi-KMiH.  r.iJIiiiK  and  rainier  as  Lieutenant 
r«doiie|  and  .Major,  refiiseil  to  abidi>  b>  their  selertion 
Hiid  n  (*onli*Mi  artiM*  over  llit>  matter  whi.h  became 
I»r»'fly  warni  lM'lw«-in  the  line  oRirers  and  <  "ohmel 
M«Hir«'.  but  was  finally  seiil.Ml.  This  done,  the  Hrld 
and  MlafT  nI«mn|  as  fidlows: 

(*.iliiiiil         Vl.w.iloiii    |{     .M«Mire. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  ^ 

Lionteiiant  Colonel-Douglas  Ilapcn.nn. 
Major— John  11.  Widmer. 
Adjutant— Rufus  c.  8te.vons 
Quartermaster- EdM-ard  L.  Herrick 
burgeon— Eeubeu  F.  Dyer. 
First  Assistant  Surgeon— Julius  A.  Freeman 
Second  Assistant  Surgeon-Thomas  B.  Han  ilton 
-Non-eommissioned  staff-  ^»«iimiTon. 

Sergeant  Major-Q„incy  D.  Whitman. 

Quartermaster  Sergeant-Asher  D.  Gibson. 

Com.  Sergeant— Austin  H.  Fowler 

Hospital  Steward— John  W.  Cuppv 

Principal  musicians,  David  McCampbell    W'm    K>-,v 

t.  Slider,  of    Company  K,  was    appointed    Hosnitn 
Steward  and  Rev.  W.  0   Scofipld  riin..io-        ^i*>*^Pital 
later  by  W.  C.  F.  Hempsiead  ^^^^^P^^^^°'  succeeded 

The  Lieutenant  Colonel  and  Major  were  at  this  timo 

hadriirr'  '^'"^  ^^  ^^^  ^^-^^^^^  mimis      T  "v 
?rot  S   mt^/T  privates  at  the  sound  of  the  first  g^ n 

ration'fif  f)'^^-^'  '"^  ^""'"'^  ^'^"'^^'^  ''^^^  «Pent  in  prepa- 
rules  and  discipline  were  relaxed "omewh^''  r^f"^ 

msmmm 

bein,  ,.„„„.,  „„r  depart^^'^.^LedVo-^ne  r'irro," 


tC  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

livitt  aii«l  frii-ii«lK  raiiic  fnuii  all  |>arts  of  the  rouiitry 
to  iM<«*  lilt*  l{«'piiii«Mit  i*fT.  Aiiii«l  all  (lii*  rxcitfiiifiil  and 
iiM*rriiu«*iii  an  wril,  tlu-n*  AVt-n*  many  s«»|mt  fa»M*s  and 
Mill  licarlH  ill  (III*  Kc^fiiiiciil.  A  lar;:c  iiiniiImt  must  be 
|iariiil  fmiii  faiiiilifH  d<*ar  !«•  llifiii.  It  mi;.'li(  !><•  \\\o 
Uitit  iMirtiii;:  ill  (iiiK  world,  and  so  it  proved  to  \»\  for 
iu  ilirtf  kIioi-i  niontliK,  lifiy  luaM*  mm  i>r  iIm*  <  Mu* 
lluiidnil  and  roiiitli  lii\  dead  or  mortally  wmindtMl 
on  tli«*  Itatt li-lit-ld.  Till-  yoniliful  soldifis.  of  w  liom  the 
\vril«T  wah  •hm*.  lonKidcfiMl  tin*  ma  Iter  l«*ss  sniousjy, 
iiiid  wen*  impatient  to  In*  iiiovin^.  The  majority,  born 
an«l  raind  in  rural  lift*,  had  hitln-rto  i-ujoyrd  \y'V\  lim- 
it til  op|Hirtuniii<>h  for  iravi*l  and  si  u<l\,  and  if  11  Uc  l  hose 
tif  I  he  writrr,  tln's**  were  ludy  «o-»*xt«*nsive  wiili  the 
etiiinty.  Thrn*  wan  a  lon^^in;;  to  k«i*  tin*  «;r«'al  world 
lM\vond.  inlcnnixtMl  with  patriotic  impuls<'s,  bui  that 
duty  and  patriotism  wen*  abo\<*  all  oiImt  i-<>ii>«iil<  la- 
(ionn  no  on«-  but  a  skeptic  ran  doubi. 

At  hiht  darkiifSK  sett  led  d<*wn  on  t'amp  Wallace. 
Tli<*«-amp  lir«*s  burn  low  and  only  a  few  linger  around. 
Tin*  majority  hav«*  sou;:hl  their  downy  «ou«ln's  of 
Htrau  !    To  niorr«»w   wc  marchi 


CllAPTEK   IV. 


Leaving  for  the  Front — Arrival  at  Camp  Holt — Getting  Settled 
— Issue  of  Clothing  and  Arms — Drilling — Removal  to  "Camp 
Brickbat" — March  Over  the  Ohio — Buckner's  Plantation — Grand 
Review — Exciting  News — March  to  Louisville — Camp  Wilder — 
Work  on  the  Fortifications — Killing  of  Genei'al  Nelson — Presi- 
dent's     Proclamation — Under    Marching    Ordeis. 


The  spirited  notes  of  tlie  reveille,  ^M-lioiii^  tlinttiiih 
Camp  Wallace  oii  t^eptember  Gtli  and  revcrbei-atiiii^ 
over  the  placid  waters  of  the  Illinois  until  lost  anioiii;- 
the  wooded  hills  beyond,  aroused  the  sleei)ing  sohliers 
to  the  fact  that  the  day  of  departure  had  arrived.  The 
coinniahd  from  orderlies  of  companies,  "Fall  in  for 
roll-call,"  Avas  obeyed  with  more  alacrity  than  usual 
by  those  present  In  camp.  But  it  must  not  be  for- 
gotten that  the  spirit  of  restlessness  under  restraint 
still  ruled  strongly  the  heart  of  the  volunteer,  who^ 
could  not  quite  relinquish  that  independence  of  thought 
and  action  born  and  ingrafted  ui)on  his  soul  when  he 
first  breathed  the  pure  free  air  of  his  prairie  home. 
Therefore  when  some  failed  to  resi>ond  to  the  call  of 
their  names,  the  cries  of  "arrest  him,"  "put  him  in  tlie 
guard-house,"  and  other  complimentary  remarks, 
shoA^ed  an  appreciation  of  duty  as  well  as  a  sense  of 
humor.  All  knew  that  the  absent  ones  were  improv- 
ing the  last  opportunity  for  a  lark  in  toxAii,  or  were 
spending  the  night  Avith  friends,  and  wouhl  join  their 
companies  as  they  marched  through  the  city.  At  ten 
o'clock  the  encampment  was  broken  up,  the  assembly 
sounded,  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  formed  in  line, 
and,  preceded  hy  the  drum  corps,  at  the  word  of  com- 
mand, moA^ed  off  bA^  the  right  Hank  toward  the  Rock 
Island  depot,  Lieutenant-Colonel  ITapeman  command- 
ing. Colonel  Moore  was  sick,  but  joined  the  Regiment 
at  CaniD  Gilbert. 


II  THE  ONE  HrNDKKD  AND  FoL'KTH 

Antlu*  I{«-^iiin-in  iiiairrluMi  ilin»iij:h  tin*  slH'«*ts  llnm- 
wiikIh  virwtil  llu'ir  iiro;:itM<s  iiml  rluMTfil  iIhmii  on. 
Arnvliij;  af  tin*  «I««|miI  a  i«»iij;  «lrlay  niKiU'tl,  wliidi  was 
iiii|in«v«il  ill  f\rliaii;:iii;;  hiht  words  with  fii«'ii<ls,  but 
llifH*  waK  an  absfiirr  of  Ifviiy,  all  ft-riiiij:  «l»«'  sfiioiis- 
iMiMt  tif  tli»«  luTaxioii  ill  a  ;;n'at«T  or  I»«ss  tU'^nM-.  Tin* 
ciiiluirraKKiMcnt  was  tiiuillv  n'li«*v«M|  \t\  tin*  arrival  of 
llif  iraiii.  TIhmi  hasty  j;ooi|-|iyrs  \\■{'V^'  saiil,  tin-  lasl 
i*arii«T<f  ItMiks  fn»m  fai-r  to  fatr  soiiir  to  br  rrjicatrd 
iH'ViTiiiort*  wrif  ;;iv«*ii.  and  tin*  Kr;:imriit  fihd  on 
iMuinl.  At  luHt  thf  whistif  blew,  and,  amidst  rhm-s 
and  waving:  of  haiidkcrrhirfs,  the  <Mm-  Miiiidr*<l  and 
Fourth  wan  iarri«*d  raiii«ll.\  away. 

For  a  tiiiH*  sil<*ii<-<'  |ir«'\ail«Ml  ainon<;  all,  fach  bcin;; 
busy  with  his  own  thou;;hts,  which  w<'r«'.  no  doubt, 
fix***!  oil  the  frifiids  and  scenes  left  behind.  Hut  this 
wiiH  so<in  broken  by  stor\  and  sonj^  from  ihos<*  liilaii- 
oils  spirits  whom  sadness  lould  not  lon;,r  restrain,  and 
ih«"«'rf Illness  reij;iied  a;;ain. 

From  Ottawa  to  .F«di«M.  winii-  a  iransfer  was  made 
t<i  tht*  nitofT  for  Indianapolis,  the  Ke;,dnieni  was  eiit  Ini- 
Hiasiically  receive<l  in  the  towns  and  Nillaues  by  clu'ers 
aiid  words  of  welcome  from  the  peo|)|e  who  had 
lH*iir<l  of  ||i(>  Hew  K4*;:iiiient.  The  journey,  atiei-  having; 
*I(di«'t.  was  thr«iu;:h  a  dismal  and  thinl\  setih'd  coun- 
try, with  t««\\ns  few  and  far  bet  w«i'n,  but  now  tin*  nov- 
«'lty  and  e\rit«'nient  had  worn  away,  daylij^ht  fa«led 
into  ilarkiieHH,  and  each  std«lier,  having;  satislied  the 
waiilH  of  the  inner  man  from  his  liaversa«U,  prepared 
to  pass  the  ni^ht  as  best  he  could,  «'iiher  in  his  seat 
«»r  on  the  lIiM.r  in  the  aisles.  The  wiiter  remembers 
slii-piny  soundly  and  sweiMly  in  Mm-  laiier  |M.siiion. 
I>a.\li;.'lit  on  Siiii<lay.  the  7th,  fonnd  us  in  the  capital 
of  Indiana,  but  only  ii  short  time  was  spent  there,  and 
tlie  train  iiioviil  mi  a^ain. 

At  niaiiy  town»  we  passed  iliroii;:li  iht-  |HMip|t> 
ftlmweil    plainly    tlieir   Hympaihy    for    the    laiise.    ami 

«%  iHlieil  us  "t  iod  s|m««m|.*'  ihoKe  .if  Se\  Ulour  beiu"  UUMSU- 

nlly  ctirdial  and  K'^in;:  the  b..\h  all  the  apphs,  p.a.  ins, 
I'lr^  they  eiinid  eat.     The  da.\    linall,\   diew    i..  an  .  n.i. 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS    VOLUNTEERS.  19 

and  at  dark  the  Regiiiient  reached  JeffersoiiviHe,  and 
quifkly  (lisenibiirkcd,  much  wearied  with  the  loni;  ride. 
Here  an  order  was  received  to  march  out  to  Camp  Holt, 
two  or  three  miles  further.  The  Regiment  fell  in  and 
at  nine  reached  the  designated  camj),  which  was  found 
to  be  situated  at  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio,  about  two  miles 
below  ]x>uisville.  There  were  no  tents  or  (juarters  of 
any  kind  for  us.  Naught  was  to  be  seen  that  afforded 
a  prosi^ect  of  shelter  except  the  native  forest,  through 
which  we  caught  glimpses  of  the  Ohio  glistening  in  the 
moonlight.  AH  this  was  romantic  and  beautiful,  but 
hardly  what  we  expected  to  see  in  a  military  camp. 
No  doubt  many  a  soldier,  as  he  lay  down  that  night 
on  the  bare  earth,  thought  of  his  own  comfortable  bed 
at  home.  Without  much  ceremony  the  soldiers 
wrapped  themselves  in  their  blankets  and  retired  to 
the  land  of  dreams.  Fortunately  the  weather  was 
warm  and  dry,  and  very  little  complaining  was  done. 
Thus  closed  this  Sabbath  day's  journey,  which  had 
been  a  novel  experience  to  many  in  the  Regiment  here- 
tofore accustomed  to  spending  it  in  their  homes  and 
churches.  We  began  now  to  realize  that  there  are  no 
Siinda3'S  for  soldiers. 

The  rays  of  the  sun  had  scarcel}'  penetrated  the 
encampment  on  the  morning  of  the  8th  before  reveille 
called  the  Regiment  to  duty.  After  roll-call  many  or 
all  repaired  to  the  river  to  wash  off  the  stains  of  travel, 
and  in  the  meantime  breakfast  was  being  prepared 
by  numerous  cooks.  The  companies  had  geneially 
divided  up  into  messes  of  greater  or  less  size  as  suited 
their  convenience.  One  or  two,  however,  tried  the  plan 
of  having  a  single  table  for  all,  several  men  being 
detaile<l  to  cook.  Company  E  employed  a  civilian  for 
a  time,  but  a  little  experience  demonstrated  that  all 
schemes  except  the  small  messes  were  failures.  The 
early  history  of  our  cuisine  would  have  puzzled  and 
amused  the  ladies  at  home.  To  the  soldiers,  thrown 
suddenly  upon  their  own  resources,  the  ])roblem  of  how 
to  best  accomplish  the  results  sought  in  the  simplest 
and  quickest  manner  was  one  to  Avhicli  they  gave  much 


to  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

Btiiily  wIh'U  lime  iMMiiiitttvl  ami  rations  were  pU'iity. 
Viicfe  Sam  ^iMuTally  i»r«»vi«UMl  wfll  for  his  Imys,  ami 
tliev  soon  h'armMl  h«»\v  to  ov«TroiiM*  llu*  iliflicult i«*s  in 
tlif  way. 

Itrt'akfast  in  i'ain|(  I  lull  In'iw^  over,  various  diHirs 
fullowtMl.  Sirk  tall  ami  details  for  y:uar(l  ami  police 
Wen*  iiiatlc.  Tlit'ii  raiiic  rtunpaiiy  ami  s<|ua<I  drill  in 
tli«'  for«-noMii  and  hailalion  drill  in  tli«' aflcrnoou.  The 
Intervals  wt-n*  <*mplovfd  l»v  iIm*  nn-n  tosuit  tlu*msrlvrs. 
AftiT  invfsli;.'alin;;  ( "aniit  lltdl  many  prornird  passes 
iiiid  vlsittnl  tin*  n«'i^lil»orin;^'  farnn-rs  who  had  ;j;ood 
onhards.  It  may  In*  sarcasm  to  say  tln*y  wtri-  wfl- 
conn-«l. 

Tin*  (irst  day  in  rjimp  Molt  was,  from  the  novelty 
of  tin*  snrroiindin^^s,  rnjovalde.  No  more  perfect 
weather  could  have  been  desired,  alheit  pretty  hot  at 
mid«lay.  \N'e  stood  on  the  border  land  between  fnn^- 
dom  and  slavery,  and  could  st-e  just  across  the  river 
**OU\  Kentucky,"  the  miserable  neutrality  state,  which 
had  bet'ii  tryin;:  so  hard  to  ^et  out  of  th(»  Union,  or 
else  to  be  allowed  to  remain  neutral,  Imt,  as  Senator 
Stephen  A.  I>ou;;las  said  in  his  last  j;reat  spee<h  at 
the  lM-j;innin^  of  the  war,  '•Henceforth  there  can  bi» 
!»ut  two  parties  in  this  country,  one  for  the  Tnion  and 
the  other  a;:ainst  it,*'  so  this  slate  had  been  c<unpelled 
to  fall  into  line  on  the  ri;;ht  side  by  tli«'  |U-oiiipt  artiou 
of  her  citizens,  who,  in  lar^'e  majority,  reiiiMiinMJ  Inyal 
and   true,  assisted  by  I'edi-ral  bayonets. 

Kuniors  today  that  (Jeiieral  Bra;;;;  had  be^nin  his 
advanee  into  KentiirKy  excited  the  camp,  tienernl 
Kirby  Smith,  w  ith  a  lair;:e  rebel  for«-e,  was  also  rej»orted 
to  lx»  within  a  few  mih*s  of  t  \»vin^ton- -op[M)site  (Mn- 
f'innati.  Thene  reports  furnished  a  sid)ject  for  thoui;ht 
and  s|MMiilation  by  the  camp  tires  in  the  evening.  Hut 
while  the  r«*be|H  NeiMutd  to  have  the  advauta;;e,  it  \\as 
known  thiit  <ieneral  Kuell,  with  the  .\rmy  of  the  Ohio, 
hnd  pUKftcMl  NuHliville,  and  was  runinn;;  a  rac«»  with 
Hnici;  for  I^minvllle.  The  new  re^jiuients  had  beei» 
|MMiriii(;  into  the  city  for  days,  and  they,  lo^rther  with 
rilifllN   pH'MHed    into   the   Service,   had    huilf    .v  I  .iisi  \ ,. 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  21 

eai'tlnvorks  and  foils.  In  this  exciting-  condition  of 
affairs  the  Ivegiment  eagerly  wished  it  had  tlie  neces- 
sary guns  and  ammunition  so  that  it  might  take  part 
in  the  anticipated  battle. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  remained  at  ("amp 
Holt  until  the  14th,  engaged  in  drilling  from  four  to 
six  hours  per  day.     Tlie  weather  continued  fine,  but 
the  days  were  unusually  hot.     During  the  week  tents 
were  obtained,  also  uniforms,  arms  and  e(iuipments. 
The  latter  were  not  satisfactory  to  the  men,  but,  after 
a  vigorous  protest  by  the  officers,  better  ones  were 
furnished.     All  of  these  things    being    obtained    and 
issued  by  the  Quartermaster,  that  gentleman  was  sub- 
jected to  considerable  vigorous  criticism,  all  of  which 
he  appeared  to  receive  with  affability.    The  tents  were 
the  "Sibley,"  and  each  large  enough  to  hold  from  fifteen 
to  eighteen  men.     In  appearance  they  resembled  the 
Indian  wigwam  of  the  story  books.     There  was  an 
opening  at  the  top  and  a  fire  could  be  made  in  the 
center  in  case  of  A^ery  cold  weather.    When  the  tents 
were  full  of  men,  lying  down,  their  feet  would  radiate 
from  the  center  like  the  spokes  of  a  wheel  around  the 
hub.    The  clothing  issued  consisted  of  dark  blue  jack- 
ets, sky  blue  pants,  blue  overcoats  with  capes,  woolen 
shirts  and  socks,  cotton  drawers,  and  blue  caps.  Some 
of  these  were  made  of  shoddy  and  caused  much  cuss- 
ing of  everybody  supposed  to  be  responsible  for  them. 
Each  company  officer  received  his  quota,  and  the  boys 
at  once  began  to  "shuck"  their  store  clothes  and  don 
the   new   uniforms.     This  proceeding  proved   highly 
amusing  when  a  very  tall  man  stood  arrayed,  not  like 
Solomon  exactly,  but  in  a  pair  of  pants  about  a  foot 
too  short,  and  a  coat  reaching  to  the  waist.    The  out- 
landish little  cap  completed  the  ensemble,  and  the  hero 
was  greeted  with  roars  of  applause,  which  he  enjoyed 
as  much  as  any  one.    However,  by  dint  of  much  trading 
and  the  use  of  the  tailor's  art,  all  were  fitted  reason- 
ably well,  and  at  last  looked  more  like  soldiers. 

The  stay  of  a  week  in  Camp  Holt  was  productive 
of  much  imj^rovement  in  drill  and  military  disciplino, 


t:  Tuy  iivr  nivftuKi"  -\Nr>  fdL'RTH 

uikI  iIh'  li«-iiii«iii  .»!>»<•  at  <niiif<l  some  kiu)\vlo(l<ro  ahoiit 
iIh-  H4iMi«-i*H  lift-,  lik«l\   i<»  l>«*  iis»*fiil. 

M«*aiiiiiiic  tin-  lu-wK  fnmi  tin*  fr«»ni  thai  Hra^^ii's 
ariiiv  hitil  lM*hi«';ittI  Muiufonlsx  ilk*  was  coiilirmt'tl,  aud 
<|niii»iH  wrn*  I'Xpntiwtl  wIh'IImt  CoIoiu'I  \ViI«lt*r,  vom- 
iiiaiiiliii^  thai  |N»st,  wuiiM  !>«•  al»h-  \*>  lioM  tnit  until  ic- 
n«-v«Ml  li\  Itihll. 

KviMitH  sti'iiiiil  to  Im>  hastt'iiiii^  aii<l  th<'  si^^iis  aiotniil 
t'aiiii»  Holt  iiiiliiatiil  an  rarly  i'«'!iioval  of  tin*  IJ«'i:i- 
iiH'iii.  Thfi'rfon*.  whiMi  oil  Sniiiiav,  th«*  11th,  afl<*r  ih<' 
usual  «luli«'s  ha<l  Immmi  ]H'rfonii«Ml,  iiithhliii;;  iiisprcl  ion, 
an  i»nl«T  «aiu«'  «linMiin;:  iln*  i{«-;;iiii«Mil  to  \u-  ij-ady  to 
iiiarcli  at  ihmui,  ii«t  ^;n*al  Kui'|>i'isc  waK  shown.  The  cam]* 
at  oiirc  assuiuiMl  a  iMisitT  apiM^afaiico  than  usual,  ami 
all  wfVf  rn;ja;:«M|  in  parkin;;  up,  loadiii;;  ua^Toiis,  and 
in  various  oiIht  inaltrrs.  At  twrlvr  tin*  l{«*;;inh'nt 
iuovihI  nut,  followed  bv  thr  t fansporiat ioii.  10v«ry 
Mddirr  wiiH  load«il  with  all  In*  fould  carry,  and,  as  it 
was  vrry  hoi,  many  sulTi'ml  srv«*rcly.  It  had  Ihmmi 
aiinounr«*4l  that  th<*  luairh  would  Im'  a  short  om*  (»r  a 
(*-\\  mill's,  hut,  as  no  halt  was  made,  thosr  "frw  miles'* 
provtil  to  Im*  Very  Ion;;.  Sonu*  had  lo  slop  ami  ri*st, 
niialili*  to  «'iidiirt'  it. 

Aftt-r  passiii;r  ihrou;;li  .IdL'isonvilh'  I  he  lic;:ini«»nt 
llnall^  halh-d  a  mih*  furilicr  on  in  tlio  siiliurhs,  and 
tiM.k  poKHfssion  t>f  an  old  brirkvard.  Thr  jdar*'  had 
Imi-u  I'litirt'ly  di'iimh-d  of  inTsaml  prcsonicd  anythin;^ 
lint  an  inviiin;;  appi-aram*' rompar<-d  wiih  the  sylvan 
''hadi-s  of  ramj)  llo|i  and  lh««  Ih-auiifnl  t>hi<t  flouin;; 
l»,\  its  sid«'. 

It  haM  ln«oii  Miiil  that  "iuIkimw  lovfs  j-onipanx,"  aii<l 
ih.n-fon'  it  wjiK  ^'ratifyln;;  to  ohsfrvc  thai  tin*  i'i;;litv- 
iir^l,  Ki;;hty-s«M«Mid,  and  Ki;;hlys«'V«'ni  h  Indiana  ha«l 
Imimi  plantiMl  in  the  saim*  plastic  clay  near  us.  It 
h-arned  that  the  Om-  Hundred  ami  Fourth  had 
l.«-«-n  hripi<le<)  Willi  Iln-He  re;;imeiitK,  and  that  (Jemral 
niirl»rid;:e,  a  loyal  Kentuckian.  coininamled  the  whole 
for«i-.  The  remainder  of  this  Sahhalh  day  was  fullv 
orcnpi.ll  in  piichinu  the  tfiilK  and  clearin;;  away  som'o 
,.f  il...  l..i.  1  .  .......  lik.-Iy  lo  init-rfere  with  tlu'  sle.'pin;;- 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  23 

places  on  the  groiiiid.  The  «liiy  had  been  one  of  hibor, 
and  all  were  tired  enoiinh  to  retire  early  ex('0])t  tliose 
(h'sirous  of  atlendinii,'  the  prayer  meetini;. 

The  liiirbrid^c  brigade  remained  in  Cam]*  (lilberl 
— or,  as  the  boys  more  aptly  called  it,  "Camp  lirickbat," 
— until  Wednesday,  the  ITth.  As  often  happens,  how 
ever,  it  was  denioiislrated  that  a  vast  amount  of  experi- 
ence could  be  actpiired  in  a  short  s)»ace  (d'  tinu^,  an<l 
that  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  did  not  prove 
an  exception.  The  broad  exposure  to  the  sun  was 
annoyiuji',  and  our  greatest  necessity,  water,  had  to 
be  brought  some  distance.  The  constant  moxiui:,'  about 
of  nearly  lonr  thcuisaud  men  within  a  limiied  space 
of  sncli  character  kept  the  dust  in  agitation  and  caused 
it  to  settle  down  on  everything,  to  the  discomfort  of 
the  men.  It  was  noticed  that  the  Indiana  regiments 
showed  less  concern  about  the  matter;  their  appear- 
ance seemed  slovenly  and  was  commented  on  by  the 
boys,  but  a  few  days'  personal  experience  modified  their 
opinions. 

rom])any  and  battaliiui  drill  with  varions  other 
duties  fully  occupied  the  time  at  ('am])  (lilbert.  When, 
on  the  morning  of  the  17th,  an  order  was  issued  to  be 
ready  to  march  over  the  Ohio  at  9  o'clock,  its  announce- 
ment met  Avith  applaus<',  Xo  one  seemed  to  know 
where  (U'  how  far  the  command  was  going,  but  our  own 
imaginations  supidied  the  want  of  definite  informa- 
tion and  induced  the  belief  that  we  were  to  be  led  at 
once  against  the  enemy.  Every  soldier  examined  his 
musket  more  closely  and  gave  extra  care  to  his  car- 
tridge box  and  accoutrements.  Finally  the  tents  were 
struck  and  the  wagons  loaded.  A  number  who  were 
sick  reported  to  the  surgeons,  but  as  yet  the  list  of 
these  was  small.  AVhen  the  assembly  sounded  the 
brigade  fell  into  line,  and,  after  a  short  march  to  the 
wharf  in  Jeffersonville,  Avas  slowly  carried  across  to 
the  other  side  by  two  steam  ferryboats.  Tliis  opera- 
tion occupied  considerable  time,  several  balky  mnles 
in  the  train  or  their  green  drivers  causing  a  delay.  P>ut 
at  last  the  One   Hundred   and    Fonrlli   stood   on   the 


SI  Tin;  «».m;  m.M'ici.n   a.ni'  i  >  >\  !;iu 

Kiu-nnl  Koii  of  till*  Soiitli  iiiul  vifwt'tl  tin*  iifw  ami 
Kiniiip*  h«fni*ti  jiImhii  us  with  iiiirivsl.  Konniuji  in 
liiii",  I  In*  iiiairtli  wiiK  Ih*p;iiii  tlimii^h  the  strtfts  of  l><)uis- 
vilh',  hut  ihrn*  wrn*  no  wi'lmlnin';  rht't-rs  fr«»ni  an 
f'iip*ran<l  h»wil  iM-oph*  ;;raih*ful  (m  I hi'ir  (h'livt'rcrs  fioni 
nihiinifv:  no  National  Ilajrs  lh»aiin^i  from  thr  house- 
lo|»H.  Fr\v  white  |MN»ph*  a|»|»carc<l,  whih*  thr  Ithnk 
|Mi|Mihitioii  lin<*4l  the  siih'walks  and  iiciTetl  fioni  ihr 
>\in«h»u>i.  Thf  ritv  was  unth-r  ih*-  iron  «iias|)  of  luar- 
tiail  hiw,  anil  sentries  walktMJ  t  ln'ir  hrats  nu  every  sti*e<*t. 
I^uiisville  IiikI  het'oine  a  vast  ariueil  eanip.  Thousainls 
of  siihlirrs  jiml  iiupi*<*ssi-«l  riii/iMis  wei-i*  still  at  work  «la\ 
ami  nij^lit  mi  tin*  th-fmsfs.  Tin*  l*i*«»v«»si  Marshal  eom- 
|m«II«mI  all  \\hil«'  iiiah-  riti/.fiis  ImMnximmi  the  a;:«*s  of 
eij;litifii  iind  foft  ylive  t«»  «lrill  «'V«*ry  May  or  pi  to  jail, 
n  rej;ulalion  that  eaiiseil  a  ptod  «loal  of  s(|uiriuin«; 
anion;;  tin*  disloyal  ehMiirni.  It  may  In*  iuf«'rred  that 
as  tin-  aniiiMl  h*;;ioiis  of  tli«'  (iiiou  mar<-hed  alou^  the 
Htn-i'ls  of  th«'  lM'h'a;.'urrfd  riiy  siii^iu^  ".lohu  HroxN  n's 
IhmIv  li«*s  niouldi'iin;;  in  I  ho  ;;ra\o,  iiut  his  soul  j;oes 
luarehin;:  on,"  and  otloM*  patriotic  sou;;s,  those  who 
|miks4'knimI  tender  ffelin^is  on  tin*  slavery  «pn'siiou  did 
n«>t  luivo  their  admiral iou  for  "^'aukee"  soldiers 
InrreiiKeij   to  jilIX    (ofisitleralde  ext«*ni. 

After  passing;  throu;;h  Louisville  and  luarehiiiy;  out 
Into  the  roiiiitry  some  tlire««  ndles  the  hriyade  went 
into  riimp  on  the  plantation  of  the  rebel  i^n'ueral.  Simon 
n.  niiekiier.  The  ample  ;:rounds  in  front  of  his  larjre, 
line  hrirk  ret*ideiire  made  jin  aidiniralde  hivoiiar  for  i  lie 
Ite^iiiienl,  whose  ideas  about  surh  thinj;s  were  yet  aes- 
lh«'lie.  No  phi  re  could  have  bei-n  more  |o\  ely  ;  t  he  beau- 
tiful ^in-i'ii  lawn  hlo|M'd  ^'ently  tlown  from  liie  house, 
and  was  covered  with  a  scattered  ;L:f«»wili  of  nobl«>  oak 
and  \HHt'U  tn'i'H,  under  the  shade  of  whii  h  we  lerliued 
when  not  oil  tint  v.  A  stone  wall  laid  in  moriar.  with 
an  lr«»ii  uaie,  encloKeil  the  ample  i,'rounds.  This  was 
oiii  fii-Ht  view  of  11  typical  Southern  manor,  the  idt»al, 
tiMi,  of  one  of  the  inoHt  aristocratic  of  the  slaveholdin}; 
rlilvalry.  and  fiiniisheil  a  Hiibject  for  much  reflenion. 
Klranp*.  thai    while  Ceiieml   Simon   ltoli\er   |{iirkuer 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  25 

by  the  courtesy  of  Geiieral  Grant  and  President  Lin- 
coln was  enjoyino-  the  lios])itality  of  Uncle  i^am  in  F(»i't 
Wari'en,  the  Reitinient  slumhl  be  eni;a<:,ed  in  liuanling' 
his  property  while  incidentally  guests  upon  his  lordly 
estate! 

Truly,  the  lines  had  fallen  t»>  us  in  jilcasanl  places, 
made  more  attractive  by  the  warm  balmy  air  and  the 
hazy  atmosphere  peculiar  to  this  latitude  in  autuuin, 
so  that  to  live  in  it  was  life  and  health.  When  night 
came  no  one  missed  the  tents  left  behind,  but, 
wrapped  in  their  army  blankets,  the  men  lay  down  on 
the  velvety  green  lawn  with  the  starry  heavens  for  a 
canopy.        « 

The  succeeding  live  days  were  passed  in  this  place, 
known  as  Camp  Robinson,  which  acquired  also  the 
soubriquet  of  "Gamp  Grasshopper,"  from  the  abun- 
dance of  that  festive  insect  among  us.  Drill  by  com- 
pany and  battalion  was  zealously  pursued.  The 
depressing  news  of  Colonel  Wilder's  surrender  on  the 
ITth,  with  several  thousand  men  had  reached  us,  and 
it  was  feared  that  Bragg  would  be  thundering  next 
at  the  gates  of  Louisville.  Some  rebel  prisoners 
brought  in  from  the  front  increased  the  runu)rs  and 
excitement  in  camp. 

SVIiile  in  Gamp  Grassh(q)])er  many  of  the  men,  in 
anticipation  of  hard  marching  and  tighting  ahead,  sent 
home  their  surplus  clothing. 

The  quality  of  the  rations  issued  here  caused  a  mild 
tumult  one  morning  and  led  to  some  very  vigorous 
measures  as  well  as  language  on  the  part  of  some  of 
the  companies,  who,  shouldering  the  objectionable 
bacon  and  "hard  tack,"  proceeded  to  interview  the 
Quarternmster.  Before  night  an  exchange  was  made 
for  sui)plies  not  liable  to  Avalk  oil'  without  notice. 

The  brigade  had  its  tirst  review  on  the  21st  by  Gen- 
eral Burbridge  and  presented  a  splendid  appearance. 
The  spectacle  of  nearly  four  thousaml  men  drawn  up 
in  battle  array,  with  all  the  ])omp  and  ])ano]dy  of  glori- 
ous Avar,  performing  military  evolutions,  their  burn- 
ished arms  flashing  in  the  sunlight,  was  well  calculated 


St  THK  «>NK  Hl'NDHKD  AND   FoLKTH 

IM  awakt'ii  \>\'u\i'  n\u\  «Mitlinsijisiii.  AftiM-  ii*v*u*nv,  w  liirh 
«'los«tl  iib<Mil  Miinl«»\vn.  ih.-  K«'j:inn-in  iii;iitlM'«l  t<>  qiiar- 
terw  ami  bn»kf  ranks  for  tin*  «l:iv.  AiiMthi-r  Sunday's 
dutli»«  had  Immmi  iMTfoniMMJ  and  tluM-viiiin-;  was  divtded 
to  lUi'  uKual  ramp  ^lossip.  \vritin«r  I«-(trrs,  or  prayer 
m<*«*(iii^. 

Tlir  ruiiiors  lo  whirli  \\v  luid  Immmi  irt'Mird  <'Vtiy  diiy 
lMi-aiii<*  iiiort'  fxrliin;!  on  tin*  in«»rnin;;  ol  i  lie  L'Jiid.  Mui  •' 
n-lM-l  jirisoni'rs.  said  lo  havt-  ln-rn  taU<n  only  hii  or 
lUtti-n  niilfs  out,  had  Im-«-ii  l(ron;:hi  in,  and  sonic  of  our 
**inuh'  w  harkrrs,"  who  always  smnrd  to  haNo  ihf  lirsi 
lU'Ws,  ii«|M»rl«il  ihr  a|»proa<h  of  Hra^r^^'s  advantc  Tlio 
Ktorifsdid  not  ;:ro\\  U-ss  in  siz«*  hy  tilling.  Al^^"  >l't*  fact 
WHK  K<Nin  in»t«'d  that  all  tin-  «onnliy  |MM»ph',  white  and 
bhu'k,  wi-n-  ll\in;:  in  hast*-  towaiil  Lonisvilh-.  'IIk- 
aftir»»Haid  tranistfi*8  r«»ntirnM'd  this  disrowry.  Uui, 
though  tin*  day  passed  withonl  tlu*  Ho^nni«*nt  luin^ 
ralh'd  sndth'idy  to  prrpar**  for  action,  it  was  rxcitin^ 
enough  to  k«M«p  all  in  inonn'niary  rxp<'rt:il  ion  of  sonic- 
thin;:  new  and  startliii;;.  and  when  at  ni;j:hltall  t'oloncl 
MiHin*  iiTciviHl  orders  to  march  the  Keuiim-nt  ha«  k  to 
I^Miisville,  it  was  construed  to  mean  thai  the  enemy 
ctinld  not  he  far  away. 

Ahont  1»  o'clock  the  march  heiran,  and  after  strik- 
ing the  main  road  it  became  a|>parent  that  many  otlnM- 
forci-M  were  also  iakin;r  the  same  direct  ion.  Tlie  <lelays 
rauHiMl  b\  a  blockade  of  tin*  transportation  were  fre- 
ipient  and  very  lires«»me.  Company  K  ha<l  been  de- 
taib'il  UH  Vi'iir  ^nard,  which  was  consiih-.ed  an  honor, 
iiM  fmin  the  Hl;;ns  a  ti;;ht  or  adventure  of  sonn*  Ixind 
promising  ;:lory  was  not  nnlikely.  IWit  notjiin;:  more 
exciiin;:  than  the  capture  of  sundry  stray  cili/ens  and 
ne;:roi-H  happ4-ned,  and  these  were  taken  alon^  as 
tni|diies.  At  2  o'clock  in  the  moniin-  the  Kr<jiiiient 
arrixiil  w  iiliin  the  defenses  and  lay  do\\  n  to  sleep  on  t  he 
breaHi  wiirks.  <  Ml  the  morn  in;:  of  the  l!:{rd  the  Iveuimeiit 
went  into  camp  jiisi  below  a  lii;:li  blulT  on  the  easiern 
ontnkirtH  of  the  city,  in  a  location  surrounded  by  |»ack- 
itiClioiiMtt  and  tumbledown  tenements.  .\  dirty  s;|ou;:h 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  27 

emitted  offensive  and  disease-breeding  odors.  The  place 
was  called  Camp  Wilder. 

We  saw  no  more  of  the  Indiana  regiments  and  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  temporarily  uuhrigjulcd. 
It  was  learned  that  General  Bragg  had  declined  tiie 
battle  offered  to  him  on  the  21st  and  22nd,  and  had  de- 
flected his  army  further  east  toward  Lexington,  where 
he  could  gather  in  more  supplies,  of  which  his  army 
stood  in  need.  He  also  hoped  to  gain  many  recruits  to 
his  ranks  from  the  Kentuckians.  The  aggressive  cam- 
paign of  the  enemy  in  Kentucky  had  ended,  as  with 
General  BuelPs  veteran  army  ami  the  .~)0,000  new  troops 
in  and  around  Louisville  further  operations  of  an  offen- 
sive character  would  prove  disastrous. 

The  startling  peals  of  the  "long  roll"  at  3  a.  m.  ou  the 
24tli,  aroused  the  regiment  from  its  slumbers.  This 
meant  to  fall  in  at  once,  first,  however,  falling  out  of  bed 
in  double-quick  time,  if  by  courtesy  ground  floor  privi- 
leges could  be  so  called.  There  w'as  a  hasty  donning  of 
overcoats,  arms  and  accoutrements,  after  which  the 
companies  formed  on  the  color  line.  The  Regiment 
being  aligned  and  having  come  to  an  "order  arms*'  and 
"rest,"  awaited  further  orders.  When  at  last  daylight 
appeared  the  companies  were  dismissed  to  their  quar- 
ters. It  was  learned  later  that  the  order  calling  us  u])  so 
early  emanated  from  the  commander  of  the  I'ost  of 
Louisville,  and  was  intended  for  purposes  of  discipline. 

Our  tents,  left  behind,  did  not  arrive  until  the  2r>th, 
just  in  time  for  a  change  in  the  weather.  The  Regiment 
for  several  days  sent  heavy  details  to  work  ou  the  forti- 
flcations,  which  extended  along  the  hill  southeast  of  the 
camp  and  ran  through  a  lovely  cemetery.  It  seemed 
like  sacrilege  to  thus  invade  the  city  of  the  dead,  but 
military  necessity  often  compels  many  things  to  be  done 
that  seem  cruel  or  unnecessary.  "Inter  arma  silent 
leges." 

While  at  Camp  Wilder  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth 
received  calls  from  several  Ottawa  citizens,  among 
them  Sam  W.  Raymond,  Thos.  J.  Wade  and  Richard 
Thorne,  all  of  whom  had  relations  or  friends  in  the 


r  Tli..  -  -w.  HUNDRKl'  AM<  Kt'fUTH 

K*'i;iujrni.    ii  iM  ikhmIIi^hk  to  miv  that  >v«'  wovo  jrlad  to  sec 
llifiii. 

Tlu*  Ki'^iiiKMit  h|K-iii  ilifiii;;ht  of  tlirL'oth  ou  the  color 
Jim*  umltT  ariiiN  from  «laik  until  daylifihi.  This  was  in 
olKilifurt*  tt»  aiiothiT  tU'iU'i*  fnun  hi*a«l«|uarters,  and 
MnMuiiI  HiMiM'li'Ks  rnoM^h,  fsiMM-iallv  as  th»*  lurn  luol 
wurkiMi  all  «lav  in  ihf  trtMuhos  ami  wen*  ontitlfil  lo  n-si. 
Our  ideiiH  uf  {^luriouK  war  lio^aii  to  Ih*  of  a  less  romantic 
fhara«'tt«r  as  wi*  camo  far**  to  fa«M'  with  tlu'  coM  liai'tl 
fails. 

On  tho  nnirninj;  of  tin*  L'sth  rumors  w»*rt'  (irculair.l 
that  tlu*  K«*;:iin«'nt  would  leave  soon  for  the  fioiit,  wlii«  li 
nieaiii  atiivi*  scrvi«*<*  in  tin*  field  and  suite*!  oiii-  itl«a> 
Ik'Hit  than  Nxoikiu;:  on  fortilitatious.  It  was  also 
d(*tiniti*l.v  settled  that  the  Ue;:inn'nl  had  heen  assij^ned 
to  the  Thirty  iiinlh  Brigade,  Twelfth  division,  Aiiiiy  of 
the  Ohio,  Tolonel  (1.  1',  Liinher;:,  of  the  One  llundfovl 
aud  Ki|;hth  Ohio,  had  Immmi  appointed  to  command  the 
brigade,  which  consisted  of  the  ( Mie  llundiH'd  and 
Fourth  Illinois,  One  Hundred  aud  Sixth  and  One  Ihni- 
dreil  amd  Kichth  (Miio,  the  two  latter  heinjj;  (ierman 
n'j:iinents  partially  oi-;;ani7,ed.  (len^ral  I'3.  l)iiiin»ni 
commanded  the  division. 

The  •♦\«  iiin;:  event  of  the  L'lMh  was  the  sliootin^^  of 
Ueneral  Nelson  hy  tJeiieral  delTC.  Davis,  in  the  (lault 
HoiiM*  at  lionisville.  Itoth  were  distinguished  Inioii 
^Jeiierals.  When  the  fa«ls  liecaine  known  ]tni>Iie 
opinion  justilied  the  latter. 

Major  .lolin  II.  \N  i«lmer  arriv«*d  to-«lay,  and  was 
warmly  we|conn'<l  hy  a  s«'renade  in  the  eveniuLr,  wliich 
ende<|  in  pMHTal  kimmm-Ii  inakin;:. 

The  hri^'jide  receivd  marcliiu'j  orders  on  the  :;(iili. 
and  from  then  until  the  :{r«l  of  n«io|ier  was  held  in 
nMidin<*KM  to  leaiveat  short  notice,  the  tents  heinj; struck 
and  camp  <i|uipa;;e  packed  every  morninu:.  Meantime 
tluMiKands  of  tmops  were  alreadv  mo\  in^  out.  Ueforo 
we  U'ft  the  pro«  lamation  of  rresldein  Lincoln  in  re^^ard 
to  fn-i-in^  the  nlaves  in  the  rehellious  state.-s  raine  to 
hand  and  met  a»«  a  pMieral  Ihinj;  with  approval  lt\  the 
men.     Many.  like  the  writer,  had  enlisted  not  to  "freo 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  29 

the  nigger,"  as  the  phrase  went,  but  to  save  the  Union. 
However  all  must  have  foreseen  the  logical  outcome, 
and  no  doubt  came  at  last  to  accept  it  as  right  and  just. 
At  all  events  new  hope  and  vigor  seemed  to  be  imparted 
to  the  men. 

Late  on  the  2nd,  definite  orders  were  received  to 
march  early  the  next  morning,  and  we  settled  down  to 
spend  our  last  night  in  Camp  Wilder. 


<  iiAi'Ti:i:  \. 


IXAvlns  Camp  Wlldrr— A  lUrU  Maroh— Arrlvo  at  Shelhyvllle— 
Conftiwair'  WaKonit— Atti'ini't  l<i  Hct-owr  Contrabamln— March 
t..  Krnnkforl  -lUmy  H.-trcat  of  the  Rf«>eli»— Colonel  Lin>»».rK''8 
Arrt-m— 4*<.in|»«ny  K  Ralmm  a  Klaic— Wild  Ctooiie  Chase  After 
M-'fjun— Mttrrh  t"  Itowllnir  <JrtH>n— SufferlriK  l>y  the  Way— 
ArrtvMl  n(  li^iwllnx  ••n-t-n— Review  and  Speech  by  Gener- 
al R<>M^-ran»— Thirty-Ninth  Rrlgade  Detached— Colonel  Scott 
A*«umr*  Command. 


Ill  roiiKtMUHMM*'  of  onlt'i's  nMM'ivtMl  lull*  tin*  pn*vi«»u8 
uijclit.  to  Im*  r«*ji«lv  to  iiijircli  early  on  the  iiiornhi^  of  Oct. 
3,  tin*  hovM  t iiriMMl  out  in'omptly  at  tiie  souii«l  of  reveille 
aiitj  fell  ill  f«»r  roll  call.  Aftei-  an  early  breakfast  the 
lent.-*  were  siriirk,  kiiapsatks  paek«Ml  aii<l  all  the  prepa- 
nilioiiK  iiiiule  for  marching.  The  wajj:oiis  »»f  each  com- 
pany wiTe  loa«le<l  to  their  full  jjipacity,  containing;, 
lMt.i»leM  caiiip  e«|uipa;:«*  ami  commis.sary  stores,  a  ^oo«l 
niaiiy  knapHacks  of  tin*  men,  but  still  each  soldier  had 
a  heavy  h»a«l  to  carry,  including'  his  musket  and  forty 
mniHlxof  aiiiiniiniiioii. 

All  liein^  rejuly,  ".lor"  soumled  the  "assembly,"  the 
<  Mie  1 1 II  ml  red  and  I'oiirih  formed  in  ranks,  and,  march- 
ing out  of  t'aiiip  \N  ihh'r,  was  joined  by  the  rest  of  llie 
brigade  on  the  blnlTh.  We  then  took  up  the  line  of 
march  on  the  turnpike  leading'  to  Shelby ville,  K«Mitucky. 
The  H|HMiacle  befMi«-  iiur  ey«'h  uas  inspiring:.  We  saw  in 
llie  diNiaiice  Ion;;  liiien  of  infant  ry  and  bat  teries  of  art  il- 
IiTV,  all  f«dlow«*<l  by  ininieiise  wapm  trains  coniainini: 
ratioUK  and  ainmnnliion.  '{'here  was  satisfaction  in 
thi*  tiion;:hl  that  we  were  m.w  a  part  of  t  his  errand  armv 
of  nearl\  .vti.non  men  imirchin;:  to  ih<>  from.  Th,.  ,i;i\ 
wai«  tine  of  natiire'h  lovelieht.  only  too  h..i.  'rii,.  roads 
wi*r«*  ilimty,  ami  we  hooh  HiifTfriMi  from  want  of  water, 
wliirh.  on  acroiinl  of  thr  Ion;:  drou;;ht,  was  low  in  iln- 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS    VOLUNTEERS.  31 

wells  and  streams — braiiches  as  they  are  called  iu  the 
South. 

After  a  short  halt  at  noon  for  dinner,  the  march  was 
resumed,  but  not  with  the  same  quick  step  and  buoyant 
spirits  as  iu  the  morning.  The  knapsacks  were  becom- 
ing heavy.  By  nigiit  a  number  of  men  had  fallen  out 
and  did  not  again  appear  until  the  next  morning.  The 
trouble  lay  partially  in  our  attempts  to  carry  too  heavy 
an  assortment  of  goods,  such  as  extra  shirts,  blankets 
and  notions  of  various  kinds.  As  the  day  passed  many 
of  these  extras  were  quietly  left  by  the  roadside.  The 
author,  being  much  given  to  writing,  left  a  deposit  r>f 
fine  stationery  as  his  contribution. 

When  night  came  and  no  halt  was  made  all  had 
becfjme  so  footsore  and  wearied  that  to  march  was 
I>ainful.  But  there  was  no  resigning  in  this  war.  The 
order  was  still  forward,  and  not  until  1  a.  m.  was  a 
change  made.  We  then  turned  into  a  blue-grass  side- 
hill  pasture  by  the  road,  and  in  ten  minutes  probably 
every  soldier  had  found  rest  in  slumber.  The  writer 
recalls  with  gratitude  how  that,  as  he  was  just  about 
going  off  to  the  land  of  dreams,  Orville  L.  Moorhead,  of 
Company  E,  came  and  gave  him  a  drink  of  cordial  from 
his  tlask  (I  think  that  was  what  he  called  it  and  it  pro- 
duced cordiality).  This  gallant  soldier  fell  soon  after 
at  Hartsville. 

Footsore  and  more  or  less  weary,  we  awoke  before 
the  sun  on  Saturday  morning,  r)ct.  4.  A  thousantl  little 
fires  made  from  '^secesh"  rails  lighted  up  the  early  land- 
scape. A  thousand  tin  cups,  each  S(ddier  carrying  one, 
contained  the  fragrant  coffee  of  which  Uncle  Sam  fur- 
nished a  good  article.  This,  with  bacon  and  hardtack 
from  the  haversacks,  put  all  in  good  sj)irits  again. 

The  march  was  resumed  immediately  after  break- 
fast. Looking  back  upon  the  deserted  bivouac,  and  be- 
yond to  the  rear,  the  ground  was  strewn  with  numerous 
discarded  articles.  One  would  have  supposed  that  sev- 
eral second-hand  old  clothinti-  stores  ha<l  been  cutted 
and  the  contents  scattered  around.  The  vultures  wi-vo 
behind  us  scenting  their  prey  from  afar. 


B  THE  ONB  HUNDRED  AND  FOIIITH 

Tlu*  Mvi  ion  of  Kfiitutkv  tlii-oii;:!!  wliiili  \v«*  inari  IumI 
wuM  hijjlilv  tuliivatiMl.  ViiKi  ulainaiious  ixiiii.leii  in 
eviTv  tllrtMtloii.  Tlif  lar^'f  rt'HMloiucH  ami  mj^ro  quai- 
t€»r8  t>ii  KoiiM*  tif  tin-Ill  lo|«|  (»f  wralili  ami  coiiiforl.  Hut 
Ui-raMioiiailv  \v«*  pasKiMl  l««ss  iinMriiiioiis  lioiisos  or  tlu* 
log  liiitM  «»f  tlif  **iMM»r  wiiil*'  irasli,"  ami  the  «oimasi 
wiiH  an  iiiarkiHl  as  tlu*  «lifr«'n*mi'  in  tin*  iMMipU'.  All  of 
Iln-M-  tliinjis  wrio  fl«-\v  to  us  ami  of  surpassing'  inteivst. 
Wf  wiTt*  iHMoiniii*;  iMliicatrM  in  !u«»rf  wa.vs  than  on.-, 
Illid    In   a    |ir:iii  i<  ;il    injiiiin-r,    i  III  |Miv>iIiIi'  to   IcaiMi    lioiii 

iMHiks. 

As  ihr  sun  UK'Uiitrd  111  tin-  /.<iiiiii  wi-  lM';^an  »<»  I'l'fl 
its  ffTiMts.  I'liusrW  to  colli  iiiuous  iuar»hin;x,  luany  «;av«' 
out.  <  MoikIh  of  (lust  ami  sranit  v  of  water  a<ltl<'<l  to  tlic 
•llMromfort.  A  f«'\v  of  tlu*  Im»\  s,  imu-e  dariiiL:  than  others, 
iiiaiiapil  to  slip  away,  ami  p>in;;  to  nei^'lihorin;^  plan- 
liitioiis  iontisral«-4l  several  N\a;:oiis.  which  they  luou^ht 
up  ami  loaded  with  knapsacks,  thus  relieving  many  ol 
thi*  men.  After  dark  we  continued  on  in  silence  until 
II  o'clock,  when  Shelhyvllle  was  leached,  and  we  went 
into  camp  m-ar  the  town,  having  marched  thirty-three 
miles  since  leaving;  Louisville.  A  pari  of  DuMnuil's 
division  nMiiaiiied  at  or  near  Shelhyville  until  \N  edues- 
cliiy,  (Vt.  N.  The  One  Hundred  and  rourth  enjoyed  iIm- 
r«*Hl  very  mmli.  Those  who  have  read  "I'mle  Tom's 
Cahin"  will  reinemher  the  vivi«l  scenes  therein  picture<l 
of  this  place  and  its  pi^iple  in  tin*  days  of  slavery.  We 
found  it  a  small,  ramldin;:  villa;;*',  in  which  iie;;ro»>. 
miMutMl  to  pnilominate.  \N'e  learned  that  most  «»f  the 
whites  were  rebels.  As  <'aptaiu  Leii:hton  remarked. 
*'ll  is  a  very  secesli  pla<e."  When  our  hoys  discovered 
tliiK  they  coiiclud«*d  thai  a  Utile  cont  rihui  ion  in  the 
Hlia|N>  of  turkeys,  chickens,  hom-y,  etc.,  from  the  lioiiies 
of  the  iiolde  citiy.eiiM,  now  mostly  in  the  Kehel  army. 
uould  he  an  appropriali-  lesiimonial  of  our  esteem 
Tliereftipe  many  a  fine  ;;oldder,  intended  for  the  Christ 
iiiiiK  home  miirket,  found  his  way  into  the  mess  pans  of 
the  One  flundreil  und  I'oiirlh.  It  is  true  that  p-iieral 
orders  did  not  Ham  lion  fora;;in;;  of  this  kind,  on  the 
rontniry   forhade   it,  hul    ih.-   im-u   com  Imhil    ihai    om 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  SS 

enemies  ouj^ht  to  feel  son^e^vhat  of  the  consequences  of 
their  Avicked  rebellion  against  the  government.  The 
Unionists  were  left  untouched  or  else  were  paid  for  what 
was  taken.' 

The  days  at  Shelbvville  had  passed  most  pleasantly, 
though  we  were  in  expectation  every  hour  of  orders  to 
march.  Reports  that  large  forces  of  Rebel  cavalry  were 
within  five  miles  of  us  tended  to  keep  things  lively.  It 
was  certain  that  wandering  too  far  from  camp  miglit 
be  dangerous,  as  every  white  man  was  a  spy,  or  likely 
to  be  one,  and  shooting  from  ambush  was  a  common 
occurrence.  It  Avas  learned  that  General  SilFs  division 
and  part  of  Dumont's  on  Oct.  7,  met  and  drove  the 
enemy  under  Kirby  Smith,  from  Frankfort  aud  occupied 
the  town.  These  forces  constituted  the  left  of  BuelFs 
army,  the  bulk  of  which  Avas  on  our  right,  and  numbered 
eight  diA'isions — ab(mt  00,000  men  in  all.  If  Bragg  could 
haA^e  been  brought  to  bay  a  battle  Avould  haA'e  occurred. 

In  pursuance  of  orders,  we  resumed  the  march  at 
noon  and  were  in  better  shape,  as  each  company  had  an 
extra  mule  team  to  carry  the  baggage.  These  Avere  con- 
fiscated from  the  rebel  citizens  hereabouts  and  caused 
much  commotion.  With  them  were  numerous  contra- 
bands. About  the  time  we  set  out,  and  after  moving, 
the  OAA'ners  of  the  aforesaid  goods  and  chattels  put  in 
an  appearance  and  tried  to  gain  a  hearing  from  Colonel 
Moore  and  other  officers.  Some,  more  bold  than  others, 
tried  to  snake  out  the  contrabands,  Avho  kept  close  to 
the  ranks,  but  they  little  knew  the  temper  of  the  men. 
At  once  an  order  passed  down  the  line  of  the  regiment, 
"Fix  bayonets!"  A  citizen  had  grabbed  a  darky  from 
the  rear  of  Company  A.  Sergeant  Woodward,  of  Com- 
pany B,  being  near  by,  broke  his  musket  OA'er  the  rebel's 
head.  This  demonstration  satisfied  the  gentleman,  and 
thereafter  Ave  had  no  more  trouble.  The  march  con- 
tinued all  night,  but  was  made  with  comparative  ease. 
Just  as  the  first  gray  streaks  of  dawn  lighted  up  the 
eastern  horizon  on  Oct.  9  the  Thirty-ninth  Brigade  en- 
tered the  environs  of  Frankfort,  where  the  turnpike  we- 
had  traA^eled  came  to  an  end  on  a  high  bluff  overlooking 


U  THK  ONK  Hl'NDUKD   AND  FOURTH 

ill.-  iit>.  \N  li.i-Iiii;;  l.»  tin*  \rU  tin*  hriy:a«lt'  wout  iui»» 
«am|»  jil«nij;  its  lunw  .  ;;liul  l«»  !»••  allitu  «m1  |m  irsi  aft«'!'  1  h«' 
loii;;  iii;:lil  iiiarrh.  'VUv  l«Malioii  was  «;raiul.  Inn  siihjrct 
to  suiiH*  iiiroiivi'iiitMicf,  as  llnTc  was  iim  wati-r  to  b**  had 
iifurtT  tliaiii  tin-  rivtT,  u  ton«iih*falilr  ilisiamt*  away. 
TlMMffon*  tlir  «o(T»M«  aiiii  hn-akfast  w«-r«-  lair.  It  Ix'in;; 
HM'crlaiiitMl  thai  wt*  woiihi  rmiaiii  in  tin*  pn'snit  loca- 
tion only  ti'ni|>orarily.  tln*«lay  wass|M-ni  in  rrslin«;an<l 
inakiii^  short  trips  in  tht*  viriniiy,  an<l  to  tin*  hridp*  ovi*r 
tin*  rivfr.  whirh  was  ;;iiaril<-il.  iMirin;;  tin*  <lay  in*WN 
arriv«il  that  a  ;:r«'at  hatih-  ha<l  Immmi  fon;:hl  tin*  May 
|tn*vionsat  |N*rry\ilh'.  part irnhirs  not  known.  We  now 
li*arn<il  th<'  fa<*ts  in  rt';>ai*<l  to  the  occupation  nt  I'lanU 
fort  liy  our  troops.  It  appeared  that  whrn  oui-  <  avalr\ 
forcfs  Mn<lil«*nl\  rntrrtMl  tin*  town  a  p«»rtion  of  t'lrnnal 
Kirhy  Sniii  h's  romniaiKl.  all  nnininilfnl  of  t  lit-  a {iproa ch- 
in;; storm,  were  linsil\  cn;;a;;«Ml  in  the  plc;isinLi  <<ic- 
niony  of  inaii<:ui*atin^  Dick  Hawcs  as  ilic  *K<iMl  I'l-i 
\isionar*  tJoNcrnor  of  Kentucky.  But  while  thus  em 
plo\»Ml  they  were  sn<hlenly  ami  rmlely  interrupted  l>y 
tin*  blait*  of  the  I'nion  cavalry  lMi;;les  ami  the  io;ir  of 
lomlinont lied  cannon  planted  on  the  very  site  of  our 
pn*sent  camp.  Ilawes  and  his  rebels  barely  had  limo 
to  escape  b>  the  back  dooi'.  ||is  address  t<»  the  "I'ree 
and  patriotic  people  «d  Kentucky,"  as  he  called  them, 
wuK  left  unlinisheil,  jind  thus  ended  the  brief  ri-iun  of 
Dick  Ilawes.      As  one  of  t  he  boys  reniaikeil : 

"If  HO  Hoon  li«'  wnH  i|on»»  for, 
What  In  thunil«*r  wan  hi«  l>oKun  for?" 

Our  iinpreHKions  of  I'rankfoit  were  most  favoraith  . 
The  blue  waters  of  the  Kentucky  liNer  tlowed  by  in  a 
half  «irc|e,  and  on  the  concaxf  of  this  Ia\    the  »itv,  a 

phice  of  fi.ur  thousand   | pie.  nestled   in  aiiionj:   ili. 

hills,     I'ui-ther  back  bluITs  from  iw.»  humlred  to  fom 
InindnM]  fii-t   UmU  rose  in  terraces,  and   were  i..\.i,  ,1 

with  pine,  cedar  and  b h.     Down  below  our  camp  la\ 

the    Kentucky    riv.-r.   valley.      Ibr,.   was   the   luMiie   of 
Daniel  IImmh...  the  "Pioneer  of  Kentu«ky."  This  was  ih. 
dark  an. I  '•' 'x     MMuml.  maile  memorable  b\    maii\   a 


REGIMENT   ILLINOKS    VOLUNTEERS.  35 

fierce  contest  between  the  early  white  settlers  and  t  heir 
Indian  foes. 

When  at  night-fall  the  camp-fires  of  tiie  One  Hun- 
dred and  l<\)urtli  were  liiihted  on  the  blulfs  many  a 
soldier  lingered  long  by  their  tiickering  blaze  to  medi- 
tate on  the  day's  experience,  and  later,  wrapped  in  his 
blanket,  to  dream  of  the  historic  scenes  now  before  him. 

The  One  Hundred  and  FiMirth  arose  early  on  I  lie 
lOth,  fr(Mn  the  coucIk'S  of  fragrant  c(Mlar  boughs,  and 
just  in  time  to  see  the  snn  crowning  the  hills  in  wreaths 
of  golden  brightness.  During  the  day  the  regiment 
moved  camp  to  the  south  eml  of  the  bi'idge  in  the  valley 
where  the  tents  were  })itclied  and  ])repa rations  made 
for  remaining  some  time.  Drill  ancl  the  ivgular  camp 
(Inties  were  again  inangnrated.  Company  F,  under  the 
command  of  Lieutenant  Wni.  Strawn,  Avas  detaile<l  to 
guard  the  capitol,  and  from  all  accounts  the  l)oys  had  a 
g(M)d  time  in  the  legislativ^e  halls.  Other  companies 
went  on  guard  duty  at  various  points  in  the  city  and 
vicinity. 

It  had  noAv  become  definitely  known  that  Bragg  and 
his  army  were  hurrying  out  of  the  state,  leaving,  how- 
ever, ^1  organ's  and  Forrest's  cavalry  to  cover  his  rear 
and  hover  on  the  flanks  of  our  army,  which  was  pur- 
suing. 

While  in  Frankfort  a  good  deal  of  sensation  was 
caused  by  the  arrest  of  Colonel  Limbc^rg,  commanding 
our  brigade,  on  the  charge  of  "horse-stealing"'  doni^ 
while  enroute  from  Louisville.  In  consequence  of  this 
Colonel  Moore,  the  next  highest  ranking  officer,  as- 
sumed command  of  the  Thirty-ninth  I^rigade  and  estab- 
lished his  headquarters  in  town.  Colonel  Moore  imme- 
diately a])pointed  Captain  James  M.  Leighton,  of  Com- 
])any  A,  One  Hundred  and  Fourth,  as  his  Assistant  A<1- 
jutant  Geufn'al.  Lieutenant-Colonel  llapeman  took 
command  of  the  regiment.  The  rest  of  the  week  passed 
quietly,  and  the  fine  weather  with  our  pleasant  sur- 
roundings were  enjoyed  by  all.  On  the  11th,  a  part  of 
the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth,  with  detachments  from 
the  One  Hundred  aud  Sixth  and   One    Hundred    and 


TH  I-  '  ••'^  '  ■    "  '    .s  1  -li  t  .1  •    A  "^  ' 


iiKTH 


Ki;:htli.  u.n-MMit  iu.|..f..ml  a  l.aiins   ulii.li  l.a.l  Immmi 
ilin-at.-ii.ll  Willi  alia.  k.  I.ni  ii  was  u..i  iiwul.-. 

Th.-  writ.T  ami  a  Uw  ..iImi-h  .m  Siin.lay.  tli.-  l-Hi. 
w.-iit  I.,  visii  111.-  !...auiif«il  .•.•iii.-t.-iy  ..ii  il».-  lilutls  ii.-a. 
III..  riv.T      ll.-n-  n-^»  «»"•  n-iiiaiiis  ..f  many  r.-lcbrated 
K.-lilu.kiaiis.    Slal.ly  sl.afis  ..f  n.ai  hi.-  aii.l  bioii/.- .  ..ni 
ii„Mii..ral.-  III.,  naiu.-s  aii.l  .I.^mIs  ..f  li.M.ii.-.  flay,  <  al.l 
w,.||   «-..|..ii..|  K.  M.  .I..hns..ii  aii.l  ..lli.-i-s.     Paitinilai  l.\ 
iioli.V.al.l.'     Hixiv    f.-^'i    lii^l«      >M»^    ""*    iiiMiiinn.M.t     ly 
ro|..ii..l  .I..I111  .1.  Ilanliii.  win.  f.-ll  in  M«xi«M  win!.-  l»a.l 
iiij;  an  inin..iK  r.-;;iin.iii.     N«-ar  by  w.  n-  srv.iit.Mii  n.-w 
ma. I."  ;;rav..s  ..f  s..l.li.-rs  wli..  ha. I  fall.-n  in  llu-  pn-s.-nl 
tinhappv  war.     Tli.y  u.-n-  unmaik.Ml  l.y  marl. I.-  slab! 
Wlial  aVMiitrasl  was  |.n-s.-nl.-.l  b.-l  w.mmi  ili.-s.-aml  iIk.s.- 
\..n.l.T  in  ih.-ir  "spl.-mli.!  mo.k.ry  ..f  marbl.-!"     \\  ..ary 
aii.l  iniNlitativ.-ly  \\v  n-lurn.-.l  to  .ami.  as  tli.-  rays  ..f 
th.-  M.tiin;;  snn  li^'lit.'.!  \\\*  tin-  K.ntn.ky  liills. 

Th.-.-v.-nt  ..fill.'  i:?lli.al  i.-ast  f..r  t '..mpany  i:.  was  a 
tla^'  i-aisin;;.  Tliis  .MmiiMny,  fioin  fi-.'.|ii«'iil  dulv  in  iIh- 
.ily.  ha. I  lM-.-..nn-  w.-ll  km.wn  to  tli.-  liiioii  <  ii  i/rns,  an.l 
lln.y  iiivi!...!  rapiaiii  I».»ly  ami  hism.n  to  raise  th*-  Stars 
ami  Sirii».-s  on  a  m-w  stafl"  lln-y  ha.l  j.rovi.h'd.  Ai  th»' 
ji|.lM.ini...l  h.tnr  ih.-  rompanv  was  .-scortcl  bv  a  band 
..f  innHJ.-  ami  a  .l.-l.';ralion  ..f  s.-v.-ral  liun<ir.'<l  la.lirs  an. I 
^..ntl.-m.'ii  l.»  Ih..  pla..*,  w  h.-r.-  (  ojoml  Dt.tv  inifiirbd 
th.'  Starrv  llanm.r  I..  Ih.*  br..../.'  amidst  h.-art.v  rhit-rs. 
'rii.-n  .lu.lj:.-  S.oi!  mad.'  a  patriotic  sp.-.'.h,  b.llow.'d  l.y 
Ih.'  v.-m-rabl.'  tb'ii.'ral  L.-sli.-  Coiubs  a  hero  of  two 
wan*,  wlm  was  pr.'s..|il  al  Ih.*  batth'  w  h.-rct  'olon.'I  .lohn- 
Hon  sh.ii  Ih.' trr.'al  In.liain  .hi.'f.  T.'.  ums.'li.  Aft.  r  souk- 
fnrih.'r  pal  riot  i«  .-x.'r.is.'S  th.'  ass.'inbly  disp.-rs.'d  and 
i  '..mpaiiy  K  man  h.-.l  ba.  k  i«.  ipiart.'is.  proud  of  tin-  pan 
il  ha.l  lak.'ii,  ami  th.'  warm  pla<  .•  »'\id«ntl\  scmn-d  in 
III.'  h.'ariH  ..f  rraiikf..rrK  |.»yal  p<'opl<-. 

NNhih-  III.'  Thirty  iiinlh  |{ri;:ad.-  was  t  Iimn  pli-as  mi  1\ 
Mitnal.'.l  ami  .hiil>  improviip^  in  drill,  onr  roinrad.'s  in 
till*  Ib'l.l  w.'n*  man-hill^  .»n  in  liop.-s  ..f  ov.-rtakin^  Hi- :ii:u 
b.'f.m.  h.'  .•.•nhl  ..»«ap.'  into  'r.nn.'ss...'.  (Min-ral  Ilmll 
having;  Imi-ii  .liHapp.iinl.l  in  this,  or.h*r<d  a  rom  «iil  ra 
ti.m  ..f  hiH  army  at    Howling  r,n'.*n  and   Na>.li\ill<'  ami 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  37 

iIi(Mliff(M'('iit  divisions  \v<m-('  ])iit  (Miroiile  for  those  points, 
TiK'Twcinii  Division  stili  remained  at  Frankfort  await- 
ing- other  movements  and  that  of  General  iSill,  south  of 
ns,  then  inovino-  to  fJlasgow. 

Nothing-  of  iin])oHance  disturbed  the  traiKiuillii  y  <d' 
the  Thirty-ninth  JJrigade  until  the  ISih,  when  a  report 
coming  in  that  Morgan  was  raiding  with  his  eavaliw 
around  a  little  place  called  Versailles,  fourteen  mile's 
distant,  we  were  suddenly  called  ujmn  at  J)  \>.  m.  to  get 
in  pursuit,  wiiicli  we  did  in  h(»t  haste.  After  a  tedious 
nuirch  we  riniched  Versailles  at  3  o'clock  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  IDth,  but  the  enemy  had  tied  and  the  Brigade 
bivouacked  until  G,  when  the  march  was  resuuKMl  xo 
Lawrenceburg,  thirteen  miles  further.  But  we  were 
again  too  late — caused  by  a  shot  tired  at  the  enemy  by 
our  artillery.  They  left  behind  a  wounded  horse "^and 
some  supplies.  As  it  now  became  a])parent  that  the 
attempt  to  capture  cavalry  with  infantry  would  be 
useless,  the  Brigade  was  marched  back  to  Frankfort 
where  it  finally  arrived,  tired  and  hungry. 

The  warm  autumn  days  were  disai)i)earing  and  the 
nights  becoming  chilly.  During  our  stay  at  Frankfort 
many  attachments  for  tlie  ])lace  and  ix'ople  jiad  been 
formed,  but  the  a])proach  of  winter  ma<h'  us  anxious  to 
hear  of  marching  orders  for  a  warmer  climate. 

By  the  25th  it  became  known  that  Bragg  had  es- 
caped from  Kentucky  through  Cumberland  (Jap.  (len- 
•eral  Buell  had  not  been  able  to  catch  up  nor  bring  on  a 
battle,  but  was  pressing  forward  toward  Nashville, 
Avhere  General  Negley  had  been  left  with  a  small  force 
Avhen  Buell  marched  to  the  relief  of  Louisville.  It  now 
became  imjiortant  to  i-aise  the  siege  of  Nashville,  Avhich 
had  been  unsuccessfully  attacked  by  the  forces  of  For- 
rest and  Breckinridge  from  Murfreesboro,  as  it  was 
anticipated  that  Bragg  wonld  hurry  forwai-d  additional 
troops,  via  Chattanooga,  in  ho])es  of  capturing  the  city. 
There  was  in(li<ated  to  us  in  the  various  movements  on 
the  grand  chess  board  of  war  an  early  nmrch  of  Du- 
mont's  Division,  therefore,  when,  on  the  2.")th,  orders 
<!ame.to  be  ready  to  leave  at  8  the  following  morning, 


»  THE  C>NK   HiviiUhli    a  N"  I  •    lolKTH 

no  «»in'  wjiK  Korrv.  Tin-  \\«:iilni  liau  iiiriUMl  vi-rs  to|<| 
ami  KiM.w  hail  fallen  l«»  lln-  «l«'i»ili  «»f  srvnal  iiirhrs  <lnr- 
iii;:  tlir  I'vciiiiic. 

Tln'Tliiriviiiiitli  llri;:a«l«' was  ast  ir  rail  v  on  Siiinla> 
tin*  '-'tifli.  Tin*  air  was  rhill.v  nii<l  lln*  «laiii|>  snow  iinulr 
iiM  ftfl  mit  oiiifnrialil*'  an  w«*  wrn*  «Mi;:a;:«*«l  in  pat  kiii^ 
ii|i  an<l  loatlin;:  lln*  \Na;;oiis,  'I'liosr  ronlisralt-tl  ai  Slul- 
hyvillf  \\r  jiroiMimMl  lo  tak<*  alonn,  hut  iln*ir  owin*rs  lia«l 
followiil  and  th'nian«hM|  their  i»ro|MMt\,  thriffon'  with 
nni«  h  pfhi*  «an««'  tliev  wen*  ^iivrn  u|>,  with  a  ffcc  <'X- 
|ir«>HHioii  of  opinion  in  i«*;;ai<l  to  thr  trndt-i  im'ss  of  oni' 
«»fli»ft>  for  tin*  rrln'l  ownris.  No  inon-  atioinpts  w«M(* 
niaiih*  to  rcrovi'r  the  contrahainls  in  «atii|).  an<l  it  was 
well,  as  tli»-ri'  woiihj  liavr  li»-«'n  op»ii  wai-  <»ii  this 
(|ii<*stion. 

At  H  o'rjork  lln*  iiifantiv,  aiiillory  antl  cavaliy  of 
Ihinnuit's  division  wm*  in  lino,  tho  hn^io  soninlnl  the 
"forwanl"  ami,  with  hamis  jiiayin^  an<l  t!a;:s  llyin;:,  wo 
iiiair«-h«*4l  awav  towani   tho  south.     (»iii-  lonio  for   ti\o 

inilos  la,\  o\or  a  ;: I  t  ninpiko  innnin;:  ahm;.'  i  he  hi  nil's 

of  flu*  K«*iitnrky  riv«T.  tliosronoiy  \\as;:raini.  ilio  iroos 
Iwin^  tovommI  with  snow.  whi«h  ;;list«'nc(l  in  iho  sun- 
li|:ht  with  ila/./Jiii<^  hri;:htm*ss.  Knt  \\«*  soon  stinck  a 
iNNtfor  roa«l  iIii'oiim||  ;i  ihit.  ilonsoiy  wooth**!  rountry 
ofTorin;:  no  variot\  of  sroin*iy.  ami,  as  rxny  man  was 
fiirryiii^  from  forty  to  lifty  ponmis,  tin-  lomanroof  war 
lH*;;aii  to  he  loht  si^ht  of  in  tho  lahorious  task  of  march- 
in;;.  I'ow  honsos  w  oio  passotj.  an<l  I  ho  loiiiiiry  iMM-ano' 
of  a  ronj^loT  rharartor.  In  tho  afloiiiomi  wc  niarchod 
lhnMi;:h  a  Hmall  lo;;  hainlol  rallo«l  "Koiiuh  an*l  lo:oly" 
wliirii  Ufll  iloKorvoil  tin*  minio.  huth  on  a<-<-onnt  ol  tho 
cliiirartorof  tho  lMiihlin;:s  ami  tho  |M-o|»h..  a  fow  of  whom 
viMiluro<l  to  HJHiw  ihonisolvos  on  tho  siroci.s  or  at  tho 
winilowh  ami  «loors.  Wo  passoil  thron;;|i  La  wromoitnr;; 
towiinl  ni;;ht.  ami  ;:oin;:  fonr  milos  hoyontj  haltoii  ami 
HiMil  into  rsinip  li\  tho  roailsiilo  at  7  p.  m..  t  iiod  out  with 
lln*  ila>V  loil.  i'ori  nnaii'l>  tho  wa;:on  train  arrived 
HiMMi.  tho  li'i^tH  uon-  pill  hod  ami  tho  rations  cookod. 
AfliT  MupiMM-  ami  ronr«i«  tho  ramp  iiKKuinod  a  li\olirr 
apiHMirami-.  Imt  all  u.-ro  ;;lad  to  koop  noar  Ih.-  tiros,  for 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  39 

which  tlio  cliestnut  rail  fc^ices  furnished  ujood  uiatoriall. 
The  l^rij»a(le  had  marched  eighteen  miles,  and  iis  en- 
durance had  been  somewhat  tested  by  the  heavy  h»ads 
carried,  as  well  as  by  new  and  ill-fittins:,-  shoes,  and  th<> 
entire  chaiij;e  from  ail  that  we  had  been  accustomed  to 
at  home.  When  the  cami)  tires  had  burned  low  and  the 
last  story  had  been  told  by  those  choice  s])irits  whom.no 
fatiiiue  could  hnig  deju-ess  eacii  sou<j;ht  his  hard  couch 
and  restorinji'  sleej*. 

Uefore  daylight  on  the  27th  reveille  called  the  One 
Hundred  and  Fourth  to  another  day  of  toil  and  hard- 
ship. Tlnne  were  many  stiffened  limbs  and  maimed  feet 
in  the  regiment.  Some  also  had  been  attacked  with 
troubles  arising  from  change  of  diet  and  water,  and  the 
unnatural  strain  put  ui)on  tlienu  The  Surgeon  sent  a 
number  back  to  Frankfort. 

Having  tirst  brace<l  u])  Avith  coff'ee,  hardtack  and 
bacon,  the  march  was  resumed  at  half  past  eight.  The 
light  snow  on  the  ground  made  the  walking  difhcult, 
but  wf'  pressed  on  until  the  roads  or  "traces"  through 
the  woods  became  so  bad  that  frequent  halts  were  made 
to  fix  them  for  the  ])assage  (»f  the  trains.  The  country 
Avas  much  broken.  Now  and  then  a  small  clearing  with 
a  log  house  came  int(>  view,  with  the  inevitable  darky 
or  some  poor  white  trash,  all  looking  like  r<'lics  of  a  past 
age,  and  seemingly  in  harmony  with  the  wihl  natural 
surroundings.  Sometimes  our  route  lay  through  dense 
forests  of  chestnut  and  beech,  where,  during  the  halts, 
an  abundant  harvest  of  nuts  was  gathered,  but  the  coun- 
try seemed  to  be  mostly  covere<l  with  scrub  oak  and 
brush.  After  thus  toiling  on  all  day  a  halt  was  ma<le 
at  night  near  Chaplintown,  the  distance  traveled  being 
only  eight  miles,  pretty  good  evidence  of  the  difticul- 
ties  in  the  wa}'. 

Our  route  on  the  28th  was  over  a  bndven  and  hilly 
country  until  late  in  the  afternoon,  Avlien  there  was 
some  improvement.  Frequent  halts  were  made  to  rest. 
We  camped  at  night  in  a  lovely  beech  grove  on  a  hill- 
side, where,  notwithstanding  great  weariness,  the 
woodland  scenery  was  so  fine  as  to  attract  our  atten- 


40  THE  ONE  Hl'NDHED   AND   FOl'HTH 

litAi.  Tin*  (lav's  iiianli  was  iiiinltrii  iiiilts.  (Jiiitr  a 
iiiiiiiIm'I-  wi'n*  shk,  lli«'  writer  anion;:  iIhmh.  ami  Siir- 
^i*«in  I >>«•!'  ha<l  Ills  liamls  full  oT  itaiifiiis. 

NNi*  sri  out  "Ml  lln'  'J'.Mli  ill  •:«Mi(|  >jtiriis  aii<l  n\t'i-  a 
IwlhT  roati  ItNiilin;;  l«»  Hanlsittw  n.  Tin*  rcuiimv  iiii- 
|iniv»'«l  as  \v«'  advaniMMl.  Om-  rations,  »'S|MMiallv  iimmI, 
wviy  ;;»Mlin;;  sln»ri.  AImmH  Walk  wi'  «ioss«'(|  Kollii);^ 
Fork,  a  small  siirain,  an<l  went  into  ramp  near  Hanls- 
lowii.  All  Wfir  fool  sort' ami  wrarv.  Afit-r  our  arrival 
nitions  of  frt'sli  lMM«f  wiTe  issm^l  to  tin-  li»'i;iim'nt,  a 
4|iiart('i'  lo  fairli  comiiany.  Our  a|i|MMii<'s  wen*  lavon- 
4MIS,  an<l  as  fast  as  tin*  Imm'T  roiiM  Im*  a])|)orl  ioiicd 
anion;;  I  he  messes  it  wasrooketj  ;ili*l  eaten  with  a  lelisll 
known  only  to  the  liiiii;rrv.  The  |ni\ile;:e  of  letiriii;; 
early  was  im|»ro\e«|  hy  most  of  the  men.  Ion  the  wiitei- 
aiml  soiiM'  others  ha<l  to  work  nearly  all  iii;:lii  on  tlio 
pay-rolls,  an  or<ler  ha\in;;  lieeii  issued  to  make  them 
out  at  oiire.  This  was  not  an  a^^rocahle  task  after  our 
Ion;;  iiianhes,  with  no  tables  exrept  tin*  liar<l-tark 
boxes,  no  li;:lits  but  ramlles,  ami  knapsarks  for%;eats. 

We  resiimetl  the  luairli  eaily  oil  the  .".(Mil,  ;;la<l  to 
Icavi*  the  rust,\  looking;  ohi  town  an<l  its  hai-*l  looking; 
]KM»p|e.  Tin*  line  of  niarrh  lay  throu;:li  a  biok<'ii,  hilly 
4onniry  of  little  interest.  \\  «•  passed  the  ruins  of  se\ - 
4Tal  houses  be|on;;in;;  to  I'liiou  men,  wliiili  had  been 
burned  by  the  rebels.  An  interest  in;;  «'vent  orrurrrd 
in  ;;oin;;  I  hroii;^h  La  Kiiet'ounty.  Near  t  he  ant  i<|uated 
hamlet  of  llod;;en\ille  we  saw  the  site  of  i  he  hiimbh* 
cabin  where  Abraham  IJiiroln  was  bom.  It  was  on  a 
lillb*  kiioll,  and  near  b\  were  some  old  pear,  peach, 
and  apple  irtH's.  We  did  iioi  iIhii  realize  the  ;;ri*at- 
iu»HH  of  the  prophet  and  leader  InMe  raised  u|)  to  sav«' 
<iiir  Nation  and  free  a  race,  or  every  i  lee  would  have 
Imm'Ii  «arrie<l  away  as  relies  even  to  the  roots,  Pass- 
in;;  ihroii;;|i  a  place  called  New  Haven,  wf  bivouacked 
jiiHi  iM'Vond  ill  a  ^:riiKK  field,  w  hirh  w  ill  be  remeinbered 
iis  the  steiie  of  a  Very  lively  time  in  li;;htin;;  tire,  it 
iia\iii;;  <au;;hl  in  the  ^rass.  Iiiii  the  boys  had  seen 
prairie  iir<>s  before  and  knew  how  to  deal  with  it.  s(» 
thill    i'<'i    Miiich  daiiiaL"'  ^^  •*"  'l-'H'-      Thev  took  tare  lo 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS    VOLUNTEERS.  41 

get  the  aiiimiiiiitioii  out  of  the  way,  not  proposiiii;  to 
be  killed  in  any  such  inj;lorious  niannoi-.  The  Jay's 
march  was  nineteen  miles. 

Early  on  the  31st  the  columns  wcr*,'  set  in  motion 
and  kept  going  all  day  through  the  same  dreary  coun- 
try, with  nothing  to  excite  inteivst  hut  ilic  problem  as  to 
when  we  would  halt  for  the  night.  Continuous  march- 
ing, much  of  the  time  on  half  rations,  had  reduced  a 
number  to  the  point  of  giving  out  entirely.  'J'herefore, 
the  order  to  camp  was  hailed  with  joy  by  all.  liut 
knowledge  that  we  were  now  ai)])roa(hing  nearer  the 
scenes  of  more  interesting  events  than  had  been  viewed 
before,  was  encouraging  to  us. 

The  line  of  march  on  Saturday,  November  1st,  lay 
near  the  Louisville  «fc  Nashville  Kailroad,  and  even  the 
sight  of  this  Avas  cc^mforting.  Our  progress  was  slow 
and  painful,  and  after  marching  twelve  miles  the 
Brigade  went  into  camp  at  Bacon  Creek,  near  the  sta- 
tion of  the  same  name.  The  weather  was  remarkably 
warm  and,  all  being  weary  and  dirty,  the  creek  was 
soon  filled  with  bathers,  strange  as  it  ma}-  seem  at 
so  late  a  period  of  the  season.  It  was  Saturday  night. 
To  those  at  home  enjoying  the  blessings  of  peace  and 
plenty  it  brings  rest  and  a  respite  from  labor,  the  com- 
ing Sabbath  and  its  privileges,  so  necessary  to  body 
and  soul,  but  wnth  the  soldier  it  is  diiferent,  and  Sun- 
day is  almost  sure  to  be  a  day  of  toil  or  danger. 
Anticipating  the  morrow  our  camp  fires  burned  low 
early. 

As  anticipated,  Sunday,  the  2d,  was  ushered  in  by 
an  early  start,  after  about  sixty  men  of  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth  had  been  examined  by  the  Surgeon, 
and,  being  found  unable  to  march,  A\-ere  left  at  Bacon 
Station  to  come  on  by  rail  to  B<>\vling  Oreen.  The 
delusive  hope  of  an  early  halt  caused  the  command  to 
step  off  with  alacrity  and  the  twelve  miles  to  Mum- 
fordsville  was  traversed  by  noon. 

The  Brigade  went  into  camp  on  the  battle-field,  and 
the  w^agons  coining  up  were  partly  unloaded  and  cott'ee 
was  being  made  when  Colonel  Moore  received  an  order 


THK  ONE  Hl'NDRED  AND  FOURTH 

lo  iiiarrli   ill  twniiv   iiiiiiiit<*s.      \\  hat   a   fall   was  ilicrc^ 
ill  tlu*  (licriiioiiicli'r  <if  uiir  hupcs! 

Afirr  liiistv  :iii<l  half  tiiiisliiMl  meals  (lie  iiiar<  li  was 
I'-sniiicd.  lull  uilli  It'SK  uilliii;:  sti-ps  than  in  the  iiioin- 
iii;j.  (Ml  tin*  way  over  the  tiehl  shot  and  shell  were 
•'•iMI,    also    tin*    New    linule    ;ifil\es    of    oVef    one    lniIMlfe<l 

•hliers    who    ha«l    fought    their    last    hat  tie   only    six 

\\e«*ks    hefore.      'rhen*    Were    linineloiis  e\  itlein  t'S   of  t  lu» 
;:allani  tlefi-iise  made  hy  Tolonel  \\  ihlei-  hefoie  he  sur- 

remleled. 

.MiimfoidNX  ille  jiroveij  to  he  a  St  la^i^iliii;:  villaj^e 
wifhoiit  atlrartiofi  exre|»t  as  the  loratioii  «»f  the  le<ent 
hat  tie.  The  <  ill  "en  |{i\ei-  tlou  s  t  lifttn^h  it  ami  had  heeii 
spaniieil  hy  a  line  iron  railroad  hiid;:e.  w  hirh  only  par- 
tiallx    ••sra|MM|    dest  !*Urt  ion    h\     the    lehels.      ('rossill^joll 

a  |Miiiioon  hrid;:e  laid  down  hy  the  I'ioneei-  I'orps,  we 
asreiided  the  hlnlTs  and  pnrsued  a  sontheily  etmrs*' 
oNer  roii^^h  loads  nntil  daiU,  when  a  hall  was  made  for 
the  iii;;ht  in  a  rleaied  tiehl.  The  loni^  mareh  with  half 
rations  for  sii|»per  east  a  shade  of  depression  o\er  the 
•  amp.  Hni,  to  rompensate  in  a  measnie  foi-  jtrevions 
irouhles.  the  mail  for  the  One  llnmlred  and  Fonrth 
arri\ed  in  tin-  e\enin;r.  and  dilTnseil  joy  anion*;  a  laij;«* 
niimher.  Weariness  wjis  lt»r;:<ilten  in  the  pleasnre  of 
heariii*;  from  friends  at  ht»me.  Those  who  did  not 
n-reive  a  letter  had  the  synijiathy  of  the  rest.  It  may 
he  sate|_\  asserted  that  ouf  earthen  roMehes  seemed 
softer  and  oiir  aehes  and  hrnises  less  ttainful.  \\ f 
also  learned  here  the  pleasing  news  that  the  Army  of 
the  Ohio  now  had  a  iww  lommainlei-  tJem-ral  W.  S. 
Koseiians.  who  had  eonie  to  ns  with  a  hi^li  reputation 
for  military  ahiliiy  hy  virtue  of  many  sn«  cesses  in  the 
li»dd.  The  order  iiiakin;:  the  rhan;:e  was  dated  <  ><  ioIm  r 
L'llh.  and  went  into  efTert  ( >etoher  :?tM  h.  The  territory 
within  (ieiieral  |{«iNe(  rails'  jiirisdiel  ion  was  s^tyled  the 
"hepariiiieiii  of  the  ( "umherhi  lid."  and  the  tit  le  "Army 
"f  ihe  (  Hiio"  was  rhaii^ed  to  "i-'oiiiieeiiih  Army  <  '<trps.*' 
The  ilivisioii  iiianhed  of]"  early  on  the  mornin;:  of 
the.'hl  with  li}.'hier  hearts  and  nioie  elastir  steps.  The 
soldier     joVeH     rhail^^e,     iiew      seeiies     aild     e\(  i t enielM  s. 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  43- 

besides  the  fame  of  General  Kosecians  had  preceded 
him,  and  all  believed  that  the  hei-o  who  had  been  so 
siiceessful  in  Mississip]>i  woidd  lead  us  to  victory. 
Durinj^  the  day  we  passed  by  Horse  Cave,  a  station  on 
the  Louisville  «S:  Nashville  road.  Mammoth  Cave  was 
under  us  and  the  (Mitram-o  but  eiuht  miles  distant. 
This  section  had  been  the  favorite  r(^s(U-t  of  i;uerrillas,. 
the  inhabitants  bein<>-  almost  wholly  rebels.  It  was 
a  God-forsaken,  wild  country.  After  j;oinj;"  ei<;htee« 
miles  we  camped  for  The  niy,iir  within  a  sluut  march 
from  Bowding  Green. 

At  9  o'clock  on  November  4th,  the  command  a<;ain 
set  out  and  in  high  spirits,  as  we  were  now  drawing 
near  our  objective,  Avhere  we  expected  to  remain  for 
some  time.  But  we  found  the  roads  l)iocked  by  numer- 
ous wagon  trains  and  other  troo]>s  ahead  of  us.  Many 
halts  were  made,  and  it  was  sundown  before  we  arrived 
at  the  Big  Barren  river,  which  runs  through  Bowling 
Green.  We  crossed  this  on  a  pontoon  and  marched 
through  the  town,  supposing  that  our  cau4»ing  place 
could  not  be  far  off.  It  turned  out  that  we  labored 
under  a  mistake,  for  we  kept  on  three  miles  further, 
until  the  town  had  disap])eared  from  view.  Then,  when 
every  one  was  getting  mad  and  many  swearing  like 
troopers,  we  halted  and  bivouacked  in  a  corn  field  on 
very  stony  ground.  It  was  late  when  our  tents  arrived 
and  were  put  up.  AVe  had  been  on  half  rations  for 
several  days.  The  whole  comuunid  had  borne  up  well, 
but  were  very  tired  to-night.  At  a  later  hour,  and 
after  coffee  and  rations,  matters  around  the  camp 
assumed  a  more  cheerful  aspect.  AVe  had  accom- 
plished since  leaving  Frankfort  a  journey  of  IfiO  nnles. 

The  5th  of  November  was  itasscd  in  camp,  and  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  im])roved  the  time  in  rest- 
ing, repairing  damages  to  limbs  and  clothing,  and  in 
going  on  excursions,  when  a  pass  could  be  obtained, 
to  town  and  the  many  interesting  ]»oints  aroun<l  Rowl- 
ing Green.  Our  cam])  was  on  Lost  Kiv<'r,  an  allluent 
of  the  Big  Barren.  Within  a  few  rods  was  Lost  Cave, 
where  the  river  disappears  and  does  not  flow  above 


4(  THE  ONE  Hl.'NDKED  AND  FOURTH 

Kniiul   ji^jaiii.      l*r«»l»al»l>    «*\<'r\    ••nc   in   iln-   |{f;^iiii(nl 

\|i|MnMl    this    ;;ii*at    natural    ruriosiiv    ami    ln<»n;:lii 

.iwav    many    ln-auiifnl   sialariiirs   found   on    tlu-   i«»of. 

This  >\  Intif  MTiion  of  iln*  «onni  i\v  is  lioin-yconihrd  w  itli 

i\fs.  alf  in  linii'sNtnt-  formal  ions. 

NoVfUibiT  (iili  Nvas  si;:naliy.«M|  l>y  oiii-  iciuoval  lo 
aiMMht'i*  Iofali<ni.  onr  mil«*  disiani.  in  a  t.-dai-  ;:ro\c, 
w  Inn*  \v«'  urn*  anno\«*d  Irss  hv  dill  and  dnsi  llian  al 
L«M  ( 'av«*.  l-^xploiai  ions  roni  inn«*d  lo  In*  i  In-  diMTsion 
of  sonn*  w  Ih'Ii  olT  duly;  oiImts  «Mrnpi»M|  tin-  linn*  in 
writ  in;;  1«'II«ts  and  n-siin;:.  I'nII  raiicuis  wit**  issued 
a;:ain.  W'v  nTi'ivrd  letlrrs  and  paiM-rs  fnun  lionic, 
wliit-h  made  tin-  posimasirr  of  ili«-  nnr  Ihindied  and 
I'ourili  a   \«*iy  |>opnlar  man. 

i 'oloind  Mooie.  al  Ids  own  i<  (|Ufsi,  licin^  sup<*r- 
>«'d«'d  in  tin*  rommand  of  iln-  'riiiiiynini  li  I>i-i;^adt*  l»y 
<'o|oni-l  .loscpli  K.  Sroii.  lit  ilii-  Nim'tfiMiili  Illinois, 
ri'inrm-d  lo  ilicnnc  llunili-*-(l  and  l-'ourili. 

Tin*  rvrni  of  iln*  Till  was  iln*  n'vi«*w  of  Ihimoni's 
iMvisioii  by  <J«*m*ral  Kos<*(ians.  'J'liis  was  mir  liisi 
\  ifu  of  iln*  disi  iniiuislicd  (  H'm*ralin-<  Miicf.  A«tom- 
|ianifd  l»y  a  lai-^f  and  lu-illiant  sialT.  In*  rod**  swiflly 
down  iln*  Ion;;  liin*s  of  l(ii;:ad«*s  and  r«*;;inn*nis,  wliicli 
|U'«'s«*ni«*d  anus  as  In*  |)ass«*d.  Kidin^  up  to  iln*  <  Mn* 
llnndn-d  and  l-'ouilli  In*  hailed,  mad«*  a  (liiiral  sni- 
v«*y  of  I  III*  K«*;;inn*nl  and  addressed  it  in  tin*  fojjowin;; 
\\«iids,  wliirli  Wfif  laUfii  down  !>>  ili«'  w  liter  \iil»aiim 
I  literaiiin : 

**<  Mliri-rs  and  ni«-n:  I  w  i>li  i"  lh^'-  \>>>i  a  liiile 
adNire.  Wln-n  you  inrei  |i|c  fUt-niN  liic  low.  Nc\ci* 
luiMi  _\onr  harks  lo  ihi*  fo»'  rowards  art*  suii-  lo  Im' 
hIioi.  Look  yoiif  anla;:oiM>»i  in  tin*  i\f,  and  li.'  will 
not  dai<*  tn  hhoot   y«»u.'" 

Till*  <M*in*ral  lln*ii  iod«*  a\\a.\.  Ii-a\ni;:  wiiii  u^  ilir 
impi-fssion  of  his  ;:i-«*aiin-ss  and  that  wi*  had  hmi 
^i«*aily  lionoi'«*d  l»y  his  pn*s«'nr«*.  Aft**!*  i«'\  i»'u  tin* 
On«*  lluinli'i*d  ami  l-'ourth  i'«*tui'm*d  to  ramp  ami  spcr- 
iilaltMJ  about  out'  futun*  moMMuriiis,  at  it  was  known 
ihat  all  of  tin*  iiooph  wrir  pushin;;  for  Nashvilff*. 

Hattalioii  drill  oi«  u|ti<*d  a  ;;ood  poriimi  of  ihc  tirni> 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  45 

on  tlie  8th  and  0th,  but  in  tlio  afternoon  of  the  land- 
date  or(Un'S  were  roecivod  from  arniv  lu'adqiiartors 
(h'taehing  the  Thirty-ninth  P.ri«;a(h'  from  Duniont's 
Division,  and  directinjjj  Colonel  Seott  to  be  ready  to 
inarch  on  the  10th  to  Glasgow,  Ky.  As  General  Sill's 
Division  had  jnst  left  that  place  our  movement  was 
ordered  for  the  purpose  of  replacinj;  his  forces,  and 
in  conformity  with  the  general  line  of  advance  toward 
Nashville,  at  the  same  time  protecting  our  extreme 
left  and  Avatching  the  fords  of  the  Cumberland  river 
for  any  attempts  of  the  enein^'  to  cross. 


ruAPTKi:  \  I. 

Mnn-h  to  «;ia»»K«»w  — •  Nn  lJ«>b'— Arrival  al  TompkluHvllli'— Olias- 
InK  <Ju»Trllhii»— Atlaok  on  th«'  fMckfli*— Tliivali-nlnK  Dt-mon- 
Rlratlon  l»y  H«'l»^l  t'uvi»lr>— HuHty  Kxlt  arnl  N'IkIiI  Murch  — 
Ouowt'  t'r«H"k  Valley— ThankHKlvIng  CVIebrattMl— Arrival  at 
HartMvllU — t^•l<•ni•l  Moon-  AnHumeB  Command— The  Situation 
and    Tr<">|.»4  — rori<*niH  of  UanK*^r. 


TIh'  inlvjuuf  ttf  iIm«  Tliii-ty-iiini  h  l»iii:;i«lf  will  Im- 
iiiiii-f  rh'jirly  uinlrrstoiMl  li\  liii«-il\  ic\  ii-w  in;^  i  In-  sit  ii- 
;ii  iitii  with  I'ffrmir*'  lo  i  In-  (  in  ire  li«'ltl  ciiihrinctl  w  il  liiii 
tile  liiH's  of  iip«'!;it  imi  t»f  <  it'iMMM  I  Kos«'ri;ms*  ;irm\. 

Ili>  ln-;nl»|ii;irl»ls  liii*l  Imm-ii  est  al»lisli»M|  ul  N;isli- 
\illi-  1)11  ili«>  '.Mil.  <  ifiM-ral  Tliuiiiiis,  ruiiiniiiiiiliii;:  tlic 
«  i-iiit-r  roii.MJsl  iii;i  of  tin-  (li\isioiis  <»f  littsscaii,  Nf;^- 
l»\.  hiiiiiniii.  I'ly  iiiHl  PaliiMT,  was  at  (iailatiii,  Tcii- 
iifs.siM',  from  \vli«*iiri'  Im'  tjirrctrd  i»|M'rai  i<»iis  aiitl  f«'|»airs 
«>ii  iIm*  raili'ttail  in  i.ouis\i|Jr,  tliih  liin*  luiim  tin-  only 
way  of  «-oiiiiiiiiiiirat  ioii  li\  rail  with  thr  rrar.  (iriinal 
ihoiiias  so  <lis|M»s«'»l  of  his  irot»ps  as  to  ^iiai<l  this  roatl. 
<  it'iMM'als  Mi-<  'ooU  a  IK  I  <  'lit  t«'ii<l*'ii.  «-oiiiiiiaii<liii^,  rc^lMM-t- 
ivrly,  Ihf  i-i;;hl  aii*l  h'ft  wiii;:s,  wrn*  slowly  <'oiivt'ii;iiii:: 
oil  Nashvilh*  l»y  •iilTciriit  ioiit«*s. 

Tin*  iiiti'iit  ion  of  loMU'ial  Hiau;:  ha<l  not  iImmi  (h'V«*l- 
ojmmI,  ImiI    his  tiodps  wri)'  known   to  In-  ronrciil  lat  in^ 
al  Miirfi'r«*slioio.     I  lis  tavaliy.  lai  ^«'ly  sM|Mi  i.tr  ill  mini 
Imts  to  that  of  4!<-ii<*ral   Kosmans,  luMaint'  \oiy  ariiNc 
at   this  tiiiM-  in  o|M-i'ai  ions  a;:aiiist  oiir  liii<-  of  roniiiiii 
nidation  with  tin-  it-ar  aiitl  onr  thinks,  ih-mt  n«';;h'rt in;^; 
III  o|i|iorl  unity  to  ijrst  roy  or  rapt  iir«'  siijiply  i  rains  ami 
-iiinll    oiiilyiii;;    ilrtarhiiH-iit s.      In    acronlaiiri'.    then' 
lorr,  with  tin-  ^••iii'ial  polity  of  a«l\aiiri>  j;;ovi'inin^  all 
of  III*'  ti'oopH,  and  piiisnant  to  ihi>  ordrr  iniMitionrd  at 
t  Im' rIoMf  of  till*  last  rhaplrr,  i  Im*  Thirty  nini  h  |{ii;;a<h', 
«  ofn  posed.  iM'sidrs  I  III'  <  Mm  •  1 1  nndifti  and  I'<»iirni,  itf  t  In* 
One  Ihiiidi-rd  and  Sixth  and  nn<-  lliiniln-d  and   iOiuih 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  47 

Ohio  and  a  (letaclniiont  of  the  Second  rndijiiia  Cav- 
alry, and  conmiaiided  by  (;oh)nel  Scott,  broke  camp 
at  noon  on  the  10th  of  November  and  be^an  the  march. 
Passing  thronj^h  Bowling  (ireen  the  brigade  marched 
five  miles  and  bivonacked  for  the  night  in  a  grove  by 
the  roadside.  All  were  in  good  spirits  and  Imd  fnlly 
recovered  from  the  effects  of  the"  long  tramp  froni 
Frankfort.  In  the  evening  the  camp  darkies  gave  an 
impromptu  eutcM-tainment  of  songs,  hoe-down  dances, 
and  a  butting  exhibition  with  their  heads,  in  which 
the  amount  of  pounding  they  endured  was  aston- 
ishing. 

We  again  set  out  early  on  the  11th,  and  soon  turned 
Into  a  poor  road  through  a  rough,  hilly  conntrv.  The 
marching  becauK^  fatiguing,  and  after  toiling  on  all 
day,  and  only  making  fourteen  miles,  the  Brigade  went 
into  camp. 

Starting  early  on  the  12th  we  pursncMl  a  rough 
country  road,  which  had  to  be  rei)aire(l  often.  The 
country  was  hilly  and  densely  wood(Ml,  offering  much 
attractive  scenery.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  held 
the  advance,  and  at  noon  we  entered  (llasgow  after 
a  march  of  thirteen  miles.  From  the  name  we  expected 
to  see  a  place  of  some  impoi-tance,  but  were  'disaj)- 
pointed.  Many  of  the  buildings,  in  fact  most  of  them, 
had  an  anticjue  ai^pearance,  as  if  they  might  have  come 
from  the  old  Scotch  city,  and  the  majority  were  built 
of  logs.  Their  occupants  were  in  keeping  with  all  else 
in  this  out-of-the-way  village,  even  in  color — except 
the  negroes  resembling  the  yellowish  clay  soil  on  which 
they  grew  and  apparently  thrived,  notwithstanding 
the  tell-tale  traces  of  whisky  and  tobacco,  both,  bv 
the  way,  leading  products  of  this  part  of  Southern 
Kentucky.  Marching  through  the  one  main  street  the 
Brigade  went  into  camp  at  the  south  end  on  a  hill- 
side, at  the  foot  of  which  flowed  a  clear  beautiful 
creek.  Our  marches  thus  far  had  been  (hdiberate  and 
Colonel  Scott  had  the  credit  of  knowing  how  to  "inarch 
men"  and  take  care  of  tln^r  bodies  and  interests  Gen- 
erally. *^ 


THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

\\  «•  iriiiaiiUMl  at  (ilah;;MN\  iwo  Wavs.  rn;ia^»il  in  llie 
iiKiial  ramp  diilifK,  aiul  bftwtfii  liiiifs  i*xpl«»iiii^^  tin* 
low  II.  lalkiii^  with  tin*  |m'o|.N',  and  tltdii;;  si»iin*  iiatliii'X 
ai  I  In-  small  Nl«»n's  i«i  Jn-Ip  •ml  «nir  rali«>ns.  rcisiin- 
iiHUis  aii<l  mils  \iVi-\\  altiiinlanllv  anniinl  tin-  pla««'  ami 
w.-n-  -alluTiMl  liy  all  who  had  a  lasu-  for  such  luxuries. 

i'lirsiiaiit   to  ordcrH  rei-eivinl   by  <Vd«nitd  Sf«>lt   tin* 
Ilii^adf  h'ft  <;ias;:ow  oii  Sal  unlay,  tin*  llih.     \N  «•  at 
out  «•  tMiirn-d   a   wiidrr  and    louj^hrr  ciuintiy   iliaii    \\«* 
had   KtMMi   hrfon-.   winir   hills  and    vailh*ys   followed    in 
rapid    sint«'ssi«»ii.    and    ihr    roails    wi-n*    In    iIh*    woist 
p«issildi'  4>rd«M-,    i»'i|uiiin;r   fn^iucnt    halls   lu    li\    ihtiii 
and   lo  hrlp  ill*-  inuhs  and  wa;:ons  ov»t  n»u;;h  places. 
I'he    liri'sonie    iuar«li    was    <  oniph'ifd  at    tiark    l>y  our 
sudd<*ii    ilfhoin  hiiie    fi<>ni    tin*    woods    inlu    a    rharin^ 
diinlv  outliin-d  l»y  tin-  tall  forests  around  ii.  in  which 
was  «lisccriiildc  tin-  lo;i  hainh-i   enjoying  lln-  cii|th(Hii 
oils  name  of  "No   jtoh."      Noi    Immii;:   jtartitular  aitout 
iiaim's,  wf  passed  t  hrou;:h  and  w  cin  inio  camjt  to  si  udy 
th<*  flyiiioh»;;y  of  iIm-  word  l>>    iln*  warmth  of  our  tiivs 
ill  the  evening:.      In   tin-  niornin;:,   which   was  Sunday, 
we  were  ^iiatilied  to  lind  the  weather  warm  and  pleas- 
iiiil.      .\   casual   survey  of  the  place  l(rt»u;:ht    to   view 
ahoiil  twi'iity  lo;;  houses  in  ;iraduated  sta^^es  of  decay. 
The  few   inhahilaiits  were  <»f  the  type  coinniou  to  these 
iemot«'   and    wild    sections   of     Kentucky,   showing:    in 
their  faces   the   fearful   t'flecis  of  (heap  corn   whisky, 
«»r  ".Mouiilaiiii  dew,"  of  i;;iioraiice  and  pov«*rty.     There 
was  whisky  in  e\erN   house.     Sherman  Lelaml.  of  Com- 
pany \>,  clerk  to  the  Adjutant,  who  possessed  a  judicial 
mimi   and    much    taste   for   r«'search,    inier\iewed     liie 
"oldest    citi/.eii"   as   to   the  ori^^in   and    history    of   iln- 
t«Tiii  "No  Hob,"  and  siiciiimIimI  in  extracting  fmni  liini 
the  following:  explanation:     'I'he  tow  n  was  once  know  n 
ax  "I'lal    lleiid"      reason  therefor  unknown  ;  but  once 
on  a  time  a  man  mimed   Koberi    was  lost    in   ihe  adja- 
riMit    foreMlK.  and   a    st-rchiii;;    parly,   after   a    fruitless 
wanb.  met   by  prevituiH  a^ireennMit  at   Flat    Head,  and 
reporteij  "No  Ibd»  found."  and  tlnr<afie|-  ji   wms  laili-d 
bv    the   ureHent    liaille. 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS. 


49 


•    ■^'y.'Ji^.*^?  ''^''''^  '^  "^•'■''  ^''  'l<'<l"<o<l  that  the  cxpres- 
sion  "Whats  in  a  nanu-  has  bc>en  often  used   unre- 
fleetively.     A\  itlnmt  citing    a    tl.(n,san,l   instances  iu 
proof  the  reader  will  notice  h<»Nv  direetlv  an<l  tiltin-lv 
our  soldiers  and  the  untutored,  but  honest,  iKM.nk^  we 
were  among,  always  arrived  at  just  conclusions  in  the 
simplest  way  and  acted  accordinolj-.     Having  rescued 
this  remote  hamlet  from  oblivion  bv  the  unsolicited 
honor  ot  Its  presence,  the  Thirty-ninth  Rrioa<le  set  out 
again  to  perform  another  Sabbath  ,hiv\s  journey   and 
Avas  soon  struggling  along  through  the  dense  forests 
over   execrable    roads,      liut,    while   delayed    by   the 
numerous    obstacles  in  the  way,  we  did  not  fliil  to 
appreciate  the  grand  and  solemn  bc^autv  of  the  vast 
solitudes  of  forest,  of  tlu^  rocky  glens  and  clear  run- 
ning streams  that  lay  along  our  pathwav.     As  night 
approached  the  sky  became  overcast  with  clouds  and 
a  drizzling  ram  set  in,  increasing  our  anxietv  to  reach 
loiupkmsville,  which  we  did  by  <lark,  haviui  niaiV-he.l 
only  thirteen  miles  since  morning. 

Heing  now  iu  a  section  lillecl  with  rebel  ,itiz<Mis 
and  omi  subject  to  sudden  forays  fi-oui  the  cmumuv's 
c'ayalry,  Colonel  Scott  selected  a  camp  suited  for 
defense  on  an  elevated  part  of  the  town,  and  the  tents 
were  spcvdily  pitched.  The  short  rations  and  the  .-..f- 
fee  were  heartily  relished  after  the  labcuvd  nmrcl,  of 
the  day.  Having  dried  their  wet  clothino-  most  of  the 
men  were  glad  to  slc^ep.  Thos(^  scMit  out  on  ^uard  and 
pic-kc^t  duty  did  not  have  a  pheasant  task  ou  this  stormy 
nigiit.  oiwxiiij 

The  time  up  to  the  20th  was  cmiployed  in  drilliu.- 
and  camp  routine,  and  much  eidinMied'by  the  known 
exposure  of  the  Brigade  to  attack,  and  bv  tiie  daily 
rumors  of  intendcMl  forays.  Most  of  the  people  hail 
Klentified  themselves  with  the  rebels,  eithractivcly 
<;r  as  spies  and  abettors,  in  which  position  they  coulil 
do  us  the  most  damage.  .>   "huo 

.h   1 ''f/'.',"  ^^^^-^^^^'""l'='<l  been  Acting  Provost  Mar- 
shal at  (rlasgow,  and  held  the  same  position  in  Tomp- 


•0  THK  ONE  UrNDRED  AND  FOURTH. 

kiiiKvillc,  wJHTr,  Willi  Li«'iii«'iiaiii  Tivsruii.  ili<y  loiiiid 
tiieir  liiiu*  fully  omipitMl  in  jirr»*stiii;i  and  takin;;  care 
of  iM'lifl  (iii/fiis  and  s|»irs.  !!»•  alsn  disrdxcitd  a  iiuiii- 
l>i*r  of  «;iM»d  I'nitin  iii«-n  and  faiiiilirs. 

(in«Trilla  liands  in  iln*  ininicdiatr  viciniiv  wtTi* 
acli\<*,  and  vwv  <»n  tin*  waii-li  in  ainhnsli  t«>  sliotit  down 
<Mir  |ii<kfts  and  an.v  t li«»n;;|j|l«'ss  s«ddi»'r  \vln>  nii«;ht 
wandiT  outside  tli<*  IN'dtM'al  liut-s.  <  )n<- < 'ajitain  liaiu- 
illon  «-«iinniandrd  these  fl-eeliniitels,  and  Ue|il  tlie  leltel 
j^eiM'i-als  south  «tf  the  ( 'uniheilaiid  fnllv  iiushd  in 
rej;anl  lo  our  inoveinents. 

In  (-onse(|uen<-e  of  theii-  ImhlneNs  haviii;:  already 
dashtMl  suddeidv  ihiou^h  the  luiiskiits  of  the  town, 
hut  without  doin;:  or  sulTeiin;:  daina;:e,  ra|»!ain  holy, 
with  Company  K,  was  on  the  eveiiin;;  of  ilie  LMMh 
detailed  to  attempt  t  heir  t  apt  ure  m-  desi  ru«-t  ion.  Also, 
other  si;;ns  and  runioi-s  indiraiin<::  an  attack  on  the 
town,  the  entire  llri^ade  was  oi-dei-ed  into  line  and 
remained  thus  all  iM;rht.  Startin;;  at  nine  |i.  in.  with 
the  <V>inpany  and  a  ^nide,  t'apiain  hiii\  marched  to 
the  rel)»'l  reiide/vnus.  tive  or  six  miles  distant.  The 
writer  will  m*M*r  forget  the  enthusiasm  ami  ftuid 
(•X|NM'tation  we  all  ftdt,  as  we  stumldeil  alon^  in  the 
darkness  over  hill  and  dale  in  silence.  The  ;j:uns  ami 
sixty  i*i>nmls  were  ready  for  instant  use.  At  last  the 
company  was  so  disposed  as  to  rush  in  and  surrouml 
the  rebel  caiup,  wliieh  w  as  situated  near  a  house  in  a 
little  valley.  The  lim*s  <»f  circumvallalion  slowly 
<-|osed  in.  Iiiit  to  our  surprise  no  hostile  i  halleii^e 
awoke  the  in;:ht  echoes  the  foe  had  lleill  Itui  the 
still  hri;;lit  camp  tires  ami  scattered  piles  t»f  c«u-n  were 
there  in  evidence.  Our  cha«::rin  was  ^reat,  and  after 
hiterviewin^j  the  citiy.eii  in  the  house,  who  knew  noih 
in^  and  claimeil  to  lie  a  I'ldonist,  the  ronimand 
nnii'ched  liai  k  ti»  camp,  where  it  arrived  at  da\lireak. 
just  as  tin*  rest  of  the  ltri;:ade  was  hreakin;:  ranks 
after  its  niyht   vi;:il. 

Niiiliiii;;  of  an  excilin;:  <  haracier  disinrlMd  the 
cam|i  dnriii;:   the  day   or  iM;:lit    of   ihe  'Jisi.       ('<>l<inel 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  M 

Scott  doubled  the  pickets  and  guards,  and  every  iiuiii 
took  extra  care  to  have  his  nuisket  and  cartridge  box 
handy  in  case  of  a  night  attack. 

The  events  of  Saturday,  the  22d,  proved  to  be  the 
most  interesting  and  important  of  any  yet  experienced. 
Early  in  the  day  the  scouts  and  pickets  re])orled  that 
rebel  cavalry  were  hovering  around,  api>arently  in 
force,  in  consequence  of  which  Colonel  Scott  ordered 
the  command  to  remain  closely  in  quarters  ready  to 
respond  to  the  "long  roll"  at  a  nioinent's  notic<\  In 
the  latter  part  of  the  afternoon  a  detachment  of  the 
One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Ohio,  doing  picket  duty,  was 
suddenly  attacked,  one  man  killed,  one  mortally 
wounded,  and  six  captured,  but  the  enemy  advanced 
no  further.  Aroused  by  the  firing  and  the  long  roll, 
the  Brigade  immediately  formed  in  line  of  battle,  where 
it  remained  until  one  o'clock  Sunday  morning,  at  which 
hour  the  scouts  returned  and  reported  the  rebels 
encamped  three  miles  from  the  town.  Colonel  Scott 
at  once  sent  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourtii  in  pursuit. 
The  Regiment  started,  but  owing  to  the  darkness  and 
rough  roads  or  paths,  marched  slowly.  The  rebel  camp 
was  surrounded  and  closed  in  upon,  but  the  enemy 
had  again  fled,  warned,  no  doubt,  by  friends.  Much 
chagrined,  we  retraced  our  steps  to  Tompkinsville, 
arriving  early  in  the  morning. 

We  were  permitted  to  pass  Sunday  in  quiet,  but 
vigilance  was  not  relaxed.  ^lail  arrived  from  Bowling 
Green,  and  news  of  the  death  at  that  place  of  Bufus 
E.  C.  Hurin,  of  Company'  D.  The  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  was  further  saddened  by  the  death  here  in  our 
midst  of  Stephen  AA'alters,  of  Company  E,  who  died  this 
morning  of  disease.  Hi  tlie  afternoon  of  to-day  he  was 
buried  with  military  honors  in  a  soldier's  grave.  To 
die  in  battle  may  be  regarded  without  emotion,  and 
is  expected,  but  to  waste  away  with  slow  disease  and 
die  in  a  hostile  land,  far  from  home  and  friends,  is 
inexpressibly  sad.  These  were  among  the  first  deaths 
that  had  occurred  in  the  One  Hundred  au<l  Fourth. 


12  THK  ONE  HUNDUED  AND  FOURTH 

N..(\viilistainlinn  lli«-  fart  thai  iIm-  Thirix  iiimli 
Hri^atU-  wuk  not  exritiMl  by  alarms  on  tin-  l!:M,  rnoujih 
ha<l  iH'fii  tIrv.-loiKMl  to  till  all  with  lii^cli  fXptM-tation 
of  still  nion-  iiii|Miriaiit  .-Vi-nts.  It  htM-anH'  known  to 
a  f«*w  «>n  Moil. lay  that  Colom-l  S«i.tt  lia«l  r«M«MVtHl 
orilt*rs  on  Siunlay  t'V«*nin;;  to  niiiivh  at  on«  «•.  An«l  ho 
>voul«l  hav«'  ilom*  ko,  but  lu^HitattMl  on  acronnt  of  tho 
Hiipjily  train  that  lia«l  ;:on«'  to  Cavr  Tity  for  rations, 
but  had  not  n-niriMMl,  and  In-  frit  sonn*  jinxirty  about 
it.  Hut  tui  Moll. lay  In*  s«*nt  a  .-.Mirirr  to  turn  tin*  train 
towanl  Mowlin;;  tin^-n,  an«l  nsolv.-.l  lo  brt-ak  «anii» 
in  tin*  I'Vi-nin;;  at  all  «*v«*nts. 

ll.i\v»-v«'r   w."   wvVi'  .Irstiii.'.l    lo  .-iijoy   a    linh'   iii"!.- 
«*xrit«MM«*nt  iM'f.m*  niakini:  our  linal  .l.-part inc     K.-lx-l 
ravalry  sn«bb*nly   apiM-ait-.l    in    foi.  .-  at    noon   in   fr»»nt 
of  tin*   pirk«*ls  an<l    in   si;;hl    of   onr   canii*.   and    sonn* 
«b»snll.»ry  lirin*:  roninn*iM«*.l,  in  which  t  In*  i>i(k«*ts  stood 
tlH*ir  ;:ronn.l,  aid.-d   by  our  small  drtachnn-nt   of  rav- 
alry,  and  sn<..MMlrd   in  «a|»t urinj,^  ojn*  man.  who  said 
the  tMU'Uiy  was  tho  i*i*Im*1  Toloiu'l  S«'olt's  cavalry,  TOO 
siron*:,  ami  n'iin*s«*nt«*d  that  another  forc«»  wasadvano- 
in;;  on  tin-  S«»»i  is\  ill.*  road.      Iji.tn  ln*arin<;  tin*  lirinj; 
tin*  lonji  roll  was  b.-atrn  an«l  broui:ln  tin-  hri^Md**  into 
lin«*  on  tin*  .loubh*  .|uirk.     Cdoin*!  Moon*,  by  order  of 
<\iIonfl    Siott,    direri.il    rom|»ani(»s  A   and    l>   lo  In* 
deployed   t.i  the  ri;.dit   an. I    front,  ami  <'(un|>any    II    to 
the  left,  as  skirmishers,  all  under  Major  W  i.lnni-.     'The 
rest  of  the  Ilripide  was  ftu?in*d  in  line  .»f  batth*  in  a 
^iood  position  by  i'olonel  S<-.»tl.  While  these  nn>\«*un*nts 
\v«*re  lu'in;;  executed  arlilb*rv  lirini;  was  heard  on  our 
b*ft   front.     Hut,  kntiwin;;  from  the  soun.l  of  iln*  ;juns 
that    they   were  small   ones,  called  ".M.uintain   howitz- 
i*rH,**  (or,  in     army  parlance,  ".lackass     howitzers")  we 
w'fvi*  more  amused  than  alarme.l  by  this  part   of  the 
show.     .Meantime  ('olon«*l  Sc.»tt   ami  stalT  w«*re  doinii 
Honn*  ra|>i.l  ri.lin;;  ami  r«*connoiterin;.^  in  the  direction 
of  the  enemy  and  makin;:  such  m*w  tlisposit ions  (»f  the 
llripide  UM  rirciinisiances  sn^jfested.     Hut  no  further 
deinoMMirat  ion  was  made  b\  the  euein\ .  win*  ha.  1  nl  ir.'.l 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  52 

to  tho  woods.  To  pursue  tliein  woul<l  liavo  been  use- 
less, and  we  had  no  artillery,  niueli  1<>  Colonel  Scott's 
regret. 

Having  stood  in  line  until  nine  in  I  lie  evening,  we 
were  marched  back  to  camp,  and  here  met  with  an 
order  to  be  ready  to  march  in  half  an  luuir.  This 
order  met  Avith  a  cool  reception  by  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth,  most  of  whom  were  not  aware  of  the 
order  before  mentioned.  It  looked  like  running  away 
in  the  face  of  the  enemy,  a  "skedaddle"  in  fact,  anJl 
the  Regiment  having  come  down  here  to  fight  did  not 
relish  giving  up  the  promising  prospect  of  a  nice  little 
brush  with  the  enemy.  There  was  mnch  grumbling. 
The  baggage  was  scattered  around  in  the  tents,  and 
as  five  of  our  twelve  wagons  had  been  sent  to  Cave 
City,  mnch  had  to  be  left  behind,  also  all  of  the  sick 
— quite  a  number.  These  were  quartered  in  the  houses 
of  Union  men  in  the  town,  and  would  probably  be 
captured.  But,  packing  up  in  haste,  the  Thirty-ninth 
Brigade,  at  ten  o'clock,  filed  out  of  camp  and  the  town, 
and  in  a  short  time  was  lost  to  view — even  of  itself — 
in  the  darkness  of  the  forest.  As  we  were  traversing 
the  narrow  "trace"  with  thick  brush  and  trees  on  each 
side,  the  thought  occurred  that  here  was  a  splendid 
opportunity  for  the  enemy  to  attack.  But  all  were 
ready — half  expecting  it.  The  Brigade  was  kept  well 
closed  np  and  frequently  halted  to  await  the  arrival 
of  the  wagons  which  encountered  numerous  difficul- 
ties. At  two  o'clock  a  halt  was  made  until  daylight, 
and  in  five  minutes  every  man  except  the  guards,  rolled 
np  in  his  blanket,  was  sound  asleep,  alike  oblivious  to 
friend  or  foe. 

At  daylight  of  the  25th  we  found  that  "our  fiag  was 
still  there,"  and  also  learned  to  our  surprise  that  the 
Brigade,  though  having  marched  ten  miles  in  the  night, 
was  but  three  from  the  camp  we  had  left  so  hastily. 
The  guide  had  purposely  or  ignorantly  misled  us.  This 
news  did  not  fall  pleasantly  on  our  ears.  After  a  hasty 
lunch  the  march  was  resumed  at  seven  o'clock,  and 
continued  until  ten,  when  a  halt  was  made  for  break- 


THK  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

fasi.  TIm-  Hrijijule  llieu  iiioveii  slowly  aloiij;  all  <lay 
ovtT  vtTv  rou;:l»  roads,  but  amidst  miuli  lin«"  s«tMu*ry, 
as  \Vf  \vrn«  imw  i«iit«*riu;j  tlu*  inountain  re«;i»ui  of  Kni- 
tm  ky.  \N  hfii  wf  l»ivunatk«Ml  at  ni«;lit  \vt»  had  iiiarcluMl 
only  ivu  iiiilfs  siiHM*  t»Mi  «>'«l«Hk.  T\h'  livilizat inii  of 
this  s«Miitiii  was  of  a  vn-y  priiiiilivi'  type  as  r»*j:anl«M| 
h«>iiKi*K  and  iun»|d«*.  Tlifi't*  were  eorn,  eotton  ;iii<l 
ttd»a<e«>  patilirs  at  intervals,  and  we  were  pleas«»l  to 
s«M'  many  appli*  and  prach  orrliards,  with  fruit  si  ill 
«»n  tin*  tr«M'S,  tlnis  j^ivinj;  ns  an  op|»ort  unity  to  make  our 
>«<ant  half  ratituis  wlnde  ones,  and  it  was  not  n«*gle(t«'d. 
<it\iu'  aviM-red,  also,  that  they  found  a  superior  article 
of  a|»plf  jack,  also  prath  l»iandy,  which  was  iKtt  dis- 
puted. 

The  Hripuh'  inovtMl  earl\  *>\\  \\\v  L'tiih  uvrr  much 
rou;;ln'r  roads  than  lM*fore  and  thnui^di  valleys  wImmc 
tin*  hills  four  or  five  hundn-d  fret  hi;:h  looke<l  to  us 
lik«'  m<Minlains.  At  noon  \\r  rrossrd  the  Harr<'n  river 
l»y  wadin;^  and  halted  fcu-  dinner.  We  th«-n  moved  on 
and  soon  after  passed  tin*  state  line  into  Tenness«H'. 
The  ramp  at  ni^jht  was  in  a  favorable  lotality.  bein^ 
near  an  orrhard,  and  where  ^ood  rtir«'d  tobar«o  was 
ibundanl. 

Kesumin;;  the  march  early  on  the  JTtli.  <Mir  route 
h^l  ns  over  the  wildest  and  most  mountainous  country 
y»'t  se<*n,  and  nearly  all  day  thr«>u;:h  "( Joose  ( 'reek  \'al- 
ley."  a  locality  never  to  be  fiir;;otten.  We  saw  few 
white  men,  but  plenty  of  the  nativ«>  proiliict  of  the 
_'entler  (?)  sex      heaven  save  the  mark!     also  iieirr'»«*s. 

Some  of  these   Women    JXa  \  e    IJie   Imi\s.   as    they    luafclied 

.ihiii;,'.  their  opiniMus  (»f  ■'\'ank«'es,"  and  used  those 
natural  weapons  of  war,  vi/. :  their  toni;ues,  in  a  most 
re;;ar«lless  and  profane  manner.  Ilowevei-,  the  (  hie 
lluiuli-ed  and  I'ourlh  was  eomposed  of  ;:entlemen.  au<i 
the\  seldom  replied,  but  maintained  the  same  meek 
lomposure  they  would  have  displayed  when  listenin;; 
to  a  curtain  lecture  at  home  or  a  chidinu:  fi'<uu  their 
KWiN'thejirtM  for  Koin<*  fancied  ne;;hMt.  rie-  plileuMiialic 
iMltchllieli     were     umifTe<led       not      UinhMst  a  lldill^^     the 

nKMintiiin  jar;:on  of  these  women.     At   all  events  n«>t 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  55 

one  of  them  dvopiK-d  a  .o(„,se()r  eliickcii  in  consequeuce. 
We  niarcluMl  on,  and  let  no  one  sn]>p()se  that  tliis 
Thanks<iiviii<i-  Day  remained  nnceiehrated  by  ns  in 
the  wild  mountains  (►f  Tennessee.  In  menioriam,  we 
were  thankful  and  joyful,  and  fortunately  the  eiivum- 
stanees  were  favorable  to  our  ])uri>ose.  This  valley 
literally  te<*med  with  an  abundance  of  all  those  things 
which  we  had  been  accustomed  to  see  enter  into  the 
menu  of  the  great  National  festival  day  at  home,  such 
as  tnrkeys,  chickens,  geese,  i)igs,  and  fruits,  in  quan- 
tity. There  were  also  some  other  products  we  had 
read  about  and  had  had  some  previous  acquaintance 
with,  tt)  wit,  apple-jack  and  peach  brandy.  Here  was 
the  ''still"  "whose  Avoriu  dieth  not,"  from  which  flowed 
liquids  almost  as  abundant  and  (nisy  to  obtain  as  the 
pure  water  of  the  mountain  rills  tlowing  at  our  feet. 
The  "Happy  A'alley"  of  "Kasselas,"  so  vividly  described 
by  Dr.  Johnson,  could  not  have  produced  a  purer  or 
more  exhilarating  article,  nor  one  better  calculated  to 
awaken  the  latent  emcttions  of  the  soul  on  a  great 
occasion.  Such  Avas  the  opinion  of  our  experts,  for  it 
cannot  be  denied  that  we  had  among  us  some  who 
were  well  qualified  to  judge. 

Colonel  Scott,  being  in  a  good  liuuior  from  having 
escaped  a  i)ossible  catastrophe  at  Tompkinsville,  also 
appreciating  the  day  and  the  advantages  of  (lOose  Creek 
valley  as  a  cam]),  graciously  ordered  a  halt  at  4  p.  m., 
and  we  eam])ed  in  a  lovely  meadow  almost  entirely 
surrounded  by  mountains  a  thousand  feet  high,  oii 
their  craggy  sides  were  perched  here  and  there  the 
huts  of  the  "mountaineers,"  and  around  each  was  a 
small  clearing  devoted  to  the  raising  of  corn  and 
tobacco,  with  some  apple  and  peach  trees.  The  Bri- 
gade was  in  a  good  humor  to-night.  Some  of  the  One 
Hundred  and  P'ourth— and  all  of  the  Dutch,  who  had 
been  marching  and  celebrating  all  day,  came  in  not 
only  happy,  but  prepared  to  give  the  coup  de  grace 
to  the  last  hours  from  well  tilled  canteens.  As  a  chef 
d'oeuvre  an  order  from  Brigade  headquarters  was 
issued  directing  that  two  barrels  of  "Mountain  dew" 


M  THE  ONE  HrNDUKD  AND  FOURTH 

Wilicll    till*  (^liarlcI'lllJISliT   luitl    ru|itisr:ll«<|    lir    liKiprrlv 

(lisiriliiilcil  ill  ilif  rr;;ul;ir  way.  This  in:ulr  tin*  hill  «»f 
faiv  roiii|i|ci(*,  aii«l  im  soiiJiiT  unit  t«»  lu'd  liuii'^i-v  or 
tiiii*sty.  TlniK  at  last  cihIciI  Tliaiiks*;iviu«;  in  a  bla/o 
of  ;;loiy ! 

W  lii'ii  the  iiiarrli  uas  i-i*siiiiir<|  mi  iIm-  |||u^Ilill^  tti 
xUv  '2s\U  oiir  st«'i»s  lia«l  lost  tin*  spriiiy:y,  i*lasiir  quality 
jlisplayiMl  oil  tlir  pn'vi«»iis  «lay.  Tin*  i-oa<ls  s«mmhi*(1 
roM;;lu'r  ami  tin*  smuM-y  Irss  clianiiiii;:  than  in  <  loose 
('n*<'k  vallry,  as  in  fart  it  was.  Tlic  hi^li  nioimiaiiis 
WiTf  suri'«MMh'«|  l»y  hills  ami  a  llaltrr  roimiiy.  This 
8e<'ti<»ii  waiK  stroii;;ly  n-hfl  in  sent  iiiinii.  Thf  folluw  ini: 
liitj-pfst  in;:  ii-niaik  \t\  a  wtunan  u  host*  Imusr  w  »'|tass(Mi 
was  fnrnishiMl  to  tin-  wiitn-  hy  Shnnian  Ldand.  The 
(olninii  was  inai'rliiii<4:  hy,  when,  ohservln;;  a  r«»ntia- 
ham!  in  t'oinpany  <i,  she  sai<l:     **|)oi;  on  yom-  heart, 

thail's  my  ni;:^ei-."     She  ha*l   I ii   we«'pin;i  over     the 

loss  of  a  mule,  \Nhi«  h  eause«l  her  tears;  tin-  loss  of  a 
ni^;;:er  «liie(|  theui  np  and  luiiietl  her  anLiuish  into 
aii;:ei-. 

\o  riirilier  int'jiieni  o|  noit-  iMt-iMreW  until  we  Ii;i«l 
arrived  within  thre«'  miles  of  llarisville.  w  hen  we  <ame 
smhleiily  upon  a  hoily  of  rebel  iavaliy,  w  lii<h  retreated 
ill  haste,  onr  ad\am-e  seiidin;;  some  shots  after  them 
and  eaptiiriii;:  two  men.  who  said  they  helon;:ed  to 
<'olonel  Iteiiiiett's  etimniand,  -0(1  stron^:. 

.\t    tWon'elork    ill   theafleinoMii   the    lllii;ad<-   |»assed 

fhron;;h  the  villa^^e  of  llartsville  and  emamped  one 
inile  heyoiid  ill  a  piere  of  timlier  land  which  had  iHt-n 
partially  rleaied.  The  ram|i  was  on  hi;:h  ;;ronnd,  oii<> 
li  II  ml  red  yards  from  i  lie<  nmlierlaml  river,  w  hose  hanks 
were  from  liftv  to  une  hundred  feet  hi;^h.  The  tents 
W'iM'e  pilrhed  and  tires  made  in  them,  as  the  weather 
Inid  t  nriied  r«dd. 

We  had  mairhed  lifly  li\f  miles  sim  e  |ea\  in^  Tump 
kin^xille  on  mie  and  a  half  day's  re;:nlar  ijitions,  hut. 
like  the  Israelites  of  idii.  w  ••  had  found  fuauna  provided 
for  UK  on  the  way. 

The  Seroiid  |{ii;:ad«\  I'iisi  l>i\ision,  whirh  ours 
relieved,  w at*  still  here.     The  wa;:on  train  sent  t«i  <'ave 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  57 

City  arrived  in  the  eveiiiiio  witli  five  days'  rations  and 
a  lot  of  aiuiiHiiiitioii.  It  had  coiiic  via  (julkitiii  and  met 
with  a  hearty  welcome. 

One  of  Coloiiel  Scott's  first  acts  after  selecting  the 
position  for  our  camp,  whicli  lie  did  after  confeniuj? 
with  (N»lonel  John  M.  Harlan,  cominandino-  the  Second 
Brigade,  Avas  to  make  ont  and  forward  his  report  of  th<' 
Tompkinsville  affair  to  General  E.  Dninont  at  (lallatin. 
This  may  be  found  in  "Rebellion  Reccn-ds,"  Series  I  \'nl 
20,  p.  14. 

The  Second  lirigade  left  on  the  29th  for  Castillian 
Springs,  leaving  with  ns,  however,  a  detachment  of  the 
Second  Indiana  (Vivalry  and  a  section  of  Xicklin's  liat- 
tery  (Thirteenth  Indiana),  also  a  companv  of  the 
Eleventh  Kentucky  Cavalry— Captain  Slater. 

The  position  we  occupied  was  an  important  one, 
but  exposed  to  attack.  We  were  opposite  the  extreme 
right  flank  of  liragg's  army,  which  lay  at  Murfrees- 
boro,  thirty-six  miles  distant.  Dumont,  with  part  of 
the  Twelfth  Division,  was  at  Gallatin,  fifteen  miles 
distant.  Harlan's  and  Miller's  Brigades  were  at  Cas- 
tillian Springs,  the  latter  nine  miles  distant  and  sup- 
posed to  be  within  sui)i)orting  distance  of  Ilartsville. 
The  objects  sought  to  be  accomi)lished  were  to  watch 
the  fords  of  the  Cumberland  for  any  crossing  that 
might  be  attempted  by  Morgan  and  Forrest  or  bylarger 
forces.  This  was  the  more  important,  as  Bragg  had 
10,000  cavalry  to  Rosecraus'  4,000,  and  once  in  the  rear 
eonld  play  havoc  with  our  communications. 

Nothing  of  importance  occurred  until  December 
2d,  on  which  date  Colonel  Scott,  having  been  ordere<l 
to  report  at  Xaslivil!(%  turned  over  the  c!>mniand  t(< 
Colonel  Moore.  On  assuming  this  responsible  position 
Colonel  Moore  reorganized  the  staff,  retaining,  how- 
ever, Captain  William  Y.  Gholson,  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Sixth  Ohio,  as  acting  Assistant  Adjutant  (Jeneral, 
and  Lieutenant  Jacob  Dewalt  as  Aide-de-Camp.  He 
appointed  Lieutenant  M.  Osman  A.  Q.  M.,  Lieutenant 
William  Strawn  A.  C.  S.,  Lieutenant  Tewksbury  A.  L 
G.     All  of  these  were  fr<^m    the    One    Hundrell    and 


U  THK  ONE  HLNr>HED  AND  FOURTH 

Fourth.  ;ii»«l  al  muv  fiiii-nMl  u\uni  iln-ir  «lini»'s.  Lifii- 
teiiaiit  rol.iml  HaiKMiian  now  ussiiiimmI  c«»iuiiian.l  ..f 
till*  4Mn-  lluii<li»*«l  jiiiM  Fimrtli. 

(V.iiipaiiv  A,  i'aplaiii  L«*i;:lii«»ii,  was  miii  .lown  i.. 
oi-cupv  llaitsvillraiMl  kt-fj.  a  wat«  lifiil  «'Vi- on  i1i.m<1m-1- 
lious  Vilizfiis  of  tin-  villap-.  It  was  «.ilaiii  thai  all 
wiTf  rrlM'Is  ami  artiv*'  as  spies  an. I  alMiiuis  ..i  ili<* 
Confeth'rates. 

Tin*  system  «»f  s««.nis  ami  i»irk.-is  .'siaMisln-.i  l>y 
Colom*!  Srott  was  maintaimMl  and  fnitlnr  str.n<:ili- 
eiKHl  l>v  liis  siKM-esstn-,  ami  a<tiv«'  nMiunmissam-rs  made 
ev.-iy  day  on  all  ilie  roa«ls  leadiii;;  into  llartsville  fiom 
the  otln'V  sidr  of  the  iiv«  r,  as  well  as  those  up  and 
down  that  stieam,  whieh  was  deep,  with  few  f<»rds 
and  pieeipitotis  banks.  These  duties  employed  all  of 
the  eavaliy  and  seveial  ronipanies  of  infantry.  Sleep- 
less vij^ilanre  was  to  he  ih«'  jtrice  of  onr  safety. 

The  total  elTe.tive  foiM-e  of  all  arms  infantry,  artil- 
lery, and  eavalry  did  not  exeeed  1,80U  men,  ami  this 
inclndfd  tietails  of  ronipanies  and  i»arts  of  eoinpanies 
for  the  various  duties,  whieh  were  eonstant  and  exa»t- 
ing.  At  this  time,  also,  many  wen-  sick  in  hos- 
pital. There  only  remained,  therefore,  after  making; 
due  allowanre  for  the  above  detached  services,  an 
elTiM-tivr  forn-  of  not  more  than  l.-KO  men  in  <amp 
«apabh*  of  Immii;;  thrown  into  lint-  o|  haiih-  m  •  ■>  • 
of  a  sudden  attack.  .Ml  of  tin-  infantry  re^ri- 
nients  were  new,  havin;;  been  in  the  service  but 
thr<*<'  months,  most  of  which  tinw  beinj;  (mmu- 
piiMl  in  mar«-hin;:,  iIm*  tip|Mirt  unities  ftu  ac<|uirinj;  that 
prolicii-ncy  in  drill  and  disriplim-  whit  h  \i'\\v  c»»nti 
ilencr  ami  elTecl  ivi-ness  on  the  day  of  battle  had  been 
few  and  far  iM-tween,  and  It  is  safe  to  say  that  fiw  of 
the  ihif  llundr«-d  and  I'ourth  appr«'ciated  as  yri  lis 
vital  imporianci-  should  it  be  (*alled  into  action.  Kut 
i*very  man  with  ihf  dements  «>f  manhood  in  him  kix'W 
how  to  li^ht  imlividmilly,  had  conlide!ic«>  in  liims<*lf, 
and.  b«li<'\inu'  ihf  sanM*  of  his  roniradfs.  nami-illy 
ac<|uir«'d  tin-  id«-a  that  tin-  K«';:inn-nt.  when  put  to  thr 
IihI,   Would    |»r«i\i-   in\  inriblr.      This,  at    least,   was  the 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS  5j» 

writer's  idea,  aud  claimed  with  confidence  to  be  rep- 
resentative of  the  majority  of  our  brave  boys. 

But  it  was  feJt  that  not  much  reliance  could  be 
placed  in  the  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  and  One  Hun- 
dred and  Eighth  Ohio,  both  of  which  regiments  could 
muster  only  about  GOO  men  for  duty.  One  comj)anv 
had  not  yet  been  provided  with  arms.  They  were  also 
in  an  insubordinate  condition.  The  One  Hundred  and 
Eighth  was  armed  with  the  Austrian  rifle,  Avorthless 
and  condemned,  the  locks  requiring  to  be  snapped  sev- 
eral times  before  the  load  could  be  discharged.  ( \)lonel 
Limberg,  the  commander,  had  been  along  with  us 
under  arrest  since  leaving  Frankfort,  and  Captain 
Ciirlo  liepho  now  commanded.  Dissensions  among 
the  ofhcers  in  these  regiments,  utterly  demorali/in-.  to 
discipline,  prevailed.  The  cavalry  and  artillery,  com- 
posed of  a  small  but  efficient  body  of  men,  were  well 
officered. 

The  week  ending  December  6th  passed  quietly.    The 
weather  had  been  unusually  cold  and  there  was  a  lioht  ' 
snow  on  the  ground.      Rumors,   which   were    usually 
abundant  m  camp,  and  a  part  of  the  pastime  of  the 
soldier's  life,  had  been  scarce  of  late.     But  it  was  the 
calm  that  precedes  the  storm.    It  is  probablv  true  that 
at  Brigade  headquarters  information  and  reports  were 
daily  received,  which,  if  known  to  the  rank  and  file, 
would  have  caused  anxiety.     Among  the  older  heads 
and  veterans  of  experience  there  were  no  doubt  ai)pre- 
hensions  as  to  the  safety  of  the  Brigade  and  the  result 
should  it  be  attacked.     The  fact  that  Colonel  Moore 
had  never  been  in  action  and  was  an  untried  quautitv 
did  not  lessen  any  of  these  apprehensions.     But  such 
were  carefully  guarded. 

Lieutenant  Prescott  was  informed  bv  a  negro  three 
or  four  days  previous  to  the  battle  that'^the  rebels  pro- 
posed  to  attack  and  reported  it  to  Colonel  Moore,  say- 
ing he  believed  it  reliable,  as  also  the  indications 
among  the  old  men  at  the  village  where  he  was  on 
duty,  seemed  to  confirm  it.     There  were  besides  other 


•0  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

hU8i»ici()MH  «iriumsijiiR-fK,   l»iu    lunu*  of   ilie   warniuys 
aplH'iinMl  In  br  ri'y;anl»Ml. 

*»N  liilf  llnis  Iviiij:  in  fami'Ml  siMiirilN  tM»;ri»j;i*tl  in  tli  ^ 
nnni«*t-<>ns  «hili«'«<  ralh'l  f»»i-  «lav  bv  «'av.  lliat  «laiin_i 
oavali'vinan  ami  rai<bT,  (irnrral  John  Mor;;an,  was, 
in  lonjnnclion  with  (u*neral  Hra;;;;,  i»ri'i>aiin«;  his  phm 
for  thf  (b*Kt motion  <»r  capture  of  the  Thirty-ninth  Hri- 
pub*.  Dnrin^i  th«*  hittiT  part  <»f  the  w«M*k  Li<Mit«*nani 
^\■illianl  '^tiawn.  A.  < '.  S..  had  b<-fn  smt  !«►  <Ial!aiiii 
with  a  hup*  detail  t«»  jinanl  th«'  siip|»ly  ti-ain  for  onr 
jMisi.  (Ml  lh«'  'Jth  Caiilaiii  W  .  II  (mUmk.  ..f  <'on:i»'in\ 
D,  had  ptne  \Nith  a  part  ol  his  own  men  and  other 
details  ID  I  h«    ...iiiir  |da< c 

Saturday  nij^hl  ranic  and  an  iiiiusiial  (juictness. 
indueiMJ  by  tin*  srvt-re  lobl  wriihrr,  prcvaih-d  in  tli 
camp  and  around  the  tires  of  tin*  Thirty-ninth  Uri^Mcb'. 
Tin- writi-r  an<I  Li<*nl«*nant  l>«*\Noy,  of  < 'onipany  IC.  were 
at  a  latr  lionr  in  their  tent  »'M;ia;;<*d  in  rt-adin;::  and 
writin;;  Irtters,  when,  as  if  pro|di<'t  i<"iliy.  I  Jewry 
reniarked,  '*\"om  had  Iteiier  burn  those  oi-  ilie  .Injiiiiiie-v 
will  j:ei  them."  This  was  said  jokingly,  but  has  never 
Immmi  for^ittten.  Little  did  we  or  any  <»ne  dream  «»n 
that  peaceful  Saturday  ni;:hl  that  ere  the  mt>rnin^  sun 
of  the  approachine;  Sabbath  should   li;;ht    \\\>  the  hill 

lops    uf     the    <    iimlMM-Iairl     I  lie     o.ii-lei!    ;i.||S    "|m||^     I    i'!'" 

Would  call  us  hastilx,  as  from  an  awful  niulit  niai-e.  to 
|iarticipate  in  a  scene  «)f  blood,  carnage  and  death,  in      ^ 
which   the  tMie   llumlred   and    I'ourth.  after  sulVerinj;     | 
a  loss  in  killed  and  wtuimled  jji;reat«'r  than  ever  aflei 
ward    expi-rieiieed    in    any    one    battle,    ami    «o\eiiii. 
itself  with  ;:loiy.  was  to  be  defeaied  and  cajdured,  bill 
Hot  disjrraced. 


CHAPTER    VIL 


The    Battle    of    Hartsville,    Tennessee,    and   Capture   of   the   One 
Hundred  and  Fourth. 


In  the  early  claAvn  of  Suuduy,  December  Ttli,  18(32, 
at  half  past  six — before  sunrise — and  while  many  of 
the  men  in  the  camps  of  the  Thirty-ninth  L>riga(U>  were 
still  asleep,  the  cry  was  raised,  ''Fall  in,  men,  the  rebels 
are  coming."  Some  quick-eared  soldier  had  heard  the 
ominous  report  of  guns  on  the  picket  line,  and  has- 
tened to  give  the  alarm.  The  first  shot  was  said  to 
have  been  fired  by  Joseph  T.  Oder,  of  Company  H, 
who,  though  a  stripling  of  seventeen,  did  not  lose  his 
head  or  fail  to  do  his  duty,  but  was  captunnl  before 
he  could  escape.  However,  there  are  other  claimants 
for  the  honor.  Simultaneously  the  long  roll  was 
beaten  with  unusual  vigor.  The  men  of  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth,  hastily  seizing  their  overcoats,  guns 
and  equipments,  fell  in  on  the  company  ])arade  grounds, 
and  were  marcluMl  from  thence  to  the  regimental  color- 
line,  where  Lieutenant-Coh)nel  Hapenian  took  com- 
mand and  double-quicked  the  Regiment  to  a  position 
on  a  low  ridge  a  quarter  of  a  mile  northwest  of  the 
camp.  The  timber  on  botli  si(h's  had  been  mostly  cut 
doAvn,  and  the  ground  was  rocky  and  broken.  Tlie 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  formed  in  line  of  battle 
along  the  crest  of  the  ridge,  and,  looking  across  the 
valley,  could  see  the  enemy  wheeling  into  line  at  the 
distance  of  one-fourth  of  a  mile.  The  Oue  Hundred 
and  Sixth  and  One  Hundred  and  Eighth  Ohio,  coming 
up,  Avere  placed  by  Adjutant-General  Gholson  on  the 
right  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth.  The  section 
of  twelve  pounders  of  Nicklin's  Battery,  commanded 
by  Lieutenant  Green,  was  placed  in  position  on  the 
crest,  where  it  was  amply  supported  by  the  infantry. 


THE  ONE  IIL'NDHED  AND  FOURTH 


I    illlllCr    aiKI     l^ll'llll'liaill      I    iUMCM      Il-Bp^r*.  ll»»ri_»  ,    »H-jriw>i-vi 

l«i  (h«*  Irft  tiaiik  to  <«»v«T  tin*  y;rMUihI  h«'t\v«MMi  lln'  On,' 
IIiiii«lnM|  ami  l'«Mirlli  ami  tin*  riv«'r.  Tlit*  ivsl  t>f  tlif 
SiMMnnl  hxliana,  nmlrr  Lii*ul«Miaiit-('ol<>iu*I  Stew  ait, 
ami  I  he  half  ciMiiiKiiiy  «»f  llir  Kl«*v«'iitli  Ktnimkv,  Cap- 
lain  Slairr,  wiTf  onlrnMl  to  covt-r  a  ml  |tioi»Mt  tin*  ri;ilit 
Hank,  wliitli  was  rapalth*  of  lit'in;^^  easily  nirnctl.  Tiic 
l«'ft  was  ;iuai(l«'(l  ami  iiia«l»'  «linituh  t<>  attatk  by  a  drt'ii 
ravine  rnnnin;:  t»»  tlic  river.  'l\>  iimie  efreeiually  pro- 
ten  tlie  ri^'lit  an<l  rear  ('a|»taiii  Lutlinj:t«»n  was  sent 
with  ronipany  II  to  oju-rate  in  that  <|naitei-. 

Taptain  Lei;:hit»n,  who  was  on  tletacheW  diiiy  with 
<'«»!npany  A  in  llartsxijje.  was  left  to  ti;zht  it  out  on 
his  own  arronnt . 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  63 

worth  ji'iiiis  and  howitzors.  Vide  Morgan's  Koport.  ( )n 
the  march  liis  forces  had  been  further  increased  by 
all  of  the  guerrilla  bands  and  citizeus  in  the  country, 
making-  his  total  not  less  than  4,000  men. 

(leneral  Morgan,  in  pursuance  of  his  cunning  and 
carefully  devised  plan,  had  left  Kaird's  Mills,  twenty- 
five  miles  from  llartsville,  on  Saturday,  and,  march- 
ing all  day,  reached  the  Cumberland  near  the  Federal 
lines  that  evening.  He  occupied  the  rest  of  the  night 
in  crossing  the  infantry  on  an  old  boat,  while  ('olonel 
Duke,  with  the  regular  cavalry,  passed  by  a  ford  hn\-er 
down.  Another  force  was  sent  with  artillery  to  take  a 
position  on  the  south  bank  of  the  river — o])])osite  our 
camp  and  covering  it — the  ford  and  Hartsville.  Still 
another  detachment,  1,000  strong,  was  ordered  to  dash 
into  the  village,  capture  or  destroy  the  forces  there  and 
attack  our  rear.  All  of  these  movements  were  being 
promptly  executed  before  and  b^"  the  time  that  Morgan 
was  advancing  with  his  main  army  against  our  lines. 
Our  vedettes  liad  been  deceived  by  Morgan's  advance, 
who  were  dressed  in  the  Federal  uniform,  and  were 
captured  without  a  shot. 

The  battle  opened  about  7  a.  m.  by  a  desultory  firing 
on  the  skirmish  line.  Companies  K  and  C  were  soon 
obliged  to  fall  back  before  the  enemy's  rapid  a<lvance, 
which  they  did  in  good  order.  Meantime  the  artillery 
opened  and  was  at  once  replied  to  by  a  furious  cannon- 
ade from  the  rebel  batteries,  which  made  a  great  noise, 
but  did  little  damage,  as  they  fired  too  high.  When 
Morgan's  advance  came  within  musket  range  the  firing 
became  general  and  continuous  on  both  sides  for  some 
time.  Morgan  still  advanced,  but  slower  and  there 
appeared  to  be  some  (^onfusion  and  a  perceptible  waver- 
ing in  his  line  caused  by  the  steady  and  destructive 
fire  of  our  men  and  that  of  the  well-served  artillery, 
which  had  already  disabled  two  caissons  of  the  rebel 
battery.  At  this  point,  and  when  Colonel  Moore  gave 
the  order  to  charge,  Lieutenant  Creen  came  up  in  haste 
and  complained  that  one  of  his  guns  was  Avithout  sup- 


M  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

jHiil.  L«n»kiii^  arouu«l  it  was  sr«'ii  that  the  One  lliiii- 
tln-tl  ami  Sixth  had  llnl.  (Mi  th«'  inai-  appinarh  ol  the 
I'lUMiix  lh«'V  ha<l  liiMMJ  kul*  volh\v  and  ran.  The  uth«*r 
two  rt'piM fills,  Imwever,  HtiMMl  liriii  and  linMl  iapi<lly, 
ill  whi»li  thfv  \v«-r»*  sustained  l»\  the  ariilh-r.v  and  <a\- 
alrv.  \U\\  .M«»ij;an  s»Min  «ildi<|iu'd  a  |iart  «tf  his  ^t\vl'■ 
whrlmin;;  fuiT«'s  so  as  to  turn  our  ri^dit  Ihink.  Then 
llu'Oue  llundi'tMl  and  lCi;;hlh  hrranic  <U*niorali/<Ml  and 
left  the  tiidd.  Tht'  action  had  now  iastt'd  on*-  hoiii-,  and 
the  (  Mif  I  hindr«*d  and  I'onrt  h  si  ill  stood  tiiin  as  a  rock. 
Manv  had  Immmi  kilh'd,  inrlndin;:  Adjutant  •<  liiicral 
(iholson,  a  brave  and  ]ironiisin;;  oHicer. 

The  ( )ne  Hundred  and  l-'oiirt  h  now  su|t|)ori  in^  hot  h 
liitM'e.s  of  artiih'iv,  and  finoura^N-d  lt\  ( 'ojonci  ilajM*- 
man.  Major  W  idnicr,  and  all  of  t  hrir  o Hirers,  roni  inut-d 
tin*  un«M|ual  roiHcsi  twenty  minutes  lonj^er  and  until 
th«'  rebels  iMMire<|  in  ou  our  think  and  \\<-re  within 
lifleeii  jjares  in  front,  so  near,  in  fan,  iliai  we  saw 
the  whites  of  their  eyes.  Tlu'ii  it  was  ihai  ( "ojouel 
.Monre,  who  had  ridth-ii  the  lines  all  through  with 
nnlliiichin;:  bravi'iy,  ;;ave  the  order  lo  n-ii-eat  to  the 
hills  on  the  river.  Oue  df  the  twelve  pounders  was 
taken  lot  he  new  jiosit  ion  in  safety  ;  i  he  horses  attached 
to  I  he  ol  her  ha \  in;;;  been  killed,  ( 'a |tlain  I  low  e,  of  ( 'om- 
I»an\  I',  with  some  «»f  his  men  tried  to  reiuove  ii  by 
hand,  bui  the  rebels,  observin;^  this,  lired  a  \olley  of 
biilleis  at  them.  I'oit  unalely  a  |»air  of  horses  was  near 
and  the  ;iun  leiuoved.  The  Ke;:imeni  fell  back  in  solu«' 
eon  fusion,  but  many  t  urned  to  tire  a  not  her  shot  as  i  hey 
sullenly  retrejited.  In  I  he  new  position  siuue  furl  her 
liriii;:  was  dom*  as  the  enemy  rapidly  advance*!  tui  our 
front  and  Hanks.  Ilui  the  tirin;^  had  t  hen  bec<une  desiil- 
t«»ry  and  produced  noelTect.  Colonel  .Moore  t  her«Mipon 
surn'iideied  wliiil  was  left,  and  ihe  baiile  was  viitu- 
ally  over.  The  <  Mie  iiumlred  and  Sixth  am!  (  Mie  llun- 
dred  and  l'i;;hlh  had  hui;;  before  ln-eu  taken   in. 

('a  plain  Lei;:  hi  on,  w  it  h  ( 'Muipany  .\,  after  a  spiiiied 
resiKlaiice  in  llarlsxille  a;:ainst  a  re;^iment  uf  cavalry 
;iiid  two  compiinies  of  luounted  infantry,  iu  which  his 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEErvS.  65 

command  killed  five  and  wounded  ciulii,  wiili  a  loss  lo 
himself  of  one  killed,  one  mortally  wouiKlcd,  ami  three 
wounded,  Avas  obliged  to  siincndci-. 

Company  II,  Captain  Liidinghui,  wliicli  luid  Im-cii 
sent  to  the  right,  nniintained  an  niuMpial  tight  against 
superior  numbers  until  after  the  main  body  had  sur- 
rendered, and  was  the  last  to  yield.  So  stubborn  and 
astounded  was  Captain  l.udington  that  the  rebel  olVi- 
cers  in  admiration  told  him  to  keep  his  sword,  which 
treachery  afterward  obliged  him  to  give  up. 

^Meantime  the  rebel  cavnlry  were  occupied  in  gath- 
ering in  the  stragglers,  pillaging  the  camps  and  collect- 
ing the  spoils.  They  had  just  cause  to  be  elated  with 
their  victor}',  but  had  paid  for  it  dearly  in  killed  and 
wounded,  losing  about  two  hundred  men.  General 
Morgan  said  to  one  of  our  officers  that  he  never  saw 
men  tight  better  than  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourtli, 
and  that  if  the  other  regiments  had  done  as  well  he 
should  have  had  to  Avithdraw.  The  sudden  retreat  of 
the  One  ITundred  and  Sixth  and  the  One  Hundred  and 
Eighth  gave  his  wavering  line  new  courage. 

The  battle  was  over.  The  Starry  l^anner  had  gone 
down  in  defeat,  bnt  not  dishonor.  The  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth,  crushed  and  humiliated,  were  prisoners  of 
war.  Deep  as  Avas  the  sting  of  this  disaster,  touching 
to  the  A'ery  (juick  CA'ery  man  in  the  Kegiiuent,  yet  each 
was  conscious  of  liaA'ing  done  his  duty,  and  could  point 
with  monrnfnl  pride  to  t^e  long  list  of  killed  and 
wounded  as  evidence  of  the  stubborn  conflict. 

The  defeat  at  HartsA'ille  M'as  the  inevitable  conse- 
quence of  the  conditions  existing,  souk*  of  which  havc^ 
been  pointed  out.  Colonel  ^Nloore,  as  conunauder  of  the 
Brigade  and  of  an  important  post,  had  to  shoulder 
the  blame  and  endui'e  the  odium  of  failure.  It  was 
his  misfortune  to  hold  a  command  for  which  he  was 
nnfitted  by  reason  of  inexperience,  the  Avant  of  confi- 
dence on  the  part  of  many  of  his  officers,  and  the 
absence  of  those  military  instincts  Avhich  soldiers 
recognize  and  trust  in.  From  the  first  honors  which 
many  a  AA'orthy  and  scarred  veteran  Avould  prize  had 


m  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

Imm'M  tliiusi  iiiMtit  liiiii,  :iii*l  with  in>  storms  !<•  |mm|>U*.\, 
in>  \\\\\  fin'iii\  III  »'in«tiiiih-r  or  ti^ilitiii;;  h>  Im-  tli»m* 
rtM|uiriii;;  riilM-r  ilu*  natural  or  Ifaiiictl  luilitaiy  skill 
of  a  l»*a«lrr.  In-  liail  worn  tluMu  rasiix.  In  tin*  day  of 
trial  aiitl  ;:ra\r  r«-s|tonsil>ilily  \\liil«'  fxiiiltit  iiij;  |mm-- 
sonal  bravny.  In*  faiN**!  lircaiisr  In*  «li«l  not  jtosst'ss  llu* 
i|(ialitics  nanit'il,  wliicli,  hail  tlicv  rxisttMl,  would  not 
only  liavf  prrvt-ntiMl  tin*  rnnuy  from  taking;  us  by  sur- 
prise, but  would  liaVf  fiiabbtd  liiin  to  liavo  luainMivi-rtMl 
liis  for««'s  so  as  to  liav«'  baHb'd  ami  tb'lavfd  Moi-;j:aii 
until  Ihtrlan's  bri«;a«U'  arrived,  as  it  did  two  hours 
after  the  snrremb*r.  ll»»wever,  llartsville  was  lo  be 
Colonel  Moore's  'rherm<tpylae  as  a  military  leader. 

<Mi  the  other  hand,  it  «-an  be  said  in  extenuation 
that  he  did  not  seek  the  rommaud.  ( 'olomd  Scott,  ha\- 
in;;  Immmi  unex|MMtedl\  oidered  to  Nashville,  sluijdy 
tiiriUMl  it  <»ver  to  him  on  I  ><•«  » mbt  r  iM.  Neither  ditl  he 
riM-eive  an_\  oi-ders  or  su;:;:est  ions  Ifom  his  superioi- 
oOirers  in  the  brief  period  bef<»re  the  battle.  Ninety- 
nim*  men  in  the  hundred  would  lia\f  d<>iie  as  he  did, 
and  most  likely  wo\ild  have  met   with  liu'  same  result. 

The  <  Mie  llumlredand  Fourth  josi  ."tl  killed  or  mor- 
tally wouinlfd.  and  had  H>.~»  woniided;  total,  \Ttit.  The 
following:  lisi  "f  1  b"'  names  is  only  partial,  but  all  that 
is  at  t  ainabh-: 

lllll.h    .\M»    S'|'.AI'I\ 

W'oundfd  Adjuiani  1».  < '.  SieNcns.  s«'V»'rely 
lhroii;:h  t  he  t  hi;:li. 

(d.MI'A.W     A. 

Killet]      Sumner  N.  iluridiam. 

Moiially  woundid      .lonaihau   Lewis. 

Wonudi'd  I'atri.k  (>'h,,Mnell,  William  Hurkley.  L. 
Toiit  r. 

«<».\||^\^^    i;. 

Kilh'd  Ser;;«*an(  <"romw<II  Woodward.  Sert^eant 
Jos«-ph  I  K  i'tu-ter.  <  Jeori^e  St  eidfU;:er.  I  lo\\  aid  l>.  While. 

.Mortally  woundi-d  bifuii-iiani  .Moses  .M.  Kamlo||tli, 
Samuel  IV  r|a»-k.  .lohn  ( '.  \  ail.  .b.lm  Keaibr,  I, mien 
Stanford. 

Wounded      (lardner  I..  Chase,  in   the  foot;  Charles 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  67 

A.  Bradisli,  iii  liaiid;  James  Me^S'ally,  iu  head;  Fabius 
E.  Phelps  ;  H.  C.  Graves  ;  James  Garrison,  iu  wrist  ; 
^'ewtoii  M.  Shelton,  leg  amputated;  Samuel  W.  War- 
uock,  iu  shoulder  ;  D.  J.  Stauford,  iu  aukle  ;  Serj^eaut 
H.  L.  McKinnev,  slight;  T.  ^^'oolle3•,  slight. 
COMPANY   C. 

Killed — David  Berkstresser,  Thomas  Hastings, 
James  If.  Wilson.  • 

Mortally  wounded — Peter  J.  Sauressig,  William 
Van  Law,  Clarence  Brenuan,  Frederick  Foot,  Francis 
ZaiT. 

Wounded — Captain  Samuel  M.  Ileslet,  iu  both 
thighs;  Lieutenant  Daniel  C.  Kyuearson,  in  leg;  Ser- 
geant Charles  K.  Brown,  in  side;  James  A.  Kersey, 
severely;  L.  .W.  Winslow,  in  hand;  John  W.  Bullis,  both 
eyes  shot  out;  John  A.  Livers,  ami  amputated;  Charles 
II.  Jewett  ;  Oscar  Sayles,  severely  ;  K<jbert  C.  Doaue  ; 
Hiram  Beck,  in  arm;  Samuel  Banks,  slight. 

COMPANY  D  (only  one-half  present). 

Killed — Abram  H.  Austin,  Jos.  L.  Sapp,  Corporal 
Thos.  G.  Steven. 

Wounded — Henry  B.  Anderson,  slightly;  Robert  S. 
Brent,  slightl}^;  John  F.  Bute,  seriously  in  three  places; 
John  W.  Carmony,  seriously,  hit  five  times,  breaking 
shoulder  and  three  ribs;  Lifee  II.  Powers,  in  head;  Bich- 
ard  J.  Gage,  seriously  in  leg;  Henry  E.  Price,  in  hip; 
John  Peter,  slightly;  Ora  D.  Walbridge,  arm  broken; 
Theodore  P.  Brown,  seriouslv. 

COMPANY   E. 

Killed — Corporal  Tlu)s.  Weeks,  Corporal  John  D. 
King,  David  V.  Diehl,  Edward  J.  Curtis,  Orville  L. 
Moorhead,  Roderick  D.  Reed. 

Mortally  wounded — Lieutenant  Milton  Strawn, 
George  Hemenover,  Samuel  N.  Merriam,  Felix  McCul- 
lough. 

Wounded — Sergeant  Homer  A.  Wilson,  in  arm; 
David  A.  Wisher,  in  hand;  Sergeant  George  W.  Cum- 
mins, in  head;  Corporal  William  J.  Anderson,  in  arm; 
Corporal  Lyman  Nattinger,  in  neck;  Benjamin  Phillips, 
in  face;  Alfred  Roberts,  in  thigh,  seriously;  James  A. 


<8  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

SiHTiiiaii,  anu  bri)krii;  Cliarlfs  11.  I'.iuwii,  in  iumU; 
.Taiin-s<J.  Si'wanl;  William  I.  l>;iil\  :  <  •.  W  .  Wilson;  .los. 
\V.  <  *nnanl. 

(•(^Ml^\^^    i" 

Kill.-.l  K,M•^  llrorU,  Julin  .M«l)..w-all,  William 
WotMlhurv.  ror|Mtral  .lann-s  S|m'II(<t,  .Ir. 

\NiMiinl«M|  ('ai»i:iin  Jam«s  .1.  McKi-rnan,  in  arm, 
wrist  ami  rlnM-k;  lUnry  A«Uciinan,  srvrrrl.v  ;  Lcmm'l 
li.  Laujihliii,  sli;:htlv;  ThoinaK  Kyerson,  in  liii>.  S.  M. 
Z«-ln(T.  sli;:lMl\  :  'PliMmas  Tlmmpsoii.  in  sIi<mi1(1«m-;  Sam- 
uel N.  Trrnarv.  sli;:litl>:  Samml  «in«ii;  Anslin  V. 
Mitrln-ll;  Lirnlrnant  .lulm  < '.  Linsl«-y:  Kzfkit-l  lli««\vii; 
llmiamin  .It»n«*s,  A.  W'.  nmkm  r. 

('(KMI'ANA     <i. 

Killrd  S«M-p'ant  Mynm  Nt-wtun.  Iluiili  A.  Dum- 
inrit,  HtMijamin  S.  FnlW-rion,  Osnian  Larson.  Anthony 
<  »lM*rst,  .John  Palnu'r, 

.Mortally  wonmlctl — .laroh  Nelson,  .lohn  Thomas. 

WoiMnh*«l — \V«'sh*y  Misiicr,  in  thij;h,  severely;  Sani- 
\U'\  11.  porter,  arm  lirokrn  ;  Tnnis  S.  Serrim'.  in  arm; 
.lohn   Haih-y,  in  thi;:h,  severely;  .lames  i\   l)ee«:an;  IC. 
S.  Hullanl,  sli«;ht ;  Serp-aiii  < ".  I'..  (  ook.  sli<;hi. 
('(KMI'ANV    II. 

.Moiially  \voMn<le<|  Henry  \\illa\  ise,  .1.  M.  Porter, 
A.  A.  .My.  IS. 

W'tMindeil  I.'-\i  Nt'lson,  sli;^hily;  Xavier  W  <»lf,  in 
hip,  scrionsh . 

roMl'ANV    1. 

.Mortally    wonmled      Harvey    W  .     Traver.    Nicholas 

I'llenhoeker. 

W'oun<le<l     ("orp.tral    illhriil^e    rhapman,    in    side; 
Kartholo  \\*.  Andrews;  I'rank  W'.  Hnrns,  in  throat,  seri 
onsly;  .laeoli   Pane,  in    hand;    N.     H.    .Mnllin.  in   le^i . 
.\ndre\v  I'tnits,  in  thi;:h;  .Mark   Pnrviance.  in  le;;,  seri 
ously;  ArteniaK  <'.  (^ninn.  in  hreast ;  .Iidinson  Traver, 
in  hand;  ('«»rneliiis  Snyder;  dames  d.  Traver,  in  fare, 
severely;   Prure  Winans.  sli^^htly;   William    K.    I'rink,     \ 
sli;;htly. 

<<>.M1'.\.\\     K. 

Mortally  woimdi'd-  Jose|di  P.  Arnold.  .jjimI  he,  em 
her  *«t  h  ;  Charles  \.  Prown. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  69 

Wounded — Henn^  Pnst,  leg'  ainputated;  Kobcrt 
Bell,  severely;  Andrew  A.  Hart,  seriously;  Chas.  F. 
Peterson,  severely;  Thomas  Mulkay,  severely;  Adolph 
Splitstosser,  slightly. 

The  rest  of  the  r>riga<le  lost  in  killed  and  wounded, 
as  per  the  Official  lieports,  105,  Vide  Keb.  Kee.,  Vol. 
XX.  But  the  foregoing  does  not  include  a  number 
of  missing,  who  were  probably  killed,  buried,  and  never 
reported,  except  as  unknown. 

A  da}^  or  two  after  the  battle  the  citizens  of  Ottawa 
sent  a  committee  of  three.  Rev.  Z.  Coleman,  Dr.  C. 
Hard  and  J.  W.  Calkins,  to  Ilartsville  with  sanitary 
supplies  for  the  wounded,  and  while  there  they  buried 
a  number  that  they  found  dead  in  the  wo(»ds,  rein- 
terred  all  of  the  dead  who  were  half  buried,  and,  when 
the  soldiers  could  be  identified,  marked  their  graves. 
They  marked  some  as  unknown,  as  appears  from  the 
"list-'  in  the  possession  of  the  writer. 

Through  the  intiuence  of  Surgeon  Dyer  and  this 
committee  many  of  the  wounded  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth  were  sent  to  Ottawa  as  fast  as  their  con- 
dition permitted  removal.  The  committee  performed 
an  immense  labor,  being  in  Ilartsville  part  of  the  time 
under  a  flag  of  truce,  the  rebels  having  possession.  That 
their  services  were  appreciated  the  following  published 
letter  shows: 

Gallatin,  Tenn.,  Dec.  22d,  18r)2. 
To  the  Friends  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth: 

In  behalf  of  the  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  One 
Hundred  and  Fourth  Illinois  Volunteers,  now  at  Gal- 
latin and  Hartsville,  Tenn.,  we,  the  undersigned,  return 
our  sincere  and  most  heartfelt  thanks  to  the  good  peo- 
ple of  Ottawa  for  their  symi)athy  as  expressed  by  the 
substantial  aid  sent  to  our  noble  suffering  wounded  by 
the  hands  of  Dr.  Hard,  Rev.  Z.  Coleman  and  J.  W. 
Calkins.  We  also  feel  under  lasting  obligations  to  the 
above  named  gentlemen  for  the  manner  in  which  they 
have  executed  the  trust  confided  to  their  hands  in  min- 
istering personally  to  the  wants  of  the  living  and  assist- 
ing faithfully  with  Christian  sympathy  in  burying  our 


70  Tin:  <"'Ni:  in'xnnKD  and  fourth 

ilfiKi  •Mil  «>i  Mill  >iuhi.  >il:iu(1  bv  li.  K.  Dver,  S.  .M.  lli-s- 
In,  K.  «',  SirvniK,  1).  r.  KvinarsMii,  M.  (►sinan,  William 
K.  HiMisli,  .1.  MisiHT,  Jos.  1*.  I'ii/siimijoiis,  \\  illiani  II. 
rolliii*.,  .I;is.  SiH-.j.ki-r.  .luliii  S.  II.  Duly. 

INflDKNTS   ()]■    Tin:    llA'l  TLK. 

Wliilr  it  lias  b«M'ii  uiiiv«'rsall>  adiiiilltMJ  iliai  ilif 
Out'  iluii(liv<I  and  l-Nmrth  did  all  that  men  could  dt> 
at  llarisvillr  i«>  win  vi»t*>ry  ur  s(«'ni  llic  tido  of  defeat. 
Koine  persitiial  aet.s  and  W(»r«Is  eamuH  well  be  omitted. 

Said  Coloih'l  Limberjr,  a  witness:  "'riic  (  Mn-  llun- 
dr«*d  and  I'onrtli  foii'dit  like  bulls." 


e 

liis    musket    to   a 
lonbt    some  one 


IM- 

ub- 


wniie   ioiinin;::,   oiii    so    oni    onee;   laKiu 
deliberati'lv    loaded,    and,    brin^in;;    hi 
ready,  pirked   his  man  and   tired      no  (...m,.   .^..m.-  , 
dr<>|»ped,  he  cscaiKMl  with  a  wound. 

tJeneral  Tlnunas  says  in  re^^ard  to  ihe  un<'  H 
tired  and  Tourth  at  Ilaits\  ille.  The  letter  was  p 
lished  ill  "Tat  riot  ism  in  Illinois:*' 

Louisville,  Ky.,  .Ian.   10,   1  ^<i7. 
(*«doml  A.  11.  .Mooio,  Ottawa,  111.: 

Colonel:--!  re««'ived  y<»nr  lett<'r  of  ihr  ::d  inst..  and 
after  earefnl  t'xaminat  ion  of  i  he  oiVnial  reports  of  ot  In  r 
oHIrcrs  who  i>artiri|iated  in  the  battle  of  llartsvilh-. 
Teiin.,  I  am  enabled  to  state  that  all  romnr  in  test  ify  in- 
to your  personal  bravery,  as  well  as  to  the  ^Mllantr\ 
of  your  own  i«';:iment  thoOiii'  lliindiod  and  I'oiirth 
Illinois.  < 'olonel  .lohn  I  larlaii,  T<*nt  h  Kent  iirky,  who  ar- 
rived with  his  own  and  the'rcnih  Indiana  re;:imentM 
very  Kuon  after  the  enemy  had  ic  i-.iss.-.j  ili)>  t  "umber 
land  Itiver,  menlioiiK  in  his  i-r|Mirt  that  a  lai::<>  major- 
ity of  the  kilb'd  and  woiimb'd  ttf  your  loniiiiaml  be- 
ioii;;iM|  to  the  <»  IK-  1 1  iindi-< -d  and  I'oiii!  h   I  lliiiois.  w  hirh 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  71 

is  coiH-hisivc  «'vi(le7i('('  of  the  steadiness  and  hravery  of 
Y(Hir  own  rejiiment  and  of  yourself  ixTsonally.  I  am, 
Colonel,  very  respectfullv  vonr  obedient  servant, 

(1E().    11.   THOMAS, 

.Major  General  U.S.A. 

WHO  FIRED  THE  FIKST  SHOT  AT  HAKTSVILLE? 

Joseph  A\'.  Coiiard  of  ('oni]>any  E,  says  in  regard  to 
this  event:  On  the  morning-  of  Dec.  7,  1S(>2,  Lieutenant 
Milton  Strawn  was  in  charge  of  the  reserve  picket  post, 
located  three  posts  from  the  (Cumberland  river,  my 
brother  William  was  on  ijuard  at  the  reserve  i)ost.  I 
was  on  guard  at  the  m^xt  ])ost  east — uiM)n  a  rise  of 
ground.  At  break  of  day,  I  saw  the  rebels  on  the  brow 
of  (piite  an  elevation  about  opposite  our  last  picket  post, 
but  I  hardlj^  thought  they  were  the  enemy,  knowing  that 
there  were  three  i)ickets  between  the  reserve  and  the 
river  and  supposed  that  if  they  were  the  enemy,  those 
pickets  would  give  the  alarm,  but  they  did  not,  and  after 
hesitating  a  few  moments,  I  discharged  my  gun  and 
rallied  on  the  reserve.  We  afterward  learned  that  the 
rebels  captured^  the  first  (last)  and  second  posts  without 
their  tiring  a  shot. 

NOTE  ABOUT  HAKTSVILLE. 

By  Lieutenant  A.  Y.  Mitchell,  Company  F- 

On  Sunday  morning,  Dec.  7,  1862,  I,  being  then  Or- 
derly Sergeant  of  Company  F,  had  arisen  early  as  we 
were  to  have  general  inspection  at  10  o'clock  and  there 
was  much  police  duty  to  be  done  arouud  the  camp.  I 
had  just  dismissed  the  men  from  roll-call  when  I  dis- 
covered the  rebels  coming  doAvn  the  stony  point  of  the 
big  hill  and  at  once  called  ^Nfajor  AVidmer's  attention  to 
it,  when  the  alarm  was  given  and  the  regiment  thrown 
into  line  of  battle  and  we  marched  out  where  the  fight- 
ing was  done.  We' were  taken  in  out  of  the  wet  and 
John  Morgan  performed  the  inspection  duties  that 
morning. 

Surgeon  Dyer  relates  that   while  attending  to  the 


72  THE  ONE  HUNDIlEn  AND  FOURTH 

woiiikIimI  oil  iln«  iH'Iil,  hi*  raiiH'  h»  a  rnTmaii  s»»ltlii'i-  aii<l 
liiK  sun,  iiifiiilici'K  of  (In*  OiH*  llumlrtnl  aiul  Sixth  (Hii«». 
Hofli  wiTr  \vnuiul«-«|  aii<l  sa'hl  thai  scriii-;  thi'tMic  Ihiii- 
tlitMl  aii«l  FiMiith  tij;litiii;4  ahuif,  thrv  th«»u;;ht  thrv 
woiihl  roiiiooviT  ailtl  help.     All  htMlor  t(»  t  hclii. 

K«»h«Tt  S.  Hi'i'iit,  of  < 'oinpaii.v  I>,  says:  1  saw  oih-  of 
the  shells  fioiii  oiir  hattfi-v  (•\|i|o(lc  in  a  irhcl  aniniiini-, 
lion  \\a;:on  an«l  tin*  icIh-Is  t  InTrupoii  ran  liU«'  sln-cp, 
Al  that  tiiiH*  \\i«  \v«M'«'  onh'rtMJ  to  |ix  l(ay<nn*ts  an»l 
char^t',  liiii  I  he  onh-r  was  ronntcrniainliMJ,  which  was 
|H*rha|>s  a  niistaU«'.  NNIn-n  tin-  irhrls  wrn*  forming  to 
atta«k  lis  llt-niv  K.  Prii  «•  said  to  ni**,  I  hein^i  in  t  he  front 
ranks:  "Hol»,  h-i  nn*  rhanjic  places  wit  h  yon,  I  N\ain  the 
tii-st  rhanre  at  them."  1  reni«*nil»er  distinrtly  one  lebel 
sleppin;;  ont  from  Itehind  a  I i-ee  and  liiin;^  dii'ectly  at 

IIS       so   it    seemed.       I    fell    ihr    wiml   of   tile   JMlliet    oil    mv 

h'ft  cheek  and  Prire  on  his  ri^dit.  We  hoi  h  tiled  at  him, 
hill  the  smoke  |>revented  oiif  seein<;  the  elTecl.  Ijeiiry 
said  to  me:  **  That  was  pretty  close,  litdt."  The  lehels 
Were  then  some  jwehe  rods  fiMiin  lis.  I  was  wounded 
soon  after,  and  l{.  .1.  (Ja^'e  carried  me  on  his  hack  ten 
rods,  \\  hen  I  t  hoii^hi  I  con  Id  walk,  and  he  |  nil  nie  dow  n, 
iilid  pdii;;  l»a<  k  lo  the  line  was  wounded  himseir  a  few 
moments  after.  I  wjiiked  a  short  distance,  when  I 
fainted  :ind  fell  in  i  he  snow  from  loss  of  hlood.  <  )n 
com  in;:  '•»  I  noi  it  t-d  ;i  j»erfeci  sioini  of  I  ml  lets  ll.\  in;;  o\er 
my  head  and  strikin;:  the  weeds  artnind  me.  The  Ke^i- 
iiieiil  fallin;;  hack.  I  was  picked  up  hy  .lohn  .1.  I^>rd,  of 
<*oiii|iany  h,  and  carried  hy  him  and  |iiit  in  a  Com- 
pany K  tent,  when  he  covered  ine  with  a  Idanket.  A 
memher  of  ('Miniiany  K  died  that  iii;:lii  hy  iii\  side, 
haxin;;  had  his  le;;  hntkeii  and  aiii|Mitaied.  I  <  nii  ne\er 
for;.'et  I'alriek  O'honm-ll,  of  rmnpany  A.  \\\\<<  was 
wonnded  in  the  nionl  h  with  a  pisioj  |>:ill  .w  •  lose  ran;:e. 
When  we  Wi'I'e  leinoNed  froiii  llarts\illc  on  the  follow - 
in;:  NN'edneHiJay  he  was  the  only  one  of  ns  that  «oiihl 
walk,  and  when  we  had  ;:one  pari  way  to  tJal- 
latin  we  stopped  f"»r  the  ni;:hi  in  some  ne;:ro  lints 
on    a     plantation.      The     «dd     lehel     owner     told     his 

ne;;roeH      not      |<i     ;;i\e      IIS     ;iM\       woml      fur      liicv.        |5iil 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  73 

Pat  had  a  revolver  and  went  out  and  stood  .ouard  over 
tlie  negroes  and  made  them  chop  wood  for  us.  He  also 
ordered  the  colored  woman  to  make  some  chicken  broth, 
and  we  had  an  opinion  that  it  was  tlic  best  chicken 
broth  we  had  ever  tasted.  Pat  aftcrwai-d  had  the  rhcii- 
matisni  very  bad  and  went  home  for  a  time.  After- 
ward he  lost  an  arm  in  battle.  His  one  faidt  conld  not 
take  one  wreath  from  his  brow. 

A  braver  man  than  John  McCullough,  of  (\>m]>any 
E,  was  seldom  seen.  We  had  retreated  to  the  river  and 
the  rebels  were  among  us,  one  of  them  raised  his  gun  to 
shoot  a  soldier,  and,  though  almost  surrounded,  John 
covered  him,  at  the  same  instant  telling  him  with  an 
oath  to  stop.  He  did.  To  tire  would  have  been  death 
to  both.  The  writer  saw  this  occur.  The  brave  McCul- 
longh  fell  at  Peach  Tree  Creek. 

Ilenrv  E.  Price  of  Com])any  D,  badly  wounded  in  the 
thigh,  said,  "It  would  be  all  right  if  1  could  only  be  sure 
that  I  had  hit  some  of  them." 

Captain  Doty,  immediately  after  surrendering,  man- 
aged in  the  confusion  to  slip  away,  and,  going  among 
the  wounded,  many  of  whom  had  crawled  back  to  camp, 
began  taking  care  of  them,  lie  succeeded  in  deceiving 
the  rebels  until  Harlan  arrived,  and  also  saved  the  com- 
pany books  and  papers. 

There  Avas  no  extra  charge  for  reserved  seats  in  the 
front  row  during  the  battle.  One  man,  and,  it  is  be- 
lieved, the  only  one  in  the  regiment,  who  was  about  to 
take  one  further  back  where  he  could  see  just  as  well, 
was  convinced  by  Lieutenant  Colonel  Hapeman  of  the 
superior  advantages  of  the  parquet  in  this  show. 

A  noticeable  feature  on  many  faces  was  the  [»owder 
stains  on  the  mouth,  caused  by  biting  off  the  cartridges, 
instead  of,  when  not  in  a  hnrry,  tearing  off  the  ends  with 
the  fingers. 

The  Brigade  being  i)risoners  and  disarmed,  were 
hurried  under  guard  of  the  victorious  enemy  to  the  ford 
over  the  Cumberland.  The  water  being  breast  deep,  the 
cavalry  took  two  or  three  men  on  each  horse  and  carried 
them  safely'  over.     Occasionally  a  horse  slii)])ed  giving 


4  THK  ONE  Hl'NDRED  AND  FOl'HTH 

all  a  iiyntd  wriliu;:.  This  otiupii-d  two  li..ms.  aii.l  m.-aii- 
liiuf  Morjran'K  lavalry  haviii},'  pitlu-rrd  up  iln-  anus, 
ariilN-n,  auiiu\iuiti«»u  ami  supplies,  ou  llu*  li«'l«l  aiul  iu 
tauip,  aiul  |.»a<liMl  tuir  wa-ious.  llu-s**  wm-  IiuiiumI 
tuwanl  Hart's  IVn y,  as  Mor^MU  had  n-poits  uf  ilu*  ap- 
pn.a«h  ..f  Harlan's  nri«:a<li-.  Hut  I.,  (h-lay  its  a«lvaiuv, 
h«*  thn-w  out  two  n-i^'inHiits  of  «avalry  and  fuur  piwes 
uf  artillrry.  \\\r  lati.T  hron^hi  fnun  his  n-snvc  uu  tlu' 
m»uth  siili'  of  llu'  rivt'r.  \  i<h-  .Moi-au's  iJcpoits.  K.l>. 
Hoc.  Vol.  XX.  ThtMibjfct  was  a»«ouii»lislu'<l  and  u.arly 
owrx  tiling'  nMuov«Ml  safely  ovrr  tin- ( 'uuilMTlaiul. 

fhf  wrary  uianh  toward  tin-  n-lM-l  liurs  was  ilu-u 
hf;;uii.  but  hVfon*  Wf  had  lost  si^ht  of  llartsvilh*  llu- 
thuiulrr  «»f  ranu«»u  arross  iIm*  rivrr  auuouu»«Ml  to  us  th<* 
arrival  of  Harlaii  and  Mill.!-.  Inii.  alas!  lou  latr'.  U<- 
yond  riMapturiii;:  a  f«'W  wa-^oiis  at  thr  ford  and  liriii;^ 
ii  few  shots  across  at  the  n-hol  r«'si*rvo  i»r  roai-  <:uaril, 
they  could  do  uoihiu},'  for  us.  liowiv«r,  llu-y  savrd 
luuidi  ]»ro]MM-ty.  whiih  .Moi-;;au's  lurn  had  ovcrh^oko.!  or 
«ould  u«tt  nMuovr,  aM<l  also  relieved  and  saved  fi.»iii 
«apt  un*  a  iiuuiImm-  of  our  lucii  auti  soiur  otVurrs  who  had 
hiddfu  away.  The  wuu.idod  and  sitk  iu  the  hospital 
wrro  n«>t  uudosird  l.v  Mui-au.  That  rvouiu-r  llarlau 
and  .Milh-r's  l»ri;:ados  n-iururd  to  Castilliau  Sj. ring's, 
Iraviii;:,  of  ntursc,  I  ho  wouudiMl  and  siik  ai  llartsvilh'. 
\ido  Harlan's  KopiUMs.  Iv»l>.  K*r.  V(d.  XX. 

.Ml  day  and  until  in  u'dtM-lv  at  ni-hi  i  ho  rouiuanis 
of  ilu-'riiiityninth  Uri«;adr  won-  niar«luNl  briskly  alon«;. 
N.»  our  had  ratou  a  bito  sin«v  the  ni;:hl  boforo.  Tho 
robol  soldiors  ha«l  liith*  in  ihoir  havi*rsarks  and  thai 
litlh-.  <  Ml  II  p.iiir.  .Many  <»f  tlu*ni  kindly  sharod  it  with 
our  iiM-n.  Having  ;:on«'  luoiiiylivc  iiiih-s  wo  won*  put 
in  bivouac  for  llu-  ni^dit  iu  a  rcdar  biako.  Evon  horo 
wood  was  hard  to  ;;<•!  for  fires,  as  wo  had  no  axes  to  «ul 
it.  Tlio  woathor  boin;;  very  rohl  and  sovi-ral  inches  of 
Muow  oil  tin*  ground,  tlicn*  was  nnnh  sufferiui:.  N<» 
food  was  ;:iven  us.  We  reali/.eil  what  it  iiieaut  to  be 
prisoners  of  war.  With  several  rebel  re«;iiuenis  nu 
^iiard  about  the  camp  the  |ou<^'  ni^hi  liuailv  eiidiil. 
The  march  was  le^iui I  "H  Mi'H.Iav,  i  he  sth,  w  ithout 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  75 

food,  and  after  marching  fifteen  miles  we  reached  Mor- 
gan's headquarters,  six  mik^s  from  iMiirfrecsboro,  in  the 
afternoon,  nearly  famished.  The  bivouac  was  again 
made  in  a  grove,  wood  and  water  were  brouglit,  and  at 
dark  a  half  ration  of  flour  and  fresh  beef  was  issued, 
but  no  salt  for  our  meat.  However,  having  been  sixty 
hours  with  scarcely  a  mouthful  to  eat,  anything  that 
would  satisfy  the  gnawings  of  hunger  was  welcome, 
and,  after  the  most  primitive  preparation  eaten.  The 
night  was  j)assed  a  little  more  comfortably  than  the 
previous  one.  The  whole  of  the  night  was  speut  in 
speculation  and  gloomy  forebodings  as  to  whether  we 
would  be  paroled  or  sent  to  some  rebel  prison.  During 
the  day  another  ration  of  flour  and  beef  was  issued.  In 
consideration  of  their  good  fortune  our  enemies  treated 
us  very  kindly,  but  allowed  no  unusual  liberties,  having 
an  idea,  no  doubt,  "Yankee"  must  be  a  very  slippery 
fellow  and  liable  to  play  some  Yankee  trick  upon  them. 

The  hearts  of  the  men  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  were  gladdened  on  the  morning  of  the  10th  by 
the  news  that  the  Regiment  was  to  be  paroled.  A  little 
later  we  left  for  Murfreesboro,  and  when  tAvo  miles  from 
town  all  were  ordered  to  leaA^e  their  overcoats  in  a  pile 
by  the  road.  Morgan  pretended  that  this  was  don<^  by 
order  of  General  Bragg,  but  no  one  believed  it.  On 
arrival  we  were  put  in  the  court  house  yard,  then  taken 
inside  by  companies,  and  paroled,  each  man  signing  an 
agreement  and  taking  an  oath  not  to  bear  arms  against 
the  Confederate  States  until  regularly  exchanged.  This 
exercise  occupied  most  of  the  afternoon,  during  which 
time  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  were  the  observed 
of  all  observers.  General  ^Morgan's  name  was  on  all 
lips,  and  he  was  the  hero  of  the  hour  among  the  rebels, 
who  had  no  scruples  about  magnifying  the  importance 
of  the  victory,  the  number  of  killed,  of  prisoners,  etc. 
While  here  the  writer  secured  a  copy  of  the  "Rebel 
Banner,"  and  this  stated  Morgan's  loss  to  be  200. 

Colonel  Hapeman  and  Major  Widmer  were  not 
paroled,  but  sent  to  Atlanta  and  afterward  to  Rich- 
mond, where  thej  were  put  in  Libby  Prison  until  April 


7«  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  F<»rRTH 

113,  lMi:{,  win-n  llifV  Wfiv  ••.V(liaii;;tul.  ("uloiu-l  Moure 
wa»als«Mlelaiin*d  in  thf(,\nifeileraty  until  March. 

Tlif  paroling'  was  tinisluMl  by  nij;lit,  and  we  were 
marelu'W  um  miu-  milr  ami  put  in  a  li»*Ul,  when  another 
half  ration  was  uivm  us,  luaUiu;;  in  all  one  an«l  a  half 
rations  of  Hour  an«l  beef  re<»'ive«l,  an«l  on  whirh  we  had 
lived  four  days.  Itut  not  withstanding;  our  hard  usajje 
all  w«-re  in  ln'ttrr  spirits  at  the  |u-ospeets  id"  a  sprcdy 
release  fnuu  lapt  i\  iiy  and  made  the  best  of  a  ot)hl  niLiht 
by  thesianty  lires. 

Karly  on  the  llih  w*-  >iaii«<l  iinch-r  rebrl  escort  for 
the  I'nion  lines  and  Nashvilh-,  thirty  miles  distant. 
Near  l.averj^ne,  lifteeii  miles  from  Murfreesboro,  the 
outp»tsts  of  the  two  j;r<*at  armies  ronfronied  each  other, 
nnd  the  Federal  commander,  not  having  been  uotitied 
of  our  ai»proarli.  mistook  us  for  an  advance  of  the  rebels, 
and  a  skirmish  follow  rd.  This  caused  a  delay  of  seNcral 
hours  before  the  mallei-  could  he  ananued  umler  a  tla;^ 
ef  truce, 

()ur  ;juai'ds  fm|»lo\e(l  ilie  inier\;il  in  sirip|tiiiu  our 
men  of  any  remaining  o\t'rcoals,  of  ihcir  blankeis  and 
anyihin;;else  in  si;^lii  or  i  ha  I  struck  lln'ii-  fancy.  Hut  the 
previoiis  experience  hail  put  a  number  on  their  ;;uai'il 
who  otln'rwise  would  ha\e  sidTered.  These  acis  afler 
(Mir  capture  were,  imlecd,  beautiful  examjdes  <•!  the 
chivalry  and  civili/alion  of  t  he  Soiit  h.  There  are  amein- 
lies  even  in  war,  which  all  (hrisiian  jMoplc.  except 
thuKe  of  the  South,  have  r«'coij:ni/ed, 

Lou;;  afler  dark  the  <  Mie  Hundred  and  I'ourlh 
Nle|i|Md  within  the  I'ldon  lines,  free  men,  "I^xcept  lln-se 
bonds,"  but  a^ain  under  the  old  lla^'! 

<'onlinuin;;  the  march  all  ni;:lit,  we  ijid  ikm  lem  h 
Naslnille  until  daylight,  ainl  lieie  uiei  with  aiioilier 
delay  of  t  w<»  hours  beftue  bein;:  Una  Iiy  quartered  in  the 
ZollicolTer  buiMiii;:.  (.Now  the. Maxwell  House. |  This 
wan  nnlinished,  with  fireplaces  in  every  room.  The  jiiles 
o(  tine  dry  lundier  mad**  exieljent  lir«'s,  and  after  ;,M'tt  inj; 
nilions  havin;;  ;;one  w  it  httiit  food  for  t  hiriy-six  hours, 
the  Ke;^iment  be;:an  to  feel  comfortable,  ami  settled 
dow  n  I  o  a  w  ait  w  li;i  le\  er  )li><po>ii  inn  mi'jht  be  made  of  it . 


CHAPTER  VIII. 


Go  to  Parole  Camp  at  Columbus— Taking  French  Furloughs— De- 
serters—Remove  to  Camp  Douglas— Guarding  Rebel  Prisoners 
—Treatment  of  Rebel  Prisoners— OfC  for  Nashville— Guarding 
the  Capitol— Go  to  Brentwood— Return  to  Nashville— At  Mur- 
freesboro— In  Beatty's  Brigade— Prepare  to  Advance— Order 
for  Movement  Issued. 


It  liaviiig-  been  decided  by  (xeneral  Rosecrjms  to 
seud  the  Regiment  to  tlie  parole  camp  at  Columbns, 
Ohio,  whilst  awaiting  an  exchange  of  prisoners,  we  left 
Nashville  on  the  13th,  nnder  the  command  of  (\iptain 
John  Wadleigh,  of  Compa-ny  I,  In  passing  (hi-ough  Gal- 
latin greetings  were  exchanged  with  a  number  of  the 
One  Hnndred  and  Fourth  who  were  at  the  depot.  We 
arrived  at  Louisville  on  the  morning  of  the  14th,  and, 
embarking  on  the  steamer  General  liuell  in  the  evening, 
reached  Cincinnati  the  next  morning.  It  had  rained  all 
night,  but  this  had  turned  to  snow  and  made  things  very 
dismal. 

The  men  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  and  One 
Hundred  and  Eighth,  who  had  come  along,  were  re- 
joiced to  reach  home  once  more,  where  there  was  plenty 
of  sauer-kraut  and  beer,  and  proceeded  at  once  to  their 
old  haunts.  In  the  evening  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  boarded  the  cars  for  G<dumbus,  an-iving  there 
at  daylight  on  the  Kith.  After  standing  ji round  some 
time,  we  marched  out  to  Camp  J.ew  ^^'allace,  three  miles 
from  the  city.  As  we  had  no  overcoats,  and  it  was  in- 
tensely cold — and  the  snow  Avas  fonr  or  five  inches  deep, 
all  suffered.  It  was  soon  learned  that  all  the  tents  ijud 
barracks  were  full,  however  the  boys  managed  to  find 
quarters  here  and  there,  but  no  doubt  thought  the  much 
warmer  climate  we  had  left  M'as  preferable,  even  with  a 
little  iron  hail  and  brimstone  thrown  in.  The  only  relief 
afforded  was  the  certainty  of  having  ]>lenty  to  eat, 


78  THE  ONE  HrNDKEl*  AN1>  F<»L  HTH 

tlu>ii;;li  >M*  liiiil  h'  Imiituu  iln-  «lislirs  lo  took  in.  'IMiis 
ciiudition  of  (liiii;:s  lastrd  iliriM'  tiavs,  w  Im*ii  ilii*  iinii- 
maiiul  was  iraiisffntHl  l«»  Camp  Cliasi',  oii  tin*  oiImt  si«le 
of  thf  liiv.  Wi'Vi'  \\v  had  roiuforiabh'  bariarUs  ami 
hfll  I«m!  tlou  II  (o  awaii  rVfiits. 

Hut,  liowfvrr,  willi  iioihiii;;  lo  tlo  aii<l  no  pail  itular 
rt»aH«m  f«»r  rcmaiiiiii;;  liciv,  most  of  tlu*  iiumi  look  Fieiu'h 
Ifuvi'  ami  wiMit  lioiiif,  ritiiiiatcly  tln*y  all  anivcd  in 
8af«*ty,  lull  I  host*  who  Iwul  no  niom-y  ilid  a  j;ood  d«'al  of 
walking;.  Al  this  liim*  sonn*  wciil  who  in'Vrr  n*inrm*d 
lo  I  In-  Ivr^iiiiH'iit,  hut  iMM-anu*  «h'S»*rU'is.  Tlu*  writer  has 
no  «|oubt  but  that  tln-ir  frifmls  (?)  iKM-snadt-d  iht-iii  to 
«l«'Srrt.  M«*  iMM-alls  two  of  these  who  weie  absent  many 
months,  inie  j^oiii;;  to  lOniojie,  bnt,  eonstiem«'-st rickeii, 
they  n*iiirned,  ami  were  e\er  after  faithfnl  soMieis. 
(Mie  of  them  was  kilh^l  in  bat  t  le  and  i  he  oi  her  died  of 
iliKiNiKe  at  Savannah  on  the  "^larrh  to  t  he  Sea." 

While  at  <"o|iinibns  the  Ke;:iinent  lost,  by  death. 
I'eiix  .Met  'iiljou^ih,  of  ( 'oiiipaiiy  I'.,  a  luave  soldier,  badly 
woniide<l  at  liartsville,  who  would  not  jjo  to  the  hospi- 
tal, but  staid  with  the  Company :  also  Lanpjon  !>.  Mor- 
rill, of  the  same  t  "omjtany,  a  not  her  faithful  li^dner. 

The  welftune  iiews  was  lereived  (Ml  dan.  IL'  that  the 
Ke;,'iiueni  had  Ium-ii  exchanged  and  «U(lered  lo  Nashville, 
but  there  were  s<»  few  at  Camp  Chase  ihal  Ca|tiain 
\\'adlei;xh  opened  eorresp(Uideiire  \\  iih  a  view  to  havin;^ 
the  destination  rhan;:ed  to  t"am|>  hou^las.  111.,  where 
the  men  roiild  be  more  easily  eo|le<ted.  (  )n  the  l.">th,  *H'\- 
tiuii  ii  ]ttts\l'\\i' itViU'V  \ii  H'\H\\\  at  Nashx  ille,  we  left  that 
♦•veiiiii;;  about  one  hiindied  siidiiii.  .\irivin;:  in  <"in 
eiiinati.  Captain  Wadlei^'h  saw  tieiieial  \\iij,dil,  eoni- 
maiidin;:  this  depariim-nt,  and  secure*!  a  «han;:e  in  t  he 
order  by  whieh  theKe;jiment  was  sent  to  Camp  nou;rh»s, 
where  it  arrived  the  iH'Xt  day,  i.  o.,  those  who  «lid  not  i;«-t 
left  or  fall  off  the  ears  near  the  Kock  Island  Junction. 
The  writer,  who  had  stayed  by  the  boys  in  every  eiiiei- 
P'liry  was  om-  of  i  hosii.  u  )|,,  f,.l|  ,,(T  and  w  as  absent  a  few 

TlioNi-  who  iciiiMineil  in  Caiiiji  I»(iu;^1ms  were  put  on 
duty  ;;uardin;;  the  liebel  j»rlsoiu-r>      Ht.(HM>  in  number 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  79 

who  had  been  captured  at  Arkansas  Post,  Htone's  River 
and  other  points. 

General  Jacob  Anmien  was  then  in  <(>ininan(i  of 
Camp  Douglas.  The  Sixty-fifth  Illinois,  Coh.ncl  Cam- 
eron, and  the  Ninth  Vermont  were  also  on  duly  there  at 
this  time. 

The  members  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  began 
to  return,  until  by  the  end  of  February  we  mustered 
over  700  men.  Having  no  field  officers,"  Cai)taiu  Wad- 
leigh  continued  in  command. 

The  winter  had  been  severe  and  was  particularly 
unpleasant  to  our  prisoners.  About  fifteen  or  twenty 
per  day  took  the  oath  of  allegiance  and  were  sent  home, 
but  some  not  daring  to  go  remained  north. 

About  February  15  those  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  at  Gallatin,  Tenn.,  with  the  wounded  who  had 
recovered,  returned  to  us  and  met  with  a  warm  wel- 
come. 

The  Regiment  began  to  look  like  its  former  self  but 
did  not  feel  exactly  right  without  its  field  officers  who 
were  still  in  Libby  Prison. 

The  proximity  of  Camp  Douglas  to  the  city,  though 
outside  of  it,  made  our  situation  more  pleasant,  and  all 
had  an  opportunity  to  get  acquainted  with  some  of  the 
mysteries  of  Chicago  and  its  attractions.  Attending  the 
theater  was  a  mucli  sought  amusement;  getting  a 
square  meal  at  some  favorite  restaurant  was  seldom 
omitted. 

But  no  one  could  leave  Camp  Douglas  without  a 
I^ass  and  the  details  were  so  made  that  a  number  could 
obtain  these  each  day,  if  desii-ed.  The  writer  came  on 
duty  once  a  week  as  officer  of  the  guard,  he  therefore 
had  much  time  to  himself. 

The  winter  months  passed  rapidly  away  and  by 
March  2.5  the  Regiment  mustered  770  men.  At  this  time 
Colonel  Moore  having  been  exchanged,  returned,  was 
serenaded,  and  made  a  characteristic  speech.  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Hapeman  and  Major  Widmer  came  back 
later. 

Much  having  been  written  and  said  about  the  ti-eaf- 


10  THE  ONE  liUNDHKD  AND  FOURTH 

liieiil  of  ilu*  KflH'I  luistnuTs  in  ('auii»  l><>u;:la8  in  iIm* 
wiiHriMif  IMIL' :?,  tin*  wii(»*r«h*sir«-K  to  say  Uvn\  iliut  iii«*ii 
wiTf  Ui'M'V  In-nt-r  tivairtl  iliaii  llifsr.  TIm'V  wwe  pi»»- 
vidtnl  Willi  as  warm  ami  coiiilortal»l«'  tuiartiMs  as  our- 
Ki'lves,  ffil  tlu'sauu*  rations  -iiulinlin;;  soft  bn-ad,  mon* 
tliaii  any  man  rouM  or  iliil  cat;  lia«l  tin*  lirst  miMlical 
aiirndamr  u  ln-n  sitk;  wm*  ;;iM*n  rloihin^'  and 
blanivfts  l>y  a  ;:«'n«'rous  ;;ovrrnmcnt  a;;ainsi  wliirii  iln*y 
had  rflM'IIfil;  w«'rr  iillowinl  the  fretMiom  .ii  th.-  ramp, 
and  ronid  trade  at  the  jiost  sutler's  if  tht-y  had  moni*y; 
bnl  tlu*y  had  no  '*Ni^';:i'rs"  to  mi  their  \\o(mI,  which  was 
fnrnislicil  in  j^cm-rons  <|uaniiiics.  Such  was  the  iicat- 
nicni  ;;ivcn  ihcm. 

iMirin;^;  .March,  a  curicl  of  cxchan;:!'  havinu  Imimi 
arran^c<l,  lar;;c  niimlicis  of  ihcni  were  sent  olT 
iiaily.  It  was  m»iicc;ihh-  ihai  I  hey  were  in  ]nime 
condition  and  read.v  to  cnicr  at  dikc  iiiio  t  lie 
ser\ice  of  theii'  master,  .lelTerson  havis,  anil  ihis  ihey 
did,  mnch  t«»  the  j;rat  ilication  d  (he  lehel  generals,  who 

solM'ly   needed   I  hem. 

Tile  fonowinji  o|lic«*rs  resi;;lied  after  the  ballh'  of 
IlartHviUe  and  previous  to  our  h-avin;;  Camp  l)ou;;his: 
<'aptain  Talnier,  romjiany  K.  I'eb.  I's,  ls»;:5;  laeiiteiianl 
.lames  Snedaker,  t  'oinpaiiy  1 ).  I  )ec.  ;;i.  1  ^tij;  Lieutenant 
rharles  ]•].  Weber.  ( 'oiMpany  I,  I'eb.  !•,  \S{\:\\  Lieutenant 
Samuel  d.  liauey,  ( 'oui|iauy  (1,  March  S,  jsi;:*,;  Lieuten- 
ant KobeiM  \'.  Simpson.  ( ".ini|>aiiy  <  I,  A  |iril  L  lSt'»:>;  ('a]>- 
tain  Samuel  M.  1 1  eshi,  ( '.un  pa  uy  <  \  Mai*  h  M,  \Si\:\. 

As  the  A|uil  days  a|ipr<>ached  ;;u;»rdiu^  prisoners 
l>ecitme  inoiioioiious  ami  the  Ke;:imenl  be^^an  to  \\  ish 
for  more  active  service.    TIm*  desired  chan;;e  came  soon. 

i  )r«lers  were  receivjMl  on  the  KMh  to  be  rea<ly  to  h'ave 
on  April  IL'  for  the  front.  (Jeneral  Kosecrans  hail  been 
noiiiii'd  that  he  could  lune  either  the  Ninth  Xeiiunut 
or  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth.  Me  ie|e;:raphe<l  f<u- 
the  latter,  thus  showinj;  that  In*  had  not  fiUi;oiteii  the 
li;:ht  in;;  ipia lilies  exhibit e<l  at  llartsville. 

( Ml  Sunday,  .\pril  t'J.  ihetiue  Hundred  ami  I^Mlrlh 
bade  a  ;;lad  farewell  to  ('amp  l>ou;:las  and  inari  hiu'j: 
to  th«'  earn  left   at   i n  for  Louisville.     Ou  arri\al  ai 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  81 

LaFayette,  Ind.,  at  eight  in  the  eveniii';-,  we  found  a  big 
supper  prepared  by  the  patriotic  and  generous  citizens^ 
awaiting  us.  A  committee  had  been  sent  to  meet  the 
Regiment  a  few  miles  out.  There  was  an  abundance  of 
everything  that  hungry  men  coukl  desire,  and  wlien — 
after  an  hour  spent  in  feasting,  the  cars  bore  us  away^ 
all  voted  the  people  of  LaFayette  to  be  the  most  gener- 
ous and  hospitable  in  the  world.  The  officers  of  the  Regi- 
ment gathered  in  one  of  the  cars  and  resolved  them- 
selves into  a  committee  of  the  whole,  for  the  purpose  of 
considering  the  extraordinary  courtesy  shown  and  pass- 
ing such  resolutions  as  seemed  proper.  Lieutenant 
Osman  acted  as  secretary.  Speeches  were  made  and 
nnmerous  resolutions  complimenting  everybody,  from 
the  railroad  officials  and  the  committee  and  people  of 
LaFayette,  to  the  waiters  who  served  the  feast,  were  in- 
troduced and  discussed.  The  meeting  did  not  break  up 
until  long  after  midnight,  and  all  of  the  pent-up  patriot- 
ism in  the  assembly  had  found  expression,  and  the  ef- 
fects of  the  excellent  champagne  had  worked  off. 

The  Regiment  arrived  in  Jeffersonville  at  dark  on 
the  13th,  and  as  on  a  former  occasion  bivouacked  on 
some  vacant  lots  near  the  depot. 

The  next  day,  the  14th,  news  was  received  of  the 
death  of  Lieutenant  William  Brush,  of  Company  D^ 
who  had  been  left  in  Chicago,  very  sick.  Crossing  o\4er 
the  Ohio,  we  took  the  cars  in  the  evening  for  Nashville. 

The  cars  ran  slow  all  night  and  we  did  not  reach. 
Bowling  Green  until  half  past  nine  on  the  15th.  Some 
soldiers  of  various  regiments— except  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth — convicted  and  sentenced  for  misde- 
meanors, whom  we  had  brought  along,  Avere  left  here 
to  work  on  the  fortifications. 

When  about  to  proceed  on  our  journey  a  report  was 
received  that  the  guerrillas  were  disturbing  the  track 
and  trains  ahead,  in  consequence  of  which  Company  A 
was  detailed  to  guard  the  mail  car. 

But  nothing  positive  was  encountered  until  we  ar- 
rived within  eight  miles  of  Gallatin,  where  the  telegraph.' 
poles  had  been  cut  down.     Company  A  disembarking 


82  THE  ONK   UrNPRED  AND  FOURTH 

was  (lr|tluMMl  ami  mairlnMl  suiiif  «listaiu»'.  Inn  fail»Ml 
to  tlrvt'lop  aiiv  irhi-ls. 

Tlif  Wfiiry  riilf  imhWmI  at  t»Mi  in  tlu'  cveniiijj:  wlieu 
Nashvillf  was  rearluMl.  Tlini  snlilirriii;:  iM'jraii  in  car- 
lU'St.  I.raviii;;  lh«*  «ai-s  tin*  Kr^iiiin'iit  mairlnMl  ovrr  the 
CumluTlainl  and  l»i\(Hiark«Ml  at  llu*  «'asi  rinl  uf  tin* 
bri«lp*.  ill  iIm*  siil»iirl»  «»f  IMjirlii-ld.  Tin-  iii;;lit  was 
^vanii.  ami  w«*  lay  tlowii — as  on  many  ju'evions  oc- 
casions, and  \\  ia|t|M'd  in  our  Idanktt s  t-n joyed  sncli  sl(M>p 
as  kin^s  mi;:lil  fn\y. 

Thf  next  day,  llir  17th,  was  warm  ami  lo\«'ly,  and 
havin«;  no  trnts  sonn*  w«'i<*  roust iiictrd  from  Idankcts, 
whii-h  served  to  jm-oIimI  ms  fiom  i  In-  heat  of  i  lie  siin. 

Tin*  K«';,Mmont  was  assi^^m-d  lo  tin*  Fonilli  I>i\ision, 
I'onittM'ni  li  Coips,  rnloiH'l  Smith  t»f  tin*  Sixteenth  Illi- 
nois, coniniandin;^  a  jiaii  of  ihe  Division. 

\N'e  now  had  to  furnish  details  for  pieket  duty 
around  Kil;:elield,  ami  take  up  the  regular  duties  of  a 
soldiei's  life.    ()ur  Idvouar  was  named  <'amp  .Moore. 

The  ( Mie  llundi-ed  and  l-'ourth  remained  at  ('amp 
Mot»n*  until  tin-  iMlth  and  wliile  here  receiM-d  the  new 
^'shelter  tenis"  reeenllv  inliodured  into  the  service. 
We  were  disposed  at  liist  to  re;^aiil  them  with  ilistrnst, 
and  they  w«Me  railed  "Do^"  and  "ruj*"  tents  by  the  hoys, 
but  their  advanta;;es  soon  heeame  known.  ICa<h  was 
coiupose<l  of  two  piec<>s  of  »anvas  four  l>y  six  feet  in 
bIzo,  and  rahulated  to  sheliei*  two  men.  (Mi  the  marrh 
oa<'h  soldier  carried  one  piece.  They  were  waterproof, 
li;;lit  and  easily  pitched,  the  pie<es  iMiltonin;::  top'ther 
over  the  rid;j«*  pole.  The  ;;ieal  benefit  was  in  the  fact 
of  the  siddier  always  havin;::  his  house  w  ilh  him  on  his 
back.  |{olh  oflireis  and  pli\ates  were  destined  |()  hid 
u  h»n^  farew  ell  to  i  he  old  "Sildey." 

The  Kejiimeni  left  ('amp  Moore  on  I  lie  l!(llh  :Uld 
ruan-liinj;  thr«ni;,'h  Nashville,  camped  ou  the  south  side 
near  I'orl  Ne;;|ey  one  of  the  (liain  of  earthworks 
erect«'d  lo  ;xuard  the  ap|tioa<h  froiu  the  south.  The 
cnnip  was  made  on  a  steep  hillside  froui  w  hence  we  had 
a  trnuid  view  of  Nashville  and  the  count  rv  round  it. 
.TuMl   lielow    lay  the  "(imnny   White  Tnruiiike"  ;im   im- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  83 

portaiit  tlioronj^lifai-c  and  one  used  by  holli  arinios  in 
militarj  inovenieuts.  The  <;reat  drawback  to  this  camp 
was  the  difficulty  experienced  at  nij^ht  in  tryino-  to  keep 
in  bed,  there  was  a  pei'iu'tnal  tenchMicy  wliHe  ash'ei)  to 
eithei-  roll  or  slide  out,  and  one  very  s()nnd  sleeper  j:;et- 
tiiii--  adrift  one  ninht  act  ually  Avent  to  the  bottom  of 'the 
liill,  and  in  the  morninj,^  was  much  puzzled  on  wakinj^ 
up  to  find  himself  parted  from  his  "Pu])"  tent. 

The  One  Hundred  and  T'ourth  was  en<;a<i-ed  here 
until  May  4  in  drilling,  ],i,-k(>t  and  jiuard  duty,  and  in 
escortinji  railroad  su])ply  trains  to  Murt'reesboVo  where 
General  Kosecrans  lay  with  the  main  arm  v.  The 
weather  continued  to  be  of  the  loveliest.     In  iiitervals 

of  duty  Nashville  was  much  visited.     The  ('ai>i(<)l a 

very  fine  buildino  ,»f  stone  and  marble  was  Guarded  in 
turn  by  companies  or  details  from  the  Regiment.  From 
the  dome  of  the  Capitol  there  was  visible  a  graml  i)ano- 
rania  of  scenery  seldom  equaled.  The  lon<i  lines  of  forts 
and  earthworks,  bristling-  with  cannon  and  garrisoned 
by  Union  soldiers,  stood  in  bold  contrast  with  the  beau- 
ties of  nature  shown  by  hill  and  vallev,  and  fertile 
fields,  through  which  the  waters  of  the  (^imbin-land 
wound  their  way  to  the  Ohio;  all  made  for  peace,  com- 
merce, prosperity  and  happiness,  but  now  blasted  by 
the  desolation  of  war. 

^Sometimes  standing  or  wandering  around  the  broad 
porticos  of  the  Capitol,  and  drinking  in  all  of  the  beauty 
and  richness  of  this  goodly  land,  it  seemed  iini)ossible 
to  realize  that  we  were  here  as  invaders  and  conquerors, 
surrounded  by  treason  on  every  hand,  with  vast  rebel 
armies  but  a  few  miles  distant. 

Few  will  forget  tlie  Ackland  ]dac(^  which  we  had 
to  furnish  details  to  guard.  This  was  about  one  mile 
from  our  camp,  and  the  large  and  princely  residence 
situated  in  the  midst  of  a  ten  acre  plat'of  ground 
was  surrounded  by  elegant  gardens  and  greenhouses, 
and  an  abundance  of  statuary.  The  owner  was  sup- 
posed to  be  a  Union  man,  but  tliis  might  not  mean  much. 
On  the  4th  of  May  the  Regiment  was  ordered  to 
Brentwood  ten  miles  south  of  Nashville.    On  arrival  we 


M  TUi;  "M:   111  M'Ul.l*  aM»  fourth 

Wi-ul  into  lainp  in  a  ln-anlifnl  j;r«tvi'  uf  lar^f  tifcs,  an«l 
near  tin*  Littif  llarpcth  river. 

Wf  fouMjl  luTt' a  luij;a«U' of  infanii  v  and  a  rej;iuieut 
of  ravaliv,  Colont'I  Dan.  .MtCook,  coniniandin;;.  Tlie 
li<-j;inn'nl  was  atta«h»Ml  to  ihis  lui^Mtlr  icnipoiaiilv. 

Tliis  I'o.st  wais  an  important  one  and  lialdc  to  attack 
at  any  tinn*,  llu-i-ffon*  liravy  picki-t  liins  wwv  main- 
tained and  cfasclcsK  vi;;ilanre  pi-evaiNd.  UrijiaUc  and 
battalion  drill  otrnpied  several  lionrs  eadi  tiay.  The 
small  fort  alreatly  l>uill  nn  lien  we  arrived  was  fnrther 
8iren;:thened.  On  lie-  llili  .lolm  M.  .Mellon,  of  ('«tm- 
pany  li,  was  wonnded  l»y  jinerrillas  while  on  picket. 

.Major  W'idnier  arrive«l  on  the  1m  U  and  was  \\e|- 
(•t»m«'d  hy  a  speech,  serenade,  etc.  While  at  llreiituood 
rumors  of  the  captnre  of  Kichintuid  an<l  Nickslnn ;:  \\<'r<» 
ret'eivtMl  and  were  so  wi-ll  ciediied  ihai  i  he  siddi«*rs  ;;[ot 
Up  an  im|>roni|)tn  celeliraiion  in  the  e\enin;::  liy  parad- 
in;i  aronnd  with  lighted  candles  |daced  in  the  mn/./les 
of  their  ^nns.  It  was  ascertained  later  that  ihe**ldow 
out"  was  sli;;litly  premature.  The  lesnll  was  a  lar;;e 
nnmher  of  elon;;aled  faces  the  ne\i  i\A\. 

Lieutenant -( 'oloiiel  lla|Mnian  arrived  on  iheLMsi  and 
was  accorded  a  warm  reicpiion  in  the  usual  .\nierican 
style. 

We  received  news  on  the  l!Mh  (»f  the  occupation  of 
Jackson,  .Miss.,  ami  the  success  of  ( Jrierscui's  raid. 

The  com|>anies  hail  been  practicing  target  shooiin;; 
for  some  days.  .M.  Kirk|»at  rick,  itf  < 'onipaiiN  I  >.  niakin-j 
the  best  shot  of  any  one  in  that  command. 

At  t  a.  in.  of  the  'JSth.  the  huii:  r<dl  called  us  to  aims 
and  we  moved  int(»  the  foi-i,  evpeciin;;  an  attack,  but 
theenemvdid  iu»t  materiali/e.  The  brii;ade  reiniilned 
under  arms  until  noiui. 

A  n  order  <-anie  on  l  he  .'td  of  .Fnne  for  the  KeL:innii( 
to  rejMirt  at  Nashville,  .\fiei-  helpin;:  t<»  destroy  tin' 
works.  \\t'  left  in  the  aftei-nonn.  and  reached  our  foi-mer 
cami>  at  twelve  that  ni;:ht,  w  here  we  remained  inact  ive 
until  .fjtiie  7th. 

In  pursuance  (if  an  oidei-  recei\  i-d  on  (  he  (ii  h  in  join 
Hm*   .\rmy   of   the  ( 'uniberhmd     at     M  uiTreesboin.   tju' 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  85 

Kegimeiit  reported  there  on  the  7th  and  was  assigned 
to  the  First  Brigade,  Second  Division,  Fourteenth 
Army  Corps,  coniiiianchMl  respectively  by  (lenerals 
John  Beatty,  James  S.  Xcgh'y  antl  George  11.  Thomas. 

The  One  Jhmdred  and  Fourth  had  at  last  found  its 
proper  position  among  veteran  troops,  beiug  brigaded 
with  the  Fifteentli  Kentucky,  Forty-secon<l  and  l-^ighty- 
eightli  Indiana  regiments,  that  bore  upon  tlieir  ban- 
ners tlie  brilliant  legend  "Stone's  Kiver,"  while  our 
brigade  commander  had  won  his  star  on  that  bloodv 
field. 

The  military  preciseness  and  air  of  business  that 
pervaded  everything  and  everybody  in  this  great  armed 
camp  of  60,000  men  produced  at  once  an  impression 
of  awe  and  respect  never  to  be  forgotten.  .  The  etfects 
of  strict  military  disci])line  were  visible  in  the  clean 
and  regularly  laid  out  camps,  as  well  as  in  the  soldierly 
bearing  of  the  men.  It  was  evident  that  the  days  o*^f 
Avild  and  independent  "Jayhawkiug"  over  the  coun- 
try, to  which  we  had  been  accustomed,  were  ended. 
Therefore  with  becoming  resignation  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth  settled  down  to  get  acquainted  with 
the  new  surroundings  and  more  exacting  duties. 

From  this  date  until  the  24th  of  June  the  Regiment 
had  its  time  fully  occui)ied.  Brigade  drill  began  at 
four  o'clock  a.  m.  and  lasted  until  six;  breakfast  at 
half  past  six;  rest  until  nine;  then  company  or  battal- 
ion drill  until  eleven;  when  we  rested  until  two  p.  m.; 
after  this  we  had  brigade  or  division  drill  until  six. 
Thus  there  was  little  time  for  idleness,  a  condition  that 
the  increasing  heat  would  have  made  agreeable,  had 
not  the  iron  hand  of  military  authority  prevented. 

A  few  days  after  our  arrival.  Lieutenant  Osman 
and  the  writer  fell  into  a  piece  of  clover  that  removed 
them  to  a  position  on  th(^  staff  of  General  Beatty  as 
Aides  de  Camp  and  precluded  the  necessity  of  doing 
any  more  walking  for  some  time.  The  latter  having 
been  almost  born  on  horseback  found  himself  again 
in  his  natural  element,  but  it  is  conjectured  that  Lieu- 


M 


THi:  «iN"E   HI   NDUKF)  ANI*  ForUTH 


IfiiJiiii  <»Mii;iii  It'll  iiion-  ;ii  ln>iin-  «-ii  i<ii:i  liiiiia  llian 
oil  ilir  liark  of  a  praiiriiiji  war  Iioim-. 

'I'Im-  wrilrr,  ilin»uii  iiilo  iiiiimaic  assoriaiioii  uitli 
tin-  iiriHTal  ami  his  stall,  rxiMMii-iiml  at  liisl  iIm-  dis- 
a(lvant2i;:«*s  arisiii;;  from  his  voiith  ami  iiaiiiiai  fJilVi- 
ilriHc,  but  with  a«  t|iiaiiitaini'  this  fiM-liii;;  \\or«*  oil.  As 
f«»r  "Mosr"  hr  ha<l  Immmi  a  s<thli«'r  in  the  .Mexican  war 
ami  was  iimlaiiiittMl  l»y  aii\  t hiii;;  <'Xr«*i»i  the  probh-m  «tf 
how  to  ridr  pio|MMl\.  TIm'  flT»Mt,  howrvrr,  was  aluavs 
strikiii;;. 

I'<»r  iiiaiiv  iiioiitlis  (it-m-ral  Koscciaiis  ha«l  1»c«mi  |U<'- 
pariii;;  foi-  a  ;;it'al  forward  iiiovi'iiH-nt,  by  r('or;:aiii/iii;; 
aiui  nM-niiliii;i  his  army — parti<nlarly  Hn-  (avalry; 
acciiiinilat in;:  imiin'iisc  supplies  of  rations  in  .MiirfriM's- 
boro;  ami  bnihlin;;  an  inipiciinabh*  line  of  forts  and 
•  •art  hw  oiUs  around  the  town.  In  ar(oni|dishin;4  the 
Ilcrrnh'an  task  hf  liaij  int't  with  nuinorons  <d>sta«h'S 
which  nciiJM'r  Hh-  ( iii\  crnniciii  m-  pcindf  conld  under- 
stand or  ap|Ucciat<'.  Like  his  ^^rcat  Lieutenant.  <Ien- 
oral  Thonias,  he  had  been  accused  of  bein;:  too  sh»\\ 
and  cautious.  Hut  about  duiu'  1st  all  the  indications 
pointed  toward  inoi-e  active  «>perations.  the  outlyinji 
rf;;imeiits,  bri;;a«les  and  divisions,  were  ad\anced 
nearer  the  front.  The  Ifeserve  ('orps,  composed  of  the 
I'Mrst,  Second  and  Third  hi\isions,  was  oiuani/ed  and 
put  under  t  he  command  of  ( i<n*  ral  <  iiudon  < !  ranker. 

<ieneral  Kosecrans  cnnld  now  mo\f  <in  ihe  enemy 
with  an  elTective  force  uf  ri.'»,mKi  men  well  armed  and 
(lisci|diiied. 

<ieneral  lira;;;:  wiili  an  arm\  of  aiioui  .Mi.ikmi  men 
(Vide  his  reports,  lleii.  loc..  \o|.  :{:{)  occupied  stronj;:ly 
entrenched  positions  in  our  front  exieudinu  to  Tulla- 
lioina,  sixty  miles  distant.  Ilesides  the  foil  ilicat  ions 
his  lines  were  well  protected  by  nature,  ilie  ctuinirv 
beiii;.'  rou^h  ami  hilly  with  few  roa«ls,  and  these  ran 
through  the  ^a|is  in  liie  hills  sometimes  for  seN'eral 
miles,  makin;:  their  defense  easy  if  attacked   in   fittiit. 

Kut  <ieii«  ral  |{<»se»i;ins  had  tluu-ou^hlv  studied  the 
Hit  mi  t  ion  w  it  li  I  he  mind  of  m  sI  raleMJsi,  Mud  .ii   last,  on 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  87 

the  23(1  of  June,  everything  being  in  readiness,  issned 
a  general  order  for  tlie  Army  of  the  ('Hnil)erland  to 
move  on  the  enemy  early  on  the  24tli. 

However,  to  cover  his  real  designs,  (Jeneral  <Jor- 
don  Granger's  Corps  and  the  cavalry  began  the  execu- 
tion of  a  movement,  intended  as  a  feint,  uitt»n  the 
enemy's  left  on  the  2.'>d. 

The  order  for  the  advance  was  hailed  with  joy  by 
the  soldiers  of  the  Army  of  the  Cnmberland,  who  had 
unbounded  confidence  in  their  General  and  affection- 
ately called  him  "Old  Tiosey." 

All  a])plied  themselves  to  the  busy  task  of  itrcjtar- 
ing  for  a  campaign  the  extent,  duration  and  resiilts  of 
which  the  Avisest  could  not  foretell,  but  which  had 
for  its  object  the  defeat  and  destruction  of  Bragg's 
army  and  the  possession  of  Chattano(>ga — the  very 
gateway  to  the  inmost  South. 


niAPTKH    IX. 


The  Tulliitionia  Cumpulifn— Advunce  to  Ho«>ver'8  Gap— Wllder'B 
CI>«rB«'— MfC<H>k  at  LUnTty  (Jup— <X^cu|»Htlon  of  Mnnchoster 
— Htaity»  nrlKJide  8«*nt  to  inil«b<.n>— Attack«Ml  by  Cavalry— 
ReJoliiH  Nt-gk-y— HraBK  HotreatM— Tullalmnui  Occupied— Beat- 
tyn  Advante  to  Elk  Rivor— S«'Vfn  MII.h  of  FlKhtlng— Stock- 
ado  L*Hpiurt»d  by  a  Detachment  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth— TJie  Rebels  Fall  Rack— Rejoicing  over  Oettysburg 
uikI     \'i.W>.1.iii  IT  -  In     «'amp. 


Ill  all  tlif  liiNioiv  of  tin-  war  tlnTf  an'  no  more 
iiUfivsiiii;,'  ami  iiisinici  ivr  Irssoiis  lo  iln*  militarv  stu- 
dent than  thos«*  alTonhMl  by  tin*  TiillalKHiia  ami  ('hi»k- 
aman;,M  rampai;:iis,  inaMj^iiiatctl  l>y  (JcmTal  iJosccraiis 
a;:ainst  iifiinal  Uiaj:;:  willi  I  lie  iniiiiaiy  olijccts  in 
virw  of  not  onl,\  rc^iainiii;:  pMssfSsion  of  tin*  vast  terri- 
tory ••xtrmliii;:  lo  the  'rmm'ssiM'  ii\»'i-,  which  had  Imm'Ii 
ac<|iiirtMl  aii«l  ahandoncil  by  Umll  ih<-  inrctMlin^'  yrar, 
]>ut  also  |>assiii;:  Itryond  that  ^icat  water  harrier,  ami 
»ii-aliii;^  the  niuiintaiii  systems  that  hem  it  in  ^ain 
the  covetetl  prize  of  ( 'hattanoojxa  — whi<h,  indeed, 
seemed  seeun-  eiioiij^li  from  rapture,  situated  in  the 
midst  of  <;reat  natural  defenses  and  protected  l»y  a 
viMeian  army  li;:lii  iii;;^  on  its  own  soil.  Najioleon  in 
erossin;;  the  Alps  only  had  to  contend  with  the  condi- 
tioRH  imposed  liy  nature  at  an  unfaNoralde  season. 
iJeiieral  Kos«M-rans  not  only  had  to  overcome  mitural 
<d»sia<  les  as  ;:real,  hut  also  to  concjuer  or  «lri\t'  lia»k 
an  opposin;;  army  nearly  as  larp'  as  his  <;wn,  and  one 
A\  hich  he  never  conletuplaled  would  surrender  s<»  ;:ieat 
and  vital  parts  of  the  Ton  fedc-racy  with  the  nminl  ..m- 
He<pn-mes  involx.'d,  without  a  de<isive  hatih-.  Tliere- 
fore.  ha\  in;;  I  his  alw  ays  in  \  iew  he  conceiv  cd  ami  he;;an 
the  ^M-and  slnile;jir  movements  cah  iilaied  to  acconi- 
plish  the  idijects  luelititMied. 

From  the  inception  of  the  (ampai;;n  iln-  hisiuiv  oT 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  89 

the  parts  borne  by  the  One  llnndred  and  Fonrth 
b(M'anio  so  blended  with  those  of  not  only  its  Brigade 
and  Division,  but  of  the  niij^hty  human  niarhiiu*  of 
which  it  also  formed  a  part,  as  to  render  an  account  of 
all  in  a  concise  and  general  way,  necessary — in  order 
to  have  an  intelligent  appreciation  of  its  own  actions 
in  connection  therewith. 

At  daylight  on  the  moi-ning  of  the  24th  of  June,  the 
Army  of  the  Cumberland,  embracing,  besides  the 
Reserve  Cori)S,  those  of  McCook,  Thomas  and  Critten- 
den, or  the  Twentieth,  Fourteenth  and  Twenty-first 
Corps,  were  set  in  motion  and  marched  away  on  three 
dilfereut  roads  toward  the  south  in  (juest  of  Bragg's 
urmy.  # 

The  weather  was  anything  but  ])i"oi»itious,  the  rain 
falling  in  torrents  and  continuously  all  day,  luaking 
the  roads  very  muddy  and  a<lding  to  the  discouifort 
of  the  men,  who  were,  however,  somewhat  protected 
from  the  inclemency  of  the  storm  by  the  small  rubber 
ponchos  which  the  Government  had  issued  to  every 
soldier,  and  which  served  to  jjrotect  their  arms  as  well 
as  persons,  being  uSed  at  night  also,  as  the  substratum 
of  very  humble  beds  in  the  mud. 

The  spectacle  of  over  00,000  men,  infantry,  artillery 
and  cavnlry,  drawn  up  in  martial  array  and  tiling  off 
in  long  lines  over  the  level  ]daiiis  of  Murfreesboro,  fol- 
lowed by  immense  Avagon  trains — which,  if  arranged 
in  a  single  line  would  have  extended  forty  miles,  could 
never  be  forgotten  b}'  those  who  composed  this  grand 
army. 

As  anticipated  by  General  Rosecrans,  the  feint 
movements  made  by  his  troops  on  the  enemy's  left  and 
center  by  our  right  succeeded,  and  the  main  ])art  of  the 
army  was  thrown  rapidly  against  tlieir  right  in  the 
direction  of  Manchester  and  Tullahoma,  thus  Hank- 
ing the  heavy  fortifications  at  Shelbyville,  where  the 
enemy  expected  to  be  attacked,  and  forcing  Bragg  to 
fight  on  ground  of  General  Rosecrans'  own  selection 
or  run. 

General  McCook,  after  starting  on  the  Shelbyville 


M  THK  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

t  iirii|iik«- ami  (Iciiioiist  laiiii;;  li«iivil\  in  iliat  tliitM  t  iuii^ 
<l«>lltM((Ml  Ills  tli\i>;iuiiK  to  iIm*  l«*ft  tMwartI  IJImtiv  <iap, 
whitli  In-  fiMMnI  sti-oii^ly  «lrfrinlt'<l,  Iml  pushiii;:  raj»i<llv 
lir  «mi\«*|i»immI  I  In*  fii«Mii\'s  llaiik  aiul  iM-fMic  iii^ihi.  afi»*r 
««ni>ii|i'ral»l«-  sUiiiiiisliiii;;  ami  li;:lilinj:.  <lit»\«*  liiiii  |h'II- 
liifll  lhiMii;;li  iIm-  <iait,  a  ilisiam«*  of  two  miles. 

<V>Mt«MH|M»rain*«»Msl  V.  <icii»ral  rimniMs,  witii  liic 
FoiirHMMiih  .\nii\  <'orps,  athamiMl  oii  ilic  Mamlicslcr 
Tiinipikf.   aiitl   ( 'lit  ifmlfii's  ('ui-|»s   lowani    Iliad  v\  ilk* 

ill     SU|l|Ml|-t. 

\\  ilii«T*s  llii;iatl«-  of  iiititiiin-il  iiifaiiliy,  wiili  i1m' 
ifsi  of  lv«>ymt|(ls'  Division,  Ird  ilu*  a<lvam-«*  of  ;lir  i'our- 
itM'iiili,  Kossraii's  ami  Nr;:lfV*s  IHvisi(»iis  fulluwin^. 

W  il«lf!-  fm-MimirrtMl  iIm^ii-Im'I  jti«kcis  sr\«*n  milrs 
out  aii<l  imisIumI  over  iImmii.  Ilr  iImmi,  with  his  usual 
iiii|M't  iiosit  \ ,  atlarkt'*!  tin*  icscivrs  at  Hoover's  (laj) 
aii<l  ilrovr  tho  ••iniif  fono  through  tin*  (l(*('|i  <li*lilf— 
!lii«*f  iiiih*s  ill  h*ii;;:th.  to  the  soiitln'iii  ciiiramc,  where 
the  th'ee  rebel  liiij^ades  of  Hates,  Wharton  ami  Lid- 
dell  lay  ill  a  stioii;;^  position.  <  Mi  the  way  Wilder  t-ip- 
tnred  nine  wa;:ons  and  some  prisoners.  As  the  enemy 
proposed  to  fi^llt,  W'ildel-  disposed  his  ^iallaiit  tlire«* 
Illinois  ami  two  Indiana  re^iiineiits  with  his  howitzers 
and  tell  pounder  litled  Kodnian  i:nns  on  the  hills  and 
awaited  the  onset.  The  enemy,  after  tirini:.  and  ro\- 
«Ted  liy  artillery,  rliar;:ed  in  a  spirited  manner  se\eral 
limes,  lint  eonld  not  resist  Wildei's  repeat  ini:  ritles. 
Tliey  tiirm*il  and  lied,  leaving  their  dead  and  wonmhd 
on  the  lield.  It  was  weH  that  they  did,  as  lieyiiohls 
now  raim*  nit  with  twn  lni;^atles.  The  Nictory  was 
important.  ;:ained  wit'i  a  loss  to  us  of  si.vty-om*  killed 
and  \\iinndi*d,  while  that  of  the  enemy  was  l)\e  hnn- 
dnMJ.  iifiieral  Kosei-rans  on  snrv«*yinj;  the  ;:roimd, 
remarked,  "Wilder  has  saved  ns  thonsands  of  meii." 

Iiarkiiess  roinin;j  on,  the  operations  of  the  day 
rloHiMJ,  and  the  entire  army  hivoiiarked  for  the  ni;;lit 
in  the  iiiidsi  of  rain  and  iniid.  <hir  Division  went  into 
camp  at   lU^  Creek      Kossean's  in  ad\  am-e. 

The  niornin;:  of  the  1,'otli  <law  tied  npoti  ns  rainy  and 
»lark  with  lleery  rioiids  of  mist  lian;:iii;i  o\er  the  niiuin- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  91 

tains.  The  ai-iiiy  was  aj^aiii  set  in  motion  and,  as  on 
the  24tli,  steadily  drove  the  enemy  at  all  points.  Xej;- 
ley  moved  at  ten  in  supi)ort  of  Kosseau  and  Keyn(dds 
at  Hoover's  Gap,  the  latter  meeting-  with  considerable 
opp(>sition  and  losiii*;-  a  nnniber  in  killed  and  wounded. 
Ueatty's  Krii;a<le,  as  it  drew  near<'r  about  <tne  o'clock, 
witnesse<l  a  i»art  of  the  tij^ht,  but  was  not  orch'red  into 
it,  and  later  went  into  camp  near  the  trap,  where  there 
Avas  a  store.  Hqme  of  the  boys  made  a  raid  on  this 
and  on  some  bee  hives  in  the  vicinity.  After  a  time 
General  Keatty  sent  the  writer  to  disperse  the  raiders, 
but  the  bees  contributed  more  effectually  to  that  end. 

In  the  afternoon  the  enemy  attempted  to  retake  a 
portion  of  Liberty  Gap,  occupied  by  Jtdmson's  Divi- 
sion of  McOudv's  ('ori)s  and  made  a  (les]>erate  tiiiht,  but 
was  repulsed  in  every  attack,  with  a  loss  of  one  hun- 
dred killed,  and  seven  hundred  and  fifty  wounded,  while 
that  of  Johnson  was  two  hundred  and  thirty-one  killed 
and  wounded. 

Thomas  and  Crittenden  continued  to  advance  on  the 
2('tli  in  the  midst  of  a  continuous  rain  over  roads  almost 
im])assab]e,  and  in  the  face  of  considerable  o])p()sition 
to  the  former,  but  at  night  Thomas  arrived  within  five 
miles  of  Manchester  and  occu]>ied  a  strong'  position 
A\Iiicli  would  compel  Bra<^g"  to  j^ive  up  Tullahoma  and 
his  entire  line  of  defenses,  or  fight,  in  which  latter  case 
the  whole  army  could  be  massed  on  his  left  and  crush  it. 

Negley's  Division  moved  in  support  of  Kosseau  and 
Keynolds,  hearing  caniKuiading  all  day  ahead,  and  at 
night  bivouacked  at  Beech  Grove  in  high  sijirits  over 
the  uninterrupted  successes. 

McCook's  and  Grangei*'s  Gorps  remained  inactive 
on  the  2tith,  awaiting  tlu^  result  of  General  Thomas' 
operations. 

Early  on  the  27th  Wilder's  advance  dashed  into 
Manchester,  surprising  and  capturing  some  rebel 
guards.  The  rest  of  the  Fourteenth  (''ori)s,  Keynolds 
in  advance,  soon  followed,  but  the  last  of  it  did  not 
arrive  until  midnight  on  account  of  the  condition  of  the 
roads.     The  larger  part  of  the  trans])ortation  Avas  left 


n  THK  ONE  HL'NDREIJ  AND  FOl^RTH 

iiiilrs  bi'hiiul.  IJralljk's  J{ii;4a«l«-,  l»'a\iii^  at  li\f  a.  iii., 
;;iiariic4l  the  Divinion  wap»u  train  tlin»u;;li  to  .Maii- 
rlifsltT  aiitl  (-aiMprtl.  \N'«*  wtic  ilicii  only  Iwrhc  milts 
from  'i'ullalioiiia. 

.Mi<'<K»k's  ('or|>s,  iiaviii^  iioiliiii;;  to  opposf  it, 
iiiarcluil  for  MamlM'sirr.  <iraii;;«*r's  ror|>s  tiicouiitrrtMl 
NN  lui'ItT  at  tiiiv's  (nip,  tlrovr  liiiii  into  Shrlhwilh*  and, 
iiftrr  liani  li;:litin;;,  arross  Duck  Kiv«r.  with  a  h)ss  to 
\N  h«-«'h'r  of  his  artilh-rv,  two  hiiinlir«l  kilh'il  and 
woiinih'il,  jind  live  hundrt'il  taken  ]»risoii«'i-s. 

'I'hi*  day's  o|MM'ations  ah>n;;  the  whoh*  line  ha«l  ht-cn 
8Urc('SNfiil,  and  at  ni;:ht  the  iMieniy  was  in  hasty  retreat 
from  his  extended  aiid  elaborate  system  of  foitilira- 
tions,  i'videiitly  only  anxious  to  ^^et  Im-vouiI  iIh-  reaeh 
of  his  adversary. 

The    fidl    measure    o|     the    smress    o|     <iene|;il     Ko>e- 

4-rans'  strate;:y  hecame  j^eiierally  known  on  the  L'Sl  h, 
Sunday,  and  raised  the  enthusiasm  of  the  Army  of 
the  ('umlteiland  to  the  highest  point,  whilst  their 
admiration  for  their  leader  was  unhiMindetl. 

Hut  mindful  thai  only  a  small  part  of  the  work 
to  he  areoniplished  had  been  eompletetl,  (leUel'al  Kose- 
rrans  ordered  <ieneral  TlKunas  to  push  the  enemy  to 
the  utmost,  while  lie  waited  for  Mrru.ik  aiul  ("ritten- 
den.  wim  weie  still  slru;:;,din;r  di'speialely  in  ilie  lear 
jnidsl   mud  ami  rain,  to  rearli  Maiieheshr. 

Therefore  ( 'leneial  W'ildei-  Nvasseiii  ill  da\li::iii  on 
the  L'Sih,  with  his  mounted  infantry  to  break  ilie  lail- 
road  south  of  Deeherd  ami  I'lk  river.  sa\e  ih.-  bridues 
]iml  delay  the  enemy. 

To  SUDpoit  Wilder's  mo\emenl.  Thomas  oldeled 
<  Jeiieral  .lolin  |{eat  ly  to  move  wii  li  oui  r.rii^ade  lo  I  lills- 
boio.  eijjht  mileH  from  Mamhesier.  on  tin-  enemy's 
extreme  ri^ht.  Our  |uospeei  for  a  Sumlay  rest  was 
thus  smldenlv  emled  and  at  ten  the  nri;:ade  fell  into 
line  and  manhed  o|Tthroui:li  I  he  w<»ods  ovi-r  eXt-erable 
roads,  rohmel  '!'.  ]'.  Nirholas  wjis  also  ordered  to 
n-porl  with  his  First  Hattalion  of  the  Seeond  Kentueky 
<'avalrv  t.MJerieral  Ih-atty  at  liillsboio.  The  Ilii^^nde 
arrived   at    its  destination    late   in   the  afleruonu   and 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  93. 

went  into  camp  in  the  outskirts  of  the  tumble  down 
vilhige  at  a  point  covering  tlie  old  Chattanooga  road. 
The  position  was  an  exposed  one  far  from  support,  and 
a  strong  picket  line  was  established,  while  the  com- 
mand was  cautioned  to  be  in  constant  readiness  for 
jjossible  attack.  Meantime  the  rain  continued  to  make 
things  disagreeable.  No  fires  Avere  allowed  after  dark. 
The  men  erected  what  shelters  they  could  and  lay  down 
to  rest.  About  twelve  in  the  night  tiring  was  heard  on 
the  picket  line  held  by  the  Cavalry.  General  Beatty 
arousing  the  writer,  who  was  sound  asleep,  sent  him 
to  ascertain  the  cause.  The  IJi'igade  was  awakened 
and  stood  in  line  of  battle  until  daylight.  It  was  found 
that  Colonel  Nicholas  had  been  attacked,  but  the  enemy 
did  not  follow  it  up.  However,  there  was  no  more  sleep- 
ing done  that  night,  Ceneral  Beatty  and  staff  standing 
with  the  rest — horses  in  waiting,  ready  to  mount,  or 
occasionally  visiting  the  outposts. 

We  remained  here  until  noon  of  the  29th,  when 
Ceueral  Beatty  was  ordered  to  join  the  Division  in  the 
direction  of  Tullahoma,  at  Bobo's  Cross-roads,  eleven 
miles  from  us  by  the  shortest  road,  which  was  also 
exposed  to  attack  from  the  enemy's  cavalry,  who  were 
in  close  proximity  to  us  and  in  sight.  Starting  imme- 
diately by  a  cross-road  that  led  through  a  barren,  low 
country  covered  with  a  thin  timber  growth,  Ave  had 
gone  four  miles  Avlien  a  dash  was  made  by  the  enemy 
on  our  caA'alry  at  the  head  of  the  column.  The  attack 
was  repulsed  with  a  loss,  to  Colonel  Nicholas  of  Lieu- 
tenant Jenkins  killed,  one  wounded  and  one  captured. 
AV<^  ha<l  been  marching  in  c(duniu  down  a  narrow  lane, 
but  (leneral  Beatty  at  once  deployed  the  Brigade  in 
line,  Avith  the  artillery  (Hewitt's  liattery)  in  the  center, 
and  thus  formed,  we  advanced  through  the  fields  and 
woods,  but  no  further  attack  Avas  uuide.  About  five 
p.  m.  AA^e  Avere  suddenly  alarmed  by  tAA'o  cannon  shots 
and  musketi'A'  firing  in  front.  The  Brigade  then  took 
position  near  a  log  barn  and  fence,  ready  for  battle. 
The  scouts  coming  in  reported  the  enemy  advancing 
in  force  with  artillery.    Soon  after  the  caA^alry  reported' 


M  THE  ONK   HT'NPRED  AND  FOURTH 

ilif  Mi|i|Mi>fil  i-in-m\  i<i  Im-  <»iir  own  tri>(>|>s  of  UcvimMs' 
I>ivisitin.  'riii*  si-attniii;;  sli«>is  lia<l  iiijin'cd  iiu  uiic,  and 
\\f  uutvtMl  till  to  Hollo's,  w  ln'ii*  wi*  ftiuinl  ilif  it'si  of 
Nf^lfv's  I>ivisi«iii  aii«i  \\«mii  iiiio  raiii|i. 

Tiic  division  r«'iiiaiii«-<l  in  iaiii|i  on  iIm-  iliMli,  ami 
tlir  One  lhiiiilr«*<l  and  roiiiili,  lifin^  on  short  laiions, 
nia«lr  np  tin*  s«ani  allouan«r  liy  ^lailinin^  iIImmumI 
wlirjit  from  a  ti«'l<l  ami  Iwiilin^  ii,  ami  also  frastnl  on 
.sirav  ho;;s  fonnd  in  i  In*  w  immIs.  TIm'  \n  liltT  was  onlrrtMl 
to  rrjMiri  to  (MMMTal  Nr^ilrv  «'ail\.  wliirli  lie  (lid.  and 
wais  srnt  l»>  him  with  sonn-  oidnlirs  from  I  li'ad<|ii-ir- 
trrs  iiark  to  .Mamhrstcr  for  forap'  to  feed  ilw  artil- 
l«*rv  ho|-s«*s,  also  snjijilit's.  \\ C  startt-d  and  tin'  roads 
ht-in;:  impassabh'  |»i«k«'d  onr  wax  ihroiii:li  tin*  woods. 
4)11  arrival  and  r('|ioriinj;  lo  Hri<^adr  (ommissary 
W'flls.  In-  loaded  n|i  a  pack  train  of  mnh's  with  whirh 
\\«*  starii'd  hark,  and  on  t  ho  way  rnnninu  a<i*<»ss  a  do/.cn 
head  of  rat  t  h-  diox  ••  i  hom  into  tamp,  w  Ikic  w  r  arris  od 
at  dark.  .Ml  of  tho  snjiply  trains  wrro  ai  Manrlnsii'r 
or  mirili  of  their,  nnahh-  to  mo\»'. 

'The  mo\('in«'nts  of  the  army  on  the  ;'.(Mh  were  «on- 
tim*d  maiidy'lo  elosin^'  up  on  'ruJIalioma.  Stray  riti- 
Zfiis  coinin;;  in  reported  Hra;:;:  as  evacnalin^,  there- 
fore (leneral  Sieedman's  hri^ade  with  one  of  Sheri- 
dan's ami  Ke\  nolds'  adNam-ed  to  within  two  miles  of 
the  town,  Imi  met  wit  h  a  spirited  op|iosit  ion  fr<im  reliel 
infantry  and  artillery,  hisinLr  lifteeii  men.  I'eariniL'  :» 
niKi'jind  it  lieiiiL;  altont  dark.  Sterdmaii  lialied  r«>r  the 
nii^iit. 

I-'arlv  on  .hil\  I>.|  he  a;:ain  a<l\amed  and  entered 
Tnllahoma  at  noon.  .\  few  prisom'is  were  taken,  Imt 
the  main  army  hail  ^one.  In  confoiniity  with  this 
movement  tin*  oihei-  hixisions  ino\«M|  forward.  Ne«;- 
le\'H  leadin;:,  snpported   liy   IJossean's. 

heallx's  ltri;^ade  liein;.:  in  fioni  had  ^one  alioiit  fonr 
miles  when  our  battalion  ..f  .a\alr\  was  snddeiilv 
atlarked.  hnt  the  emMnV  fell  hark  a  mile  or  so.  when 
he  opened  n|Min  us  with  a  masked  liaiterv  of  artillerv, 
onr  halterx  replh-d  and  for  half  an  hour  kept  n|i  a 
Ii\el\   fusil  hide      Theie  w  ,-V'  three  rasnaltii's  in  t  he  (  Mie 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  96 

Hiiiidred  and  Fourth,  amon<>-  them,  Corporal  George 
Wine  of  Compay  K,  who  was  killed  by  a  solid  shot. 
Meantime  the  infantry  were  sh)wly  feelinjj;'  their  way 
through  the  woods  and  uiKhM'bnish.  The  wcallicr 
being  very  hot  many  were  snnstruck.  The  enemy  again 
limbered  up  their  battery  and  retired  half  a  mile  to 
Spring  Creek  Pass,  where  another  artillei'y  dnel  fol- 
lowed. Thus  our  r»riga(U'  drove  them  from  ])hice  to 
place  for  seven  niih^s  and  until  dark,  to  a  ])oint  near 
Heftner's  Mill.  The  other  brigades  of  Negley's  Divi- 
sion had  followed  within  close  supporting  distance  all 
da}^  Strong  pickets  were  thrown  out  to  the  front  and 
right,  while  Kosseau  picketed  the  left  and  rear. 

The  day's  work  had  b(HMi  hard  but  most  satisfac- 
tory. The  intense  heat  had  prostrated  many  and  Sur- 
geon Dyer  with  his  assistants  were  busy  all  day. 

The  position  occupied  by  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  in  the  advance  was  on  the  left  of  the  Haltery 
and  the  road,  with  Company  K  thrown  out  as  skirmish- 
ers under  Captain  Fitzsimmons.  Under  orders  from 
General  Beatty  the  writer  fre<iuently  vij>;ited  this  part 
of  the  line,  and  Colonel  Moore  being  deaf,  at  the  i*e<iuest 
of  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  and  Major,  repeated  the 
orders  to  them,  so  that  no  mistakes  might  occur. 

On  the  morning  of  the  2nd  it  was  discovered  that  a 
large  rebel  forcc^  had  bivouacked  only  half  a  mile  froui 
us.  The  march  was  resumed  all  ahuig  the  line — our 
brigade  in  advance.  After  going  about  one  mile  we 
€ame  suddenly  to  the  Elk  river  valley,  half  or  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  wide,  and  beheld  the  enemy  on  the 
opposite  bluff  with  a  battery  in  position.  The  brigade 
was  halted  in  the  shelter  of  the  woods  and  another 
battery  additional  to  our  own,  ordered  up  by  (ieneral 
Beatty.  We  then  began  to  play  upon  them  with  ten 
guns,  much  to  their  surprise,  and  their  infantry  and 
cavalry  at  once  sought  a  safer  place.  The  rebel  bat- 
tery replied,  but  the  tire  from  ours  was  so  effective  as 
to  disable  one  or  two  of  their  guns,  when  the  battery 
limbered  to  the  rear.  Most  of  the  rebel  shells  tlew 
high  over  the  heads  of  our  men,  crashing  among  the 


>C  THE  ONE  HUNDHKD  AND  FOURTH 

lrf<*s  and  hii-akiii}^  liiiil»s,  Iml  In-wiiul  iwu  «»r  ilnvc  iiicu 
wuiiikIimI  l>v  pitTfs  of  slu'lls  iu»  tlaina^i*  was  (huic.  Near 
tin-  lnulp*  a«ioss  tin*  I'lk  (and  wliirli  lihd  1hhm»  linul) 
lliiTi-  Wiis  a  small  \o>^  sliM-katlr  «M(iij»i«'d  l»\  dIm'!  sliarp- 
8luM»tt*ii<,  who  amiovcMl  our  advanrc  skirmisln'i-s.  The 
LM-Miin«l  tlowii  In  the  river  was  a  «lear  Icvid  phiin,  hut 
;:ioii;;  thr  hank,  whi«h  was  h>w,  fiinjjetl  with  liccs. 
<i«iM'ral  I»«'at!v,  rallin;;  npt»n  thr  One  lliindicd  and 
I'Miiiih  to  furnish  a  d«'tail  of  ten  men  to  raptni-e  the 
stoikadf,  (oloii.l  Mouic  sehH-ted  Sei'tjeuut  (ieorge 
Marsli  to  h-ad  the  jtaitv.  Th«*  Sn-j^canl  called  f«n-  vol- 
untfiTs,  who  itronipilv  rfsi»oiid<-d.  TIk*  iihmi  who 
>^t<'p|H*d  foiwafd  for  what  was  coiisidi-rctl  a  forlorii 
lio)M*  Wfi-r,  brsidfs  .Marsh,  John  Shapland,  John  II. 
TowtMs,  Kit-hard  J.  (laj^e,  Oscar  Slaj^le,  \\'m.  A.  Fi;::hi, 
KoJMMt  ilaii-,  L<Mn.  F.  Ihdlaiid.  Miiriav  Kiikpal  rick  and 
]{.  S.  Snialh'V.  The  lilllc  hand  dc|»|n\iii^  as  skirniish- 
«Ms,  ami  covered  hv  tin*  liir  of  our  halteries,  donhh*- 
•  liiickrd  across  the  plain,  thf  ii-ImI  sharj)shooters  lirinj^ 
at  them,  and  ;:ain>'d  tin-  rivt-r  withont  a  casmilitv,  then 
1  all\  iiiLT  on  t  111'  h'ft,  t  ln*\  r  us  hod  for  t  ho  stocka<h'.  Tin' 
do/.rn  n-hols  fnsidt',  sei/od  with  a  panic  al  tin*  h(d<l 
action,  hfi  iu  <-oiifiision,  and  swiuiiuing  tl»e  Elk,  took 
to  tin-  woods,  from  which  ihcy  sent  hack  a  few  shots. 
The  partv  was  soon  after  ordered  ha<k  ami  received 
the  pei-soiial  thanks  of  the  (Jeneral.  <"aptain  llowe, 
with  Companv  It,  was  tlu'ii  s«*nt  down  with  a  detail  to 
|nii  out   the  tire  at   the  bridge. 

It  was  tluMi  ahout  four,  and  there  being  no  signs  of 
the  enemy,  ami  with  the  line  of  the  I'lk  in  <om|dete 
possession  of  our  army,  we  wiut  iuio  hivoiuu-  in  the 
valley  n<'ar  the  position  held  all  <hiy. 

The  night  was  a  joyous  om*  iu  our  camps,  for  it  was 
certain  that  (iem-ral  Hragg  was  in  full  retreat  over 
the  lofty  t 'umbeilands.  These  lay  in  si^rlit  and  only  a 
few  miles  distant.  ,\t  a  late  hour  the  w  riier  i-eiueuibers 
beini.'  invited  to  a  private  sup|u'r  in  the  cpiarters  of  tin- 
< 'n<-  liumlred  ami  I'ourth,  where  fine  boiled  mutton 
.ind  pi;:,  not  issued  by  the  (Quartermaster,  were  on  the 
hill  of  f;ir<-      Till-  loc.ilit  \   wjis  a  bad  om-  fur  ^^i  ray  game 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  V0LUNTI':ERS.  97 

of  any  kind,  whirli  somehow  or  oilier  j;oi  iiiiu  tronl»l<' 
and  the  mess  pots  of  the  hunj^ry  s(ddiei-s.  Near  the 
camp  and  road  thc^re  stood  the  house  of  a  I*reshytei-ian 
minister,  who,  as  somi^one  had  ascertained,  was  a  j^reat 
rebel.  At  all  events  he  had  deserted  his  home  on  onr 
approach,  ami  in  the  intervals  of  duty  the  i)lace  was 
ex])lore(l  by  our  men,  who  fouml  amony,  oth(n'  thin;;^ 
a  larj;'e  lilu-ary  of  Ixudcs — ni<>stly  tln'oloj^ical  woi'ks. 
Deeming;-  it  a  proper  time  to  develop  in  the  line  of  reli- 
gious in(]uiry,  some  of  the  books  were  carried  away,  but 
probably  found  too  old  and  dry  to  kee]).  The  action  at 
Elk  rivei-  closing  with  the  cai»ture  of  the  stockade  by 
a  detail  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth,  practically 
ended  the  tijj;htinn'  for  some  time,  as  will  api)ear  fur- 
ther on. 

On  the  morninjj:,'  of  the  ;]d,  the  dilTerent  divisions  of 
the  Fourteenth  ('ori>s  be<;an  crossing  Flk  rivei-  by  the 
fords  at  several  points.  The  bridge  in  front  of  us,  which 
had  been  almost  destroyed,  was  repaired  by  a  ])ortion 
of  Oeneral  St.  Clair  Morton's  Pioneer  (N)r])s,  so  that 
by  noon  Xegley's  Division,  with  Beatty's  Biigade  still 
in  advance,  crosst^d,  tln^  artillery  fording  below.  It 
began  raining  in  the  morning  and  continued  all  day, 
no  Presbyterian  rain  either,  but  a  genuine  Ba])tist 
down-pour.  But  under  .orders  Beatty  })uslied  forward 
as  fast  as  possible  on  the  road  toward  the  mount-iiiis 
leading  to  Fniversitv  Place,  where  stood  the  "Univer- 
sity of  the  South."  Having  with  the  utmost  difficulty 
gone  three  miles,  we  went  into  cam])  in  the  mud.  On 
the  wa\'  several  dead  cavalrymen  an<l  horses  were 
found  in  the  woods.  The  rations  of  the  men  were  not 
flavored,  as  last  night,  b}"  fresh  pig  and  mutton  stews. 

The  arin\'  remained  in  bivouac  during  the  forenoon 
of  the  4th  of  July.  At  noon  (xeneral  Beatty  received 
orders  to  push  forward  to  University  Place,  and  we 
started  soon  after,  followed  by  the  rest  of  Xegley's 
Division.  The  other  divisions  of  the  Fourteenth  Corps 
were  to  move  in  co-operation  with  ours.  Having  gone 
four  miles  we  reached  the  foot  of  the  mountains  and 
"began  the  ascent.     It  was  three  miles  to  the  top,  but 


It  THE  ONE  HfNl»RED  AND  FOl'RTH 

iK'fwn*  wv  had  j:oiu-  half  a  iiiih-  tli«-  i<ta<l  was  fuiiinl 
!«»  be  •»bKlnirtfti  l»y  trtfs  whirh  ihe  itlifls  had  frih'd. 
«M'iu*ral  Hi-ativ  al  «»iuf  sft  \\u'  (udnlirs  lu  work  to 
rniiovr  ihf  «»l»sinutiMiis  and  mMit  thf  \\rii«  r  hack  to 
briii;;  \\\i  a  roiiipan.v  of  inrii  to  assist.  Mfaiitiim*  thr 
\vh«d«*  IMvisioii  halted,  jiiid  <l«'iuMals  Thtniias  and  Nr;^ 
h'V  lodf  fMiwanI  to  iiisiiect  th«'  n»ad.  Tht*  result  heiii^ 
roiiiiiniiiiralcd  ii»  «i»-inMal  ICnsrc  rans,  lie  uidcifd  a 
I'oiiiili'f  iiiovniHMii  bark  in  ilu-  Itase  t»f  tli»-  iiKunnaiiis. 
and  dinMtiil  tin*  Fourtfcni  h  (miis  in  ;^n  iuiu  iaiii|t. 
(M'lMM-al  Ih-alty.  who  had  ;j;uim'  »tn  ahead  wiih  the  «a\- 
alry  deiathiiieiil  aiitl  had  leaihed  the  smiiinit,  int\v 
returned,  an<l  the  nri;:ade  havinj:  rouMtennarcheil, 
l»i\<>uarked  in  a  s\\anii»  n«*ar  the  base  uf  the  Pass. 

\\  hat  tlie  next  niM\eMieiii  wuiild  be  was  a  siibjett 
of  sjMMiilatinn  arnund  the  evening;  cainp  tires.  TIk- 
Hue  ilnndi-ed  and  I'ourth  did  not  for^M-t  that  this  was 
the  natal  da\  uf  the  Naliun.  and  in  imw  dilTereni  a 
inaniMM-  it  had  Immmi  spent  from  usual.  Hut  it  was  real- 
ized that  unless  the  objects  it  was  li;;htin;;  for  could 
be  achie\ed  ( lure  W  dU  Id  be  no  luoic  use  for  t  he  Nai  iitual 
Holiday,  .\boui  icu  o'clock  <ui  Sunda\',  the  .~»ili,  the 
whole  army  was  eleciiitied  by  the  joyous  news  from  I 
(ieneial  liosecrans' lieadtpiarters  t  hat  <irant  had  lakeii  1 
\icksbui-;;  ami  i.e«''s  army  had  been  ilefealed  at  ( Jet  tys-  ■ 
bur;:.  The  writei-  boie  the  ;:lad  tidinp:s  to  the  One 
lluinlretl  and  I'oiirth  and  oihei-  re^rinients.  The  beam- 
in;;  fact's  evi'iyuhere  and  the  cheels  floui  tens  of  thou- 
Kands  of  men  echoed  and  re-ecluted  alon;;  the  valley 
of  the  KIk  ami  annui;;  the  mountain  ;:oiires,  as  if  to 
tell  our  reirealin;:  foes  that  at  last  treason  and  relnd-  ] 
lion  had  met  with  such  si;;nal  defeats  as  lo  |u»sa;:e 
their  iinal  overthrow.  The  cam|i  of  the  <  Mie  Hundred 
and  I'ourih  was  scarcely  abo\c  water  and  became  ver\ 
mudd\  fiom  iM'in;;  tramjied  n\cr  by  so  man\  men.  but 
ami*l  the  entliUKiasm  produced  by  the  announcement 
of  the  ;.'rea!  vi«-tories,  all  discomforts.  dan;:ers,  hard 
inarches   and    s'lori    rations,    were   entirely    for;;oileii. 

The   men    lie;;an    to  clean    up  and    ^'et    rid    of   the   edecls 
of  ten   da\s'   campai;;niii;:   in    rain   ami    mud.      It    was 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  99 

also  noticed  that  the  Field  and  Staff  came  out  in  clean 
collars  and  indulged  in  the  hixiir}'  of  cigars  from  the 
Sutler's. 

The  first  part  of  General  Rosecrans'  plans  had  been 
successful!}'  executed  with  the  comparatively  small 
loss  of  eighty-five  killed,  four  hundred  and  eighty-two 
wounded,  and  thirteen  captured;  while  the  losses  of 
General  Bragg  in  killed  and  wounded  were  not  cer- 
tainly known;  he  lost  as  prisoners  fifty-nine  officers 
and  fifteen  hundred  and  seventy-five  men,  together 
with  eleven  pieces  of  artillerj".  His  loss  by  desertion 
amounted  to  several  thousands.  The  woods  and  moun- 
tains were  full  of  deserters  and  they  came  in  daily. 
Negley's  Division  lost  three  killed  and  five  wounded, 
of  these  three  belonged  to  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth. 

The  present  campaign  had  terminated  at  an  oppor- 
tune time  as  co-related  to  military  movements  and  suc- 
cesses elsewhere,  but  the  expectation  was  that  General 
Rosecrans  would  at  once  continue  the  advance  and  fol- 
low Bragg  beyond  the  Tennessee  River.  Such,  indeed, 
had  been  his  purpose,  and  the  movements  of  Negley 
and  Beatty  on  July  4th,  were  the  initiative  steps  in 
that  direction,  but  one  more  day's  consideration  led 
him  to  a  different  conclusion,  and  the  Army  of  the 
Cumberland  went  into  camp  for  rest  and  recuperation 
while  the  further  preparations  which  General  Rose- 
crans deemed  necessary  were  being  made  for  the  next 
forward  movement. 

Extract  from  the  report  of  General  Thomas  at  the 
conclusion  of  the  Tullahoma  campaign :  "Without  par- 
ticularizing or  referring  to  individual  merit  in  any  one 
division  of  my  command,  I  can  render  willing  testi- 
mony to  the  manly  endurance  and  soldierh'  conduct 
of  both  officers  and  men  composing  m^-  Corps,  march- 
ing day  and  night,  through  a  most  relentless  rain,  and 
over  almost  impassable  roads,  bivouacking  by  the  road 
side,  ever  ready  and  willing  to  'fall  in'  and  pursue  the 
enemy  wherever  ordered,  with  a  cheerfulness  and 
determination  truly  admirable,  and  no  less  commend- 
able when   confronting  the  enemy;  fearless  and  un- 


100  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

daunted,  their  colmuiis  n.-v.-r  wavi'r«'<|,  ^iviiii:  iIm-  lii^ili- 
4?sl  prtMif  of  their  veieran  <|iialiti«'s,  ami  showing  ^^  '.'*\\ 
4l.-I>eU(leiue  rail  he  plaieil  u\ntu  them  in  time  uf  peril," 
^'i^le  Kehellit.n  Kecords,  Voh  XX  ill.,  p.  i'Xi. 


CHAPTER    X. 


The  Chickamauga  Campaign  and  Battle  of  Chickamauga. 


The  Fonrteeutli  Army  Corps  remained  substan- 
tially iu  the  position  occupied  on  July  5th,  until  the 
7th.  The  Cavalry  and  several  divisions  of  the  other 
Corps  were  distributed  at  various  points  ready  to  push 
forward  with  the  advent  of  more  favorable  weather, 
the  incessant  rain  preventing  any  important  move- 
ment. On  the  latter  date  Negley's  Division  moved  five 
miles  t(»  Decherd,  a  station  on  the  railroad,  by  which 
when  repairs  should  be  completed,  supplies  could  be 
forwarded.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  went  into 
camp  half  a  mile  from  the  village  on  high  rolling 
groun«l  and  as  usual  began  at  once  to  fix  up  quarters 
and  go  to  housekeeping.  The  rest  of  the  Brigade  and 
Division  camped  near  by  with  Brigade  headquarters 
in  a  fine  grove  of  oaks.  Further  dispatches  received 
fully  confirmed  our  first  news  of  the  great  victories 
in  the  East  and  South,  and  General  Kosecraus  ordered 
a  salute  of  thirty-five  guns  to  be  fired  from  every  bat- 
tery in  the  army.  As  it  resulted,  we  were  destined  ta 
spend  a  much  longer  time  at  Decherd  than  any  one 
had  anticipated,  the  great  forward  movement  for  the 
reduction  of  Chattanooga  not  beginniuii  in  force  until 
August  10th.  However,  some  preliminary  steps  were 
taken  previous  to  that  date  by  the  occupation  of  Ste- 
venson and  Bridgeport,  Alabama,  both  on  the  rail- 
road. The  cavalry  was  pushed  out  and  kept  active 
in  the  meantime  on  the  flanks.  It  need  not  be  inferred 
that  the  army  because  in  camp  was  idle,  or  that  Gen- 
eral Rosecrans  had  settled  down  to  rest  on  laurels 
already  won.  Such  was  not  the  case  and  tliere  were 
good  reasons  for  tlie  delay,  although  General  Halleck 
from   liis  office  in  Washington    urged    an    immediate 


102  THE  ONE  Hl'-NDRED  AND  FOURTH 

ailvaiuc.  AuKMi;;  uilu-r  things  ii  was  coiisiilcnMl  iH'ces- 
8ar.v  tUat  tin*  railn»a«l  iipoii  wliirli  the  army  d«*iMMi«U'd 
for  Kupplirs  slnMil<l  Im*  n'jiaircil  and  mju-ikmI  t«>  l{rid«ro- 
port;  that  tin*  rorn  in  tin-  li.'Ms.  now  in  silk,  should 
\h'  rijM*  t'lioujjh  for  fonijif;  tlu*  tavalry  arm  of  ilir  s<*rv- 
ivr  nMruilfd;  and  coordinait'  mov«*m«'nts  ♦•Isrwlu^re 
b<*  arran;j«*d  in  snpjMiri  of  ours.  Tims  whilf  <J<*neral 
IJosi'rrans  was  workin;;  day  an<l  ni;rht  lo  forward  all 
thosf  nn*asnn*s  not  dc|t«'ndrnl  on  nanin*,  hf  ilid  not 
desire  to  move  until  he  had  the  resources  in  hand  neces- 
sary t<»  insure  stUM-ess  in  a  cam]»ai;j:n  that  presented 
more  dilViculiifs  and  was  mon-  hazardous  than  any 
preccMlin;;  ones  undertaken  Wy  any  army,  lOast  or  West, 
not  I'xceptin;:  even  those  a;;ainst  Ki«hmontl.  which 
ha<l  faileil  lu'cause  the  jjeiierals  who  tonducted  them 

>V«'re  ilK  oluprtfUt. 

While  wait  iiiji  for  furt  Ikt  (h-velojuiieni  s  ai  1  »»'rlifrd 
the  One  jjundre<l  and  Koiirth  was  «'n«:a;:t<l  in  tin* 
usual  routine  of  camp  life,  such  as  ^uanl  and  jiicket 
duty  and  drillin;^:.  The  weather  beiame  settled  by  the 
10th,  which  reiidei-cd  life  in  the  shelter  tents  muih 
more  pleasant,  and  in  iudcr  to  add  further  to  th«'ir 
comfort  and  pleasurt*.  iIm'  mmmi  luiili  nuniefous  arbois 
over  the  quartets.  The  ^lounds  Wfif  thorouj^hly 
poli<*ed  e\ery  day  and  strict  sanitary  rulfs  enforced. 
The  sick  were  well  taken  care  of  here  or  sent  to  the 
re;;ular  hospitals  at  Nashville.  We  were  still  on  short 
rations,  but  as  thou;rh  l'rovi<len«e  had  ]»rovided  espe- 
cially for  us,  blackberries  u  ere  now  ripe  and  the  entire 
army  feasted  upon  this  healthful  and  lusri<»us  fruii. 
whi«"h  ;;rew  in  inexhaustible  tpiantities  everywhere 
around  us.  Details  of  men  ueiii  out  every  day  to 
jjather  Ihem.  No  soldier  could  ever  for;.:et  this  f«'a- 
ture  of  our  life  at  Ueeherd.  The  railroad  was  rei»aired 
to  KIk  Kiver  on  iIk*  i;(th,  and  the  supply  trains  rolled 

into  Ilerherd  soon  afti'f.  much  to  the  joy  of  all,  as  it 
asHured  full  rations  and  re;,'ular  mails  froju  the  north. 
Also,  the  ltri;:ade  baker,  who  had  a  contract  thanks 
to  the  (ioverniueiil      arrived  on  the   llth.  and  setiiu- 

n|»  his  o\en.  supplie<|    us   witl.   Mifi     breail.       A     nmr. 


REGIMENT  lLLlN<jrS  VOLUNTEERS.  103 

agreeable  surprise  <,>e<urre(l  oii  the  21st,  wheu  a  United 
States  Paymaster  put  iu  an  appearance,  lie  became 
at  once  a  very  popular  man,  especially  after  dishurs- 
in<;-  four  montlis'  j)ay  to  the  nuMi.  The  One  lluiidrcd 
and  Fourth  siMit  home  several  tlinusaud  dolhirs  hcsides 
paying-  oil  sundry  Sutler's  bills. 

While  here  some  changes  took  place  in  the  liegi- 
luent,  caused  by  the  n'signations  \tf  Captains  Misner, 
AVadleigh  and  llowe,  and  Lieutenant  Tewksbury.  Their 
loss  was  regretted,  ('aptain  McKernan  had  resigned 
iu  June;  Captain  Palmer,  Lieutenant  Simpson,  Lieu- 
tenant 1  Taney,  Captain.  Ileslet,  and  Lietitenant  Web- 
ber, before  the  Regiment  h^ft  Chicago,  making  in  all 
ti^n  resignations  from  the  line  oflicers  since  enlistment. 
These  were  followed  by  promotions.  In  addition, 
Assistaul  Surgeon  Julius  A.  Freeman  resigned  July 
13th,  and  Hospital  Steward,  John  W.  Cuppy,  was  dis- 
•chai'ged  August  1st,  and  succeeded  by  i^uther  F. 
Slyder,  of  Conn)any  K.  The  ranks  had  become  con- 
siderably reduced,  the  aggregate  loss  from  all  causes 
being  nearly  two  hundred  and  seventy  men  within  the 
year  after  muster-in.  The  effective  strength  of  the 
Regiment  had  become  further  reduced  also  by  sick- 
ness, and  numbers  of  meu  were  lying  in  different  hos- 
pitals from  Louisville  south,  together  with  many  who 
had  not  recovered  from  wounds  received  at  Ilartsville. 

The  mOvSt  unpleasant  experience  of  the  One  Ilun- 
•dred  and  Fourth  at  Decherd,  and  yet  one  which  <lid 
not  cause  any  undue  excitement,  was  the  Court  Mar- 
tial of  Colonel  Moore  on  charges  preferred  by  Cai)taiu 
Wm.  H.  Collins,  of  Company  D.  It  is  believed  sufficient 
to  say  that  the  evidence  was  not  considered  strong 
enough  to  convict,  therefore  Colonel  Moore  was  acquit- 
ted and  continued  to  command  the  Regiment  until  his 
resignation  in  September.  Captain  Leighton,  who  had 
been  sick  in  Nashville  during  the  Tullahoma  cami)aign, 
with  some  others,  rejoined  the  command  about  the 
20th.  The  news  of  the  capture  of  John  Morgan  and 
the  defeat  of  his  famous  raiders  gave  eminent  satis- 
faction to  us  all.       He  had  found  eampaigning  north 


IM  THE  ONE  HL'NDRED  AND  FOURTH 

of  llir  (»lii«»  :i  far  tlilTrifiH  in;in«'r  fr<»iii  liiitliii;:  on  his 
uativf  ln«atli,  w  Imt«*  m-arlv  all  of  ilu*  iMijnilaiion  ((uihi 
b«'  rrliiMl  on  as  frirmlly  i«»  him.  An  uii|th'asant  si«::ht 
uriiin-«*<l  on  tin-  I'lsi,  wln-n  a  sohli.r  ..f  tin*  F»»rt y-s»*<- 
on<l  Indiana,  \vln»  ran  away  at  Stone's  Kivrr,  had  his 
bi*a«l  shavfil  and  was  dinninirtl  ont  «»f  camp  to  the 
miiKic  t»f  tin*  "l{o«;n«''s  Mai«h."  lit*  st*<Miu*d  mnch  cn'st- 
fallt'ii  as  In*  marrhrd  ajon^  in  tin*  |»n*s<*ncf  t»f  the  Itri- 
jjade,  and  was  sent  inidfi-  ;:naiil  t«i  Nashville  \<>  !•<• 
I'oiitiiied  in  a  miliiaiy  juison  dniin;:  the  \\ai-. 

When  the  month  of  August  ani\ed  there  was  a 
general  exitectai  ion  of  niijers  In  iiiaiTJi,  aiMJ  the  afmy 
was  impatient  to  ^i».  It  was  known  that  <iemTal 
Itra;i;:'s  arm\  was  mainly  in  ( 'hat  tanou^ia.  The  pf(d»- 
l«Mn  pH'senled  to  (Jeiieral  Koseefans  of  ln»w  in  ln'st 
attark  lira;;;;  was  a  wei^rhty  one,  well  rah  ulaied  to 
make  him  raniions,  hut  while  still  malni'in;;  his  jilans 
of  rampaii:n.  Cieiieial  Halle*  k,  on  the  r>th,  ordeied  him 
to  move,  lie  niana;ied,  however,  excrpt  some  minor 
inovenn-nts,  to  d«*lay  tin*  jieiieral  ad\  ame  a  litt  le  huiMer.  .»• 
Itonhtlf'ss  he  was  the  projter  jnd;:e,  and,  indeed,  when 
We  ronsidei-  the  diMienlties  presented,  his  r<'asons 
appear   to   have   heen   Jiotnl    ones. 

The  jtosiiioii  iif  Kra;:;:'s  army  was  far  dilTei<  iit  from 
that  oiciipied  at  Tnllahoma,  whirh  it  had  heen  tlank<Ml 
out  of  with  roiiiparat  i\  e  ease.  Hra;:i:  deemetl  himself 
safe  from  direet  attark  in  front.  Itesides  the  hroad 
Tennessee,  he  was  protected  there  liy  two  raill^es  (»f 
lii;:li  mountains,  the  < 'nmlieilaml  ami  W'alden's  Kid^c, 
which  shut  in  the  ii\er  and  ahuitini:  on  it  pre\eiiied 
inoxin;;  alon;;  the  north  hank  from  Urid;:epori.  His 
flank**  W  er«'  eipially  well  protected  not  ^>\\\\  \t\  the 
Telinesse*',    lilit     o||    the    left     li\     the    SaM<l    and     l.itokout 

Mountain    ran;:es,    which    an     invadin;:    army    in    this 

directimi  must  cross.  These  seetned  illsUjieralde  (d>- 
sfa«|es  III  IJraj:;:.  His  ri;:ht  tiank  presenteil  the  sann* 
d«*f«*nNes  and  was  nmre  ditVicnlt  to  i-each;  ipiite  imw- 
c'f»«HlbI<»  to  our  line  of  comniuiii<  at  ion  with  the  rear, 
and  d«'Mtitute  4if  water  ami  fora;z"'.  Hy  any  of  the 
routes     named,     a     distance     nf     from      HIO     in     i:u) 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  105 

miles  must  be  traversed  by  Kosecrans'  army, 
and  almost  ccmtinuoiisly  over  mountains.  Not  only 
so,  but  rations  to  feed  the  army  must  be  taken  alonj^, 
while  the  artillery  and  ammunition  trains  were,  of 
course,  indisj^ensable.  (ieneral  Roseerans'  idan  of 
campaig,!!  as  develope<l  and  ]»r<>se<utod  to  a  ((hkIii- 
sion  that  secured  its  primary  (d»je<t,  in  the  «;raiid(Mii- 
and  bcddness  of  its  conciqttion  and  execution,  was  one 
of  the  greatest  feats  of  strategy,  if  not  the  greatest, 
performed  during  the  whole  course  of  the  war.  Hohl- 
ness,  celerity  and  secrecy  were  the  chief  factors  (►f  suc- 
cess, and  the  very  audacity  of  the  scheme  and  of  each 
successive  step  in  it,  constantly  bewildered  and  de- 
ceived General  Bragg  until  it  was  too  late  for  him 
to  retrieve  his  errors,  (leneral  Kosecrans  ])r<>])(>sed  in 
brief  to  execute  a  grand  tiank  movement  by  our  right 
across  the  Cumberlands  and  the  Tennessee  River, 
thence  over  Sand  and  Lookout  Mountains  to  Bragg's 
left  and  rear.  This,  if  successful,  would  make  Chat- 
tanooga untenable  or  (ddige  Bragg  to  tight  there,  in 
which  latter  case  his  destruction  would  be  certain 
beycmd  all  doubt;  for  although  not  gifted  with  much 
penetration,  General  Bragg  knew  that  if  the  Army  of 
the  Cumberland  once  obtained  a  foothold  on  his  left 
and  rear,  with  the  Tennessee  below  riiattanooga  and 
Lookout  Mountain  and  valley  in  its  possession,  his 
case  would  be  hopeless.  But  General  Bragg's  fore- 
sight prove  to  be  hindsight  and  therefore  he  did  not 
provide  against  such  a  contingency,  while  he  was 
deluded  by  Roseerans  into  the  belief  that  he  intended 
to  attack  his  front  and  right  flank. 

Having  thus  outlined  briefly  the  situation  and  sa- 
lient points  of  the  caiupaign,  we  will  follow  again  the 
Army  of  the  Cumberland  on  its  weary  marches  over 
rivers  and  mountains,  in  the  blazing  heat  of  a  southern 
sun,  and  amid  the  chilling  fever  breeding  dews  of  night, 
half  fed  and  half  slept,  until  having  acciniiplislicd  the 
great  flank  movement  and  captured  Chattanooga; 
flushed  with  success  and  perlia]»s  over  confident,  this 
invincible  armv  was  suddenlv  checked  in  its  vict<u'i- 


1M  THE  ONE  HTNORKD  ANI>  F<>rRTH 

m»s  rariM-r  on  ilj«-  li.*l<l  ''f  « 'liirU.iiii;ni;:;i !  Tin-  |>r<'liiii- 
inary  si^jiis  that  iiiili(*at(Mi  am  atlvaine  exi«ii<l«Ml  all 
altiii;:  fiom  tin*  .'tli  i«i  tin*  Hit  h.  Soiin-  hri^^adrs  iii.»\  f.l ; 
fXlia  raUMiis  xmm'c  issuimI;  iIh*  sitU  s«mH  Im  tin-  itai'; 
arms  ami  ammiiiiiiittn  wnr  ins|MTi«tl.  Ai  lial!  past 
four  oil  ilio  moniiii;;;  of  ilu*  Hiih,  tin-  taini)  lirrs  <»(  i  In* 
Om*  lhiii<lr«Ml  ami  Fourtli  aii«l  iIiom*  of  tin*  iMitin*  aiiiiy 
\v«'n'  li^'lil»*tl  ami  iIh*  mumi  I»iisv  in  ronkiii^  tin*  last 
iiMNil  |in*>ioiis  to  (Icpart iiif.  TIm*  proinpi  icspoiis*'  to 
roll-call  ami  othrr  «lini«*s  sliowcW  how  fjipT  a II  wtif 
t<»  Im*  olT.  TIh'Im*  was  a  ri;;i«l  iiis|MMt  ion  of  aims  aii<l 
rartri«l«:o  l»o\rs.  Tin*  kiia|»saiks  w«*!»'  |»a<  ktil  ami  \u'V- 
misviuii  ^i\fii  to  lua*l  tlnMii  on  iIm*  waLions.  as  th«* 
>\fatlnM-  \\as  vor>  ln»t.  WIm-ii  all  was  i«'a<lv  ami  tin' 
J{«';^itm'iil,  Hi-i;;a«lo  aihl  IMvision.  in  lim-.  a  loii<::  dolav 
ocriirnHl.  At  half-past  oh*\oii  wr  mo\o(l  olT  in  tin* 
♦  lirortjon  of  ('owaii.  a  station  at  tin*  l»aso  of  tlw  moun- 
laiiis.  Sonii  after  a  rainstorm  ai  roni]>aiii<'il  l>y  a  furi- 
ous wimi  hrokc  upon  us.  tin*  thun<l«i-  ami  li<;ht  iiiu;; 
\v«*n«  trrritii-  ami  all  of  tin-  immI  ariilN'ry  (»f  lH*av«*u 
k«mmu«m1  to  hav«*  horn  conrontratod  in  ono  sin^h*  loral- 
ity  dirrrtly  ovor  our  heads.  This  roiiiinucd  one  luuir, 
iiflor  whirh  tho  sun  raim-  out  aiul  shom-  \<i-\  hoi. 
A;:ain  tin-  **At  tt-niion"  and  "I'mw  aiil"  sMinidnl,  and 
moving'  on  Wf  it-arhoil  ('owan  ai  liin-t-,  w  In-ii  a  liali 
was  inadr  foi-  an  Immii-.  Tho  advance  was  then  resumed 
with  the  <Mi«-  Hundred  and  l^uirth  leadin;:,  and  soon 
aft«*r  we  bepin  to  as<-end  the  < 'umherlamls.  ].<»okin;; 
up  far  ahove  us  a]>peared  the  summit  with  rhuids  tloat- 
in;:  around.  Itv  the  |-<iad  it  was  iwn  miles  there,  hut 
when  we  arrixed  it  seenieil  ten.  The  stoiin  ha<l  ilam 
«p*d  tin*  road  and  made  it  exi  icniely  rou;:h.  so  that 
the  liorKes  and  mules  wer<-  unalde  to  move  tin-  artil- 
lery ami  way;ons.  The  ( Mie  Hundred  and  I'ourth  had 
to  asHiht,  hut  it  was  twehi-  i»'(  |«m  k  when  the  io|i  was 
attained,  and  wi-  wi-ni  ini<>  lti\<)ua<  fur  !h«>  ifst  of  the 
niiflit. 

The  fn;;  «  huidN  w<ii-  deusi-  all  around  on  the  morn- 
iuii  of  the  ITlh.  when  tin-  mar.  h  was  resumed,  this 
tiiiH*  down   hill    for  some  disiame.      As   the   sun    rose 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  107 

higher  ainl  tli(»  clouds  cleared  away  the  si)h'n<lid  sccii- 
-ery  of  iiiouiitain  and  A'alley  was  revealed  in  all  its 
beauty.  Having  descended  to  a  little  valley  a  halt  was 
made  for  breakfast.  This  did  not  occupy  much  time  and 
Ave  moved  on — the  Tliiid  I'jigade  in  a<lvance.  Winding- 
ni>  an<l  around  the  summit  of  another  mountain  by  a 
road  easier  than  the  last,  at  three  in  the  afternoon  we 
reached  Tantallon  in  the  valley,  and  went  into  camp  to 
await  the  arrival  of  the  AA'agon  train,  which  had  broken 
down  and  Avas  far  Ixdiind.  The  train  not  arrivinu,  during 
the  niii'lit  the  One  Hundred  ami  Fourth  Avas  sent  at 
three  on  the  morning  of  the  IcSth  to  look  it  up  and  pro- 
cure rations.  The  march  back  almost  to  the  top  of  the 
range  was  a  hard  one,  but  Avas  completed  soon  after  day- 
light. The  Regiment  having  secured  three  days'  rations 
and  also  taking  the  knapsacks  in  order  to  reduce  the 
loads  of  the  Avagons,  countermarched  and  arrived  in 
camp  at  ten,  pretty  well  worn  out.  After  a  hasty  and 
luxurious  breakfast  of  hardtack  and  bacon,  the  Regi- 
ment fell  in  and  taking  the  adAance,  resumed  tln^  march. 
The  day  was  intensely  hot,  the  road  dusty  and  many  suf- 
fered greatly,  causing  frequent  halts  for  rest.  We  moved 
along  the  ('row Creek  A^alley  and  Avere  i)leased  to  see 
plenty  of  corn  fields,  apple  and  peach  orchards.  Hav- 
ing marched  some  four  miles  Ave  came  to  a  plantation 
where  stood  a  A'ery  good  bouse,  and  near  by  was  a  large 
spring  of  pure  mountain  Avater,  an  article  we  wanted 
constantly,  one,  too,  far  superior  to  any  ''Mountain  dew" 
known,  though  the  latter  was  never  throAvn  away  Avhen 
it  could  be  had.  After  an  hour's  rest  we  moA^ed  on  and 
winding  around  the  spur  of  a  mountain  could  see  down 
the  A'alleA'  for  miles.  There  were  Aast  corn  fields,  Avhich 
had  been  jdanted  by  JetT  Davis'  orders  for  the  future  use 
of  rebel  armies,  he  never  anticipating,  that  the  hated 
"Yankees"  Avere  to  haiwest  those  fields,  yet  such  Avas  to 
be  the  fact,  and  the  Scripture  fulfilled,  "One  shall  sow 
and  another  reap."  Passing  by  a  laige,  fine  mansion  on 
the  road,  a  darky  Avas  asked  about  his  master.  He  re- 
plied, "Gone  Avid  de  rebels,"  Toward  night  w-e  arrived 
at  Anderson,  having  marched  eighteen  miles  under  a 


lOS  THE  ONE  HIWDRKD  ANT*  FOURTH 

liiMiliii;^  Mill.  AIk'UI  <in«'  iliii<l  <>f  i  In-  |{ii^:ni<*  li;i<l  fallrii 
lit  iitlt'ilv  i*\liaust«Ml.  Colttinl  MiM.ic,  uhn  had  roiii- 
inainltMl  tin*  Hri;;a«l«*  siiirf  \v«'  s(aii«Ml.  ihou^rh  iiiulcr 
•  •itl«  IS  III  ^«i  six  inilfs  fiirilMT.  if  |ira<-t  i*  altlc.  tlcciilrd  lo 
ramp  In-n*  for  tin*  iii;:lii.  AfhT  a  n-si.  aiiiph*  supjtlirs 
\v«Tf  drawn  fiom  tin*  atliuiniii;^  !i«dds  fur  mcii,  li«»rsfs 
and  iiiiiirs,  iiMirli  t«i  tlicir  satisfartiun,  if  nut  that  of 'Jeff 
I  ►axis  Mild  ( 'oiiipaiiN ." 

<  Ml  t  h»'  iiioriiiii;:  of  (hi-  IIM  h.  ii-\  i-il  !••  son  mh-d  a  I  lialf 
j»a»(  I  hiiM*.  and  orders  wm'  issiiiMJ  to  niaiih  ai  half  past 
four.  WhiMi  I  hi*  "At  t«*iit  ion"  soiiiidi-d  l  hr  i  aid<s  of  i  ho 
nil.-  Iluiidioil  and  I'oiirih  won*  iioiiroahlx  ihiii.  as,  in- 
d«*«*il,  wiio  ihosi*  of  thi*  othi'f  r«';;iiiii'nls.  Loaviii^  all 
who  \M*ri-  iiiiahh*  to  walk  to  ^o  on  hy  ainlmlanri*,  tin* 
l{ri;;aih'  iiio\iii;,'  on  down  tin*  valli*y  r«*at'he<l  (-'ave 
Spriii;:  thii'i*  iiiih*s  from  St»*M'iison.  Alahama,  at  t«*ii  in 
till-  foii'iiooii.  I'ordin^i  ( 'row  ("ii'i-k  tin-  Ki'uiiM»*nt  wi'Ht 
into  rain]>  m*ar  tin*  sprinu:,  and  also  iii*ar  a  lorn  tii'id, 
whirh  was  wdl  li;nvi*sti'd  in  a  fi'W  hours  l»y  t  In*  soldins. 
W'l*  had  now  passod  om*  ran;:i*  of  tin*  <  iimhciland  and 
nnild  si*i*  Im'Ioii*  ns  a  fi'W  niih'S  distant  tin*  oiilliiii's  of 
t  III*  'ri'iini-ssi*!'  IviM*r.  a  st  ri*am  that  had  ln'iom«*  historir. 
HivoiHJ  till'  riM*r  losi*  in  maji'slir  ;ri"JHnh*nr  tin*  Sand 
Moiiiiiaiii  iani:i*.  standin;;  liki*  a  wall  hi*tw<*i*n  ns  and 
t  hi*  i*iii*m\ ,  and  w  liirli  wi*  must  rioss.  Around  tin*  t  amp 
and  on  i*arli  sidi*  of  ('row  i  "n*i*k  |M*r|MMiiliriilar  inassi*s 
of  lo.  k  om*  thousand  fi*i*t  hi;;h  shut  in  tin*  valh-v  and 
madi-  till*  loiaiioii  \i*r\  lirantifni.  It  was  aniioiimrd 
that  a  halt  of  a  fi*w  days  w  oil  Id  Im*  inaih*  hi'i"**  in  orih*r  to 
pr«-par«*  for  t  In*  in*xi  iiio\  1*1111*11 1.  also  to  await  t  In*  irsnlt 
of  othi*r  roiiihinaiioiis  ami  inam*nM*rs  tln*ii  hi'in^  i*\i*- 
riitfd  i*lsi-w  ln*ri*  as  a  part  of  rn'in'ial  Kosi-crans' darini;" 
plans.  .Mi*aii  wliih*  tin-  <  Mn-  1 1  inidn-d  anil  I'oini  h  losti-d 
(pii«**ly  in  ramp  awaiiin;:  tin*  ordi*r  to  man  h.  It  was 
rumored  ihai  si*\i*ral  of  tin*  oOiii'is  inli'inird  to  ri*si;;n 
HiMiM.  Two  of  oiir  wa;:ons  hroKcii  dow  n  on  ihi*  monn- 
talMK,  wci'i*  ri'srtn*il  l»y  \\  illiam  II.  (Onaid  and  a  ddail 
of  iiii'ii  si*nl  hark  for  I  In*  pnrposi'.  Sii^i'-aiii  WiHianM". 
I{«*am,  of  < 'oiiipany  II.  ri*ri*iM*il  his  i  ommission  as  Tiist 
Iai*ntiiiant    in    a    1  o|ori*il    ri*;.'iiiniii.      lli*   had    passi-d    a 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTKERS.  109 

creditable  exaiiiiniiti<m  before  tli«'  board  of  wliicli  (leu- 
eral  Beatty  was  President.  The  weather  eoiitiimiug 
very  liot  nnuli  sickness — ty])hoid  in  (haracter,  ]>re- 
yailed,  thus  rediuinj;  tlie  elTeetive  force  of  the  Kej;inieut 
ready  to  go  into  line  of  battle  to  about  330  men. 

Between  the  25th  and  29th  all  of  the  signs  indicated 
that  our  right  and  center  woul<l  soon  advance.  The 
pontoons  had  been  laid  across  the  river  at  four  different 
places  Avith  very  little  opposition.  This  was  due  to  the 
bold  strategic  movements  and  maneuvers  of  the  left  in 
front  of  Chattanooga,  which  liad  begun  simultaneously 
with  those  of  the  Fourteenth  aud  McCook's  cori)s.  At 
that  time  General  Kosecrans  had  directed  ('ritten<len 
to  march  with  Palmer's  and  Wood's  Divisions,  General 
Wilder's  Brigade  of  Keynolds'  Division,  Fourteenth 
Corps,  with  Colonel  Minty's  Brigade  of  Cavalry,  over 
the  mountains  into  the  8e<iuatchie  Valley.  This  move- 
ment was  promptly  executed,  aud  Hazen's  aud  Wag- 
ner's Brigades  of  Infantry  were  at  ouce  thrown  over 
Walden's  Ridge  in  front  of  Chattanooga,  where  Wilder 
and  Minty  joined  them.  The  entire  force  of  eight  thous- 
and men  was  then  judiciously  deployed  from  Williams 
Island — a  few  miles  below  the  city,  to  Kingston  above, 
but  much  pains  was  taken  to  make  a  large  display  iu 
front  and  up  the  river.  The  hills  and  woods  effectually 
concealed  our  troops  and  enabled  the  commanders  to 
move  them  from  poiut  to  point  and  thus  give  the  im- 
pression that  a  large  army  was  there.  To  add  further 
to  the  enemy's  delusion,  Wilder  shelled  the  city  most 
vigorously  from  Walden's  Ridge  and  the  luMghts  op])o- 
site.  The  effect  of  all  this  on  the  rebels  was  as  desired; 
the  greatest  alarm  prevailed  annmg  the  citizens  aud 
had  a  retroflex  influence  on  Bragg  and  his  army.  But 
not  divining  the  true  meaning  of  this  show  Bragg  con- 
cluded that  Rosecrans'  whole  army  was  on  his  front  and 
right,  and  hastened  to  call  to  him  Buckner's  ( 'orps  from 
Tennessee,  paying  no  attention  to  his  left.  Meantime, 
while  Wilder  was  amusing  and  deceiving  Bragg,  the 
main  army  had  i>roceeded  as  heretofore  indicated  aud 
concentrated  on  the  Tennessee  readv  to  cross.    The  Re- 


119  THE  ONE  Hl'NI>KKl>  ANI»  F<ll'RTH 

Kfrvt*  t  'orpN  umlrr  « iciirral  <  Ji>i<l<«ii  « ir;iii;^«'r,  haul  moved 
\u  tUv  n*ar  to  lu»hl  our  liiu*  of  cMimiiuiiMaliuus  aiul  kept 
Hnfliiii'inlv  closi*  to  In*  «if  snvicr  w  Ihmi  ihmmIimI.  <  Jeiieral 
KosiMiaiis.  \vlios«*  lifa<l«|iiar!»*i-s  wru-  ;ii  iln-  fnait^ 
Icarut'it  farlv  of  ilw  surtrssfiil  r.\«Miiiioij  uf  his  «>rd«'rs 
ou  the  h'ft  hv  ('iiti«'iuh*irs("<ni»s,  ami  diivclinj;  <  liiU'U- 
deii  to  iiuiVf  hJK  main  foivi*  down  the  Sc(|ualohit'  N'alley 
and  luros.s  ihi*  ii\«M'  at  Hrid;:f|»ort  ami  al»ovr,  he  j^ave 
thf  oi-diT  f»»r  ihf  riuhl  ami  »  i-iiin-  to  atl\am«\  The 
inoviMm-iil  was  coiinm'ncod  hy  (oMn-ral  Havis'  Division 
on  tli«*  l.M»th.  which  rrosst'd  at  ( 'ain-i'ion's  Frny,  opposite 
St»'V«*nson,  and  with  ih«*  t'avaliy  movt'd  on  (»vj*r  Sand 
Mountain. 

Tin*  <  Mi«-  liiindicd  and  I'oiirih  iiio\cd  from  < 'ave 
Spring:  on  Sunday,  tho  JitMh,  into  Sit'\(ns«»n  ami  went 
into  ramp.  At  iImmm*  in  iho  afifiiioun  uf  Scpu-mlMT  1st, 
N«'^rh'y's  I>ivisi«ui,  with  Hratiy's  Hi-i;;a<lf  in  ailvance, 
took  uj»  tin*  lin<'  of  marrh  for  <  "aiM-itou's  INmtv,  and 
crossin;;  on  i  he  |»oniooii  luid^**  at  livo,  (ontinm'd  on  up 
the«*ast  hank  of  ihr  livrr  until  midni^dit,  wht*n  it  went 
into  hivouar  hy  tin*  ictadsi^h*.  At  «*i;;ht  on  tin*  mornin«; 
of  tin-  Ifnd,  \\i-  moved  on  to  Mooic'.s  Spring;,  aiiivin^  at 
oiH',  just  as  SJM'ridan's  I  ^vision  <aino  up.  <  oMirral  Nej;- 
]t'\  h-arnin;:  that  water  was  v«*ry  scai'<»'  ahead,  ordered 
th«*  IMvisioM  to  lemaiii  heii'  for  the  ni^hi.  dohnson's 
and  ha\  is*  Divisions  ami  t  he  caN  airy  had  reached  Look- 
«Mit  \'alley,  where  the  lar^'t'i-  part  of  the  army  was  di- 
r<*el«Ml  to  ron<-oiii  rate  ;is  fjist  as  t  he  i'i\  er  and  m«Mi mains 
could  he  crossed. 

We  marched  early  on  t  he  .'.rd,  ami  hei^aii  t  he  ascent 
of  the  Sand  .Mountain  ran;;e.  Hut  it  was  seen  at  once 
that  t  his  N\  as  to  he  no  easy  task.  The  road  had  h«'en  un- 
iihimI  and  was  nni^h  and  stee|i.  The  delays  ami  repairs 
wen*  constant,  'i'he  ( Mie  Hundred  ami  i'<uirtli  was  in 
advance  and  cont  rihuied  materially  to  t  he  work  of  ludp- 
in;.r  the  transportation  up.  The  advance  reache«l  the 
Huinniit  at  no«in  and  remained  there  unl  il  the  It h,  await- 
iiitr  the  passap'  of  the  trains.  There  was  no  water  to 
he  hail  and  the  sufTerin;:  of  hot  h  men  and  animals  was 
H4'Vere.     The  view  from  the  top  of  Sand  .Mountain  well 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  Ill 

repaid  all  the  toil  in  f»ettiii<;'  there.  The  borders  of  five 
States  could  be  seen,  three  iiuiiiediately  near.  Far  be- 
yond mortal  vision  extended  one  vast  panorama  of 
mountains,  forests  and  rivers.  The  broad  Tennessee 
below  us  seemed  like  a  ribbon  of  silver;  beyond  rose  the 
(""umberlands,  which  we  had  crossed.  The  valley  on  both 
sides  was  alive  with  the  movinjj;  armies  <if  the  Ijiiion, 
while  almost  the  entire  trjinsjiortation  of  the  army  filled 
the  roads  and  fields  along  the  Tennessee.  No  one  could 
survey  the  grand  scene  on  that  bright  autumn  day  un- 
moved, unimpressed  with  its  grandeur,  and  of  tiie  mean- 
ing conveyed  by  the  presence  of  that  mighty  host.  Some- 
time after  dark  the  last  of  Negley's  Division  and  trains 
reached  the  summit  without  loss  except  to  the  Division 
Sutler,  whose  wagon  tumbled  over  at  a  narrow  place 
scattering  his  goods  along  the  mountain  si(h'.  Sutlers. 
as  a  general  thing  were  not  regarded  with  especial  favor 
by  the  army,  and  yet  seemed  to  be  a  kind  of  necessary 
nuisance.  This  one  api)ealed  to  the  boys  to  help  him 
carry  up  his  broken  goods.  Many  of  them  readily  re- 
sponded and  no  doubt  paid  themselves  well  for  the  ad- 
ditional labor  involved,  at  least  quite  a  number  were 
seen  afterward  smoking  very  good  cigars  and  regal- 
ing themselves  on  canned  hdister,  oysters,  etc.  During 
the  day  Sirwell's  Brigade  had  been  sent  on  to  build  a 
bridge  across  a  canon;  this  was  completed  at  eleven 
p.  m.,  and  was  one  hundred  and  eleven  feet  long  and 
twenty  feet  high.  Other  bridges  were  repaired  and  the 
roads  made  passable. 

The  whole  of  the  4th  was  occupied  in  crossing  and 
descending  the  mountain.  At  night  but  little  of  the 
transportation  was  down  and  but  two  regiments  of  our 
Brigade.  The  day's  march  had  been  hard  on  men  and 
animals.  When  night  came  all  were  glad  to  rest  where 
they  halted. 

The  5th  was  spent  in  bringing  up  the  transportation 
and  moving  the  Division  a  few  miles  to  Brown's  Spring- 
in  the  valley.  Sirwell's  Brigade^  went  on  a  short  recon- 
noissance  toward  Lookout  and  brought  back  some 
flour  captured  at  a  mill. 


Ill  THE  ONE  HL'NDHED  AND  FOURTH 

On  ill*'  f;ili  tlif  ••iiiiir  IMxisiMii  iiiii\«'(l  lip  JoliiisiHi's 
<*nH»k  (valli'V)  Ifaiviiij;  niiiip  al  hii.     TIm-  Lo.ikoiit  i:»ii«;e 
apiM-aiiMl  on*  om-  Irfi.      IW-aU.v's    Hrii^ad*-    in    aMvancc, 
nsu  ln-«|  Ml  Kav's  Spring  al  livf.    Tin- l»alaii<  ••  <»f  tin*  I  >i- 
viHinii  raiiiptil  nil  L4iok«MH  ( 'i«M«k  in  iIh-  n-ar.     Wf  now 
lay  Ufar  tin-  foi.i   nf  SirvmV  (liip  (pass)    ot     l.tmkout 
MiMintain.     Afn-r  aiiival  ilial  I'vrniii*:  tin*  Ftniy-siMund 
Iiiiliaiia  was  srni  <»n  a  i»Ti»nnMissain«*  ii|»  tin*  <iap.  and 
ha<!  •»nlv  iinin-  a  sliuii  disiantr  w  li«*n  ii  was  iir«M|  iip<»ii 
l»v  !li«*  »MH*ni\ .  w  Ini  SIMM  I HM I  to  In-  r«>nri'al<'»l  in  hi  mi  i  n^'S. 
Duv  man  was  si-vi-ri'ly  woiimli'il.     Tin-  ithjtM  t  Immu;.^  a«- 
(•om|»lisljiMl.  that  is,  to  «i»-\»lu|i  i  In-  rii.iii\ .  i  In-  K<-;^ini»'nt 
wit  Ik  III*  w  .  Tin*  w  riti'f  aiiom|ia!ii«'«l  i  lii^  rcn.Miiuissam  <*. 
Thi-  ••vi-nin;;  of  tin*  tltli  «|usi*il   wiiii  almost    tin*  i*!itire 
army  ronrt*ntrat«*«l  in  Lookout   vall«*y,  «*xt«*n«liii^  fioiu 
u  iM>int  at  tin*  norili  md  only  si*vi*n  mil«*s  fiom  (liatta- 
noo;;:i.  to   Xalli'V    lli*a«l  on   tin*  south,  tliirt.v   livr   inii(*rt 
(listani.      Tin-    i*m-my    still    ln*lil     Lookout     Mountain, 
whi<h  towiTi'il  two  thoiisami  f»'«*t  al»ovi*  us  ami  was  in- 
ar<*<'HKil»li*  i*\ri-pt    lt\    I  Wo  or  thn*«*  passi*s.     'rin*s«*     aH 
ovrnts  piommI   hail   ln-i-n    h-fi     piact  irall  \     umli'f«*ml«*d, 
t iiiis  sliow  in;:  how   lilth*  Ura^;;  looki'd  for  Ko>i'rfa!is  in 
that  <liifrtion.     'I'o  '^n/.r  upon  tliosi*  iii;4l'<*<1  ln'ii;hts  om» 
would  siipposi*  that    a    f<*w    thousand,  or  i-Vfii  a      f«'W 
linmli't'ds.  of   nn-ii   roiild    hav<*  rasily   )M-ai<i>    liaik   an 
army.     No  om*  on  t  In*  i*vi*iiiii;;  of  t  In*  tit  h  ant  i(  ipati'd  Imt 
what  tin*  |»ossi*ssion  of  tin*  jiassi's  would  Ik*  di^putotl  to 
the  last   rxti'i'iiiity.     Smh    was  tin*  situation,  and   all 
l<H>k<'d  forwaid   to  tin*  nioiidw    as  full  of  promise  for 
Koim*  very  li\i*ly  ti;:ht  in;:.   I  "  •  ;»pi  iin*  ('Ikii  iinoo;:a  Ir.iui 
our  l«*fi    l»>    passing;  around   tin-  point    of   Lookoui    was 
thou^^hl   impract  iraM*',  as  it   ahiittcd  so  rlosi-ly  on  tin* 
rivrr  HH  hari*l,\   to  h-;i\i>  room  for  ihf  iailro;i(|.  ;iii<l.  in- 
dtMMJ,  for  a  part  of  tin*  way  i  In- ro;idlti  «1  liad  In-i-n  m;idi* 
by  Ida  St  in;:  aw  ay  tin*  solid  linn-  stom-  r.n  U      i  In-ri-  form- 
ing palisad**s  oni-  humln-d   fi-ot    hi;:h.      Tin-  point   2.10(1 
fiH't  ahovi*  and  tin*  int<-r\«*niiiu  spai  ••  'mIow    wi-ii-  held 
by  lln*  «*in'iny.    <tiMn*ral  Kowi'irans  ih-i<-iiiiim-<l  to  li-avi* 

(Yill«*ndi*n   to   ihri*]iti*n   ('liatlai ^a    on    tin*   Irfi,   and 

man  hi  n;:  with  I  In*  ri>nt«*r  and  ri;:ht  ovi>r  Lookout  bv  *  In* 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VuLUNTEERS.  113 

passes  in  their  frout,  seize  Chattaii(M»i;ji  \'alley  dirertly 
in  Bragg's  rear.  Tliis  moveiuenl,  if  succcssrul,  would 
force  matters  to  a  decisive  issue.  Accordingly  orders 
were  issued  for  tlie  Ttb,  having  these  objects  in  view. 
Early  that  morning  Beatty's  Brigade  began  the  ad- 
vance in  line  of  battle  up  the  mountain  by  Steven's 
Pass.  It  was  some  three  miles  to  the  top,  and  advanc- 
ing by  the  front  was  a  different  and  more  difficult  task 
than  moving  in  column  along  the  road.  We  had  ex- 
pected opposition,  but  beyond  a  few  stray  shots  none 
was  made.  At  eleven  we  stood  on  the  summit  witli  our 
artillery,  which  the  men  helped  to  get  up,  without  the 
loss  of  a  man.  It  was  learned  from  some  cracker  resi- 
dents on  the  mountain  that  only  cavalry  had  been  on 
guard  at  the  pass,  and  they  took  good  care  to  leave  in 
time.  The  other  brigades  following  closel}'  arrived  on 
top  at  twelve  and  three  o'clock.  The  transportation  oc- 
cupied that  day  and  the  next  in  getting  up,  the  Brigade 
marching  half  way  across  Lookout,  bivouacked  for  the 
night.  After  the  arduous  labors  of  the  last  three  weeks 
the  command  was  well  tired,  but  in  high  spirits  over 
the  success  thus  far  achieved,  regarding  Chattanooga  as 
within  our  grasp  and  the  defeat  of  Bragg  certain  slutuld 
he  choose  to  fight.  While  we  had  thus  gained  a  foot- 
hold so  easily  on  the  key  to  Bragg's  position,  Harker's 
Brigade  had  spent  the  day  in  demonstrating  on  the  left 
around  the  point  of  Lookout  and  discovered  the  enemy 
in  strong  force.  The  Twentieth  Army  Corps  did  not 
move  on  the  7th. 

Pursuant  to  General  Bosecrans'  orders  an  advance 
was  made  along  the  whole  line  on  the  8th.  Beatty's  Bri- 
gade leaving  at  four  a.  m.  marched  to  Coopei*'s  (lap.  The 
rest  of  the  division  moved  to  Steven's  Gap.  (Also  called 
Prick's  Gap.)  Genei'al  Rosecrans  having  information 
from  various  sources,  such  as  deserters,  citizens,  and 
scouts,  that  Bragg  was  evacuating  Chattanooga,  di- 
rected the  movements  of  the  day  accordingly.  General 
DaA'is,  of  McCook's  Corps,  on  the  right,  crossed  Lookout 
with  two  brigades  in  support  of  the  cavalry  then  ope- 
rating toward  LaFayette  on  Bragg's  probable  line  of 


114  THE  ONE  HUNDHED  AND  FOL'HTH 

ifin-at.  <MMMi:il  N«-^I«'V  airiviii;^  lu-ar  Sh-vtii's  (iap 
s|HMit  I  III'  Way  ill  nMimviii;;  tin*  nnks  and  lif«*s  iliat  ol» 
siriu-t«Ml  ilic  mail,  and  :it  iii^lil  liivoiiackiMl  in  tlic  viriii 
it.v.  Tlif  I'iisi  !{ii;:ad«*  (Ikraiiv's)  r«*atli«*d  r«M»|M*i's  (Jajt 
almul  ri;:lii  a.  III.  and  irslcd  a  slioil  liinc  I'rum  this 
|Hiiiii  ur  had  a  j^raiid  \  h'W  td  I  In*  ( Mial  taiiu(»;i:a  vall»*v. 
wliitli  lay  iwii  tliMiisaiid  li»i  Im-Iuw  us.  \\  «•  were  in 
<MMirijia.  and  ImoUiuj;  nnrtli  «uiild  aliiio.st  scm-  (Miatta 
iHM»;;a  altMUl  t  w  riiiyl  wo  mi  Irs  distant.  Hn  the  ojiposih- 
side  of  till'  \alle\  ilie  iiioiiniains  uf  (iroij^ia,  Teniiesse** 
and  Nortli  ('andina  rosr  bcfoit' imr  cyrs  in  \ast  surees- 
simis  of  ran^re  n|n>n  ranj^r,  jM*aU  ii|miii  |m  ak.  ilnir  si<lrs 
trrrarrd  willi  tin*  \ei'dni*e  of  aiiiiiiiin.  Two  tu-  iIumm' 
mill's  t-asi  w  «•  discovered  meandciin^  i  liion^li  t  In-  \  alley 
<  hit  kaiiiaii^'a  <  'icrk,  t  lial  nanif  liavinj;  been  ^d\  en  it  l>,\ 
till*  indians.  and  iin-anin;:  in  oiir  lan;;iiaj;«'.  "The  v'im-v  of 
d«-atli."  Siicli,  indrrd,  it  pioNrd  tt»  Im*  a  few  days  later. 
.Inst  l)«*yond,  l*i;;«'oii  .Moiiinain  was  in  si^lii. 

W'liih'  \\»'  stood  in  ad  mi  rat  ion  ^azin;:  iiimhi  f  h--  nt-w 
and  Mif|iassiii;i  heanlies  of  nature  on  ev«*!*y  iiand, 
allot  In  •!•  si;;  III  (»f  vital  iinpoit  an»'st»*d  attention.  ( "hmds 
of  «lust  wi'ir  notirrd  ill  the  \alliy  a  frw  mih"^  in  our 
front.  (  Ml  •'xaminiii;;  t  hrs*'  rlosrly  wit  h  fi«'ld  ^ilasses,  we 
saw  loii;i  lim-s  of  soldiiMs  and  trains  of  wagons  inov- 
iii;;  s<nil  hward.  It  was  Hra^^'s  ai'iiiy  in  ret  r«Mi.  ('our 
i«Ms  wiTe  at  omc  disjiatrlu'd  to  N»*;;lcy  with  tin*  infor- 
iiialioii.  Thf  itri^^adr  was  thru  srt  in  motion  down  the 
lliolllltaill.  Thrpf  wept'  some  ohst  fllct  ions.  Imh  IIicsi 
Wire  soon  r«*mov«M|.  ( >n  ariix  in;  at  t  In*  lias..  ( 'om|».iii\ 
II  had  a  skinnish  with  rt'ltcl  ravaliy  and,  ha\iii;i  tlu- 
ad\anta;:<'.  Immh;^  ahovc  and  well  |iiot('rt«'d,  soon  dro\t' 
it  ofT,  tie*  r«-lM*ls  lfa\  in;:  om*  man  scxcifly  w  oumh'd  ;  two 
iiIh«»,  were  «ai»l  iii«-d.  io;:ri  her  w  it  h  some  sal»i«'s  and 
othi-f  :inns  'I'lir  Kfuine'iit  and  Uriiradf  followed 
rl«»Hi'ly  rrady  to  su|i|tort  t  In- skinuislnTs.  Itiit  t  he  i-i'Im-Is 
had  dis<-o\«*i'«-d  our  strength  and  had  no  iloulii  Kmi 
P«ihI*mI  ihrn*  lo  ohsrrv*'  and  rrpoit  our  approa<  h.  As 
HeallyV  nri;;adf  was  tin*  llrst  and  only  fon-e  yn  in  th  • 
valh'x  ami  Ilic  imhmiin  lay  within  thrci*  miles  disiam-r. 
Ofiirnil  llcaily  nnidi'iitly  halted  and,  tlirowiii;.^  out  a 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  115 

strong  picket  line,  went  into  bivouac.  For  twenty  four 
hours  following  we  were  isolated  from  siijtport,  should 
an  attack  he  uiade.  But  Though  uuuiheiiug  only  s(uue 
twelve  hundred  men  and  a  section  of  a  battery,  our  ad- 
vantage of  position  would  have  enabled  us  to  repel  any 
attack  bv  far  superior  numbers.  Vide  Reb.  Rec,  Vol. 
XXX.,  pj).  32()-3(;7. 

( Jeneral  Kosecrans  was  notified  at  half  past  three  on 
the  morning  of  the  0th  that  Chattanooga  had  been 
evacuated.  (Jeneral  Wagner,  whose  troops  lay  on  the 
north  bank  op])osite,  became  convinced  on  the  Sth  tliat 
the  rebel  army  was  leaving.  ( leneral  \\'ilder,  who,  with 
his  mounted  infantry,  had  patroled  the  river  for  thirty 
miles  abov€%  dnring  tlie  campaign,  and  was  then  seven 
miles  from  the  town,  was  also  satisfied  of  the  fact. 
Therefore,  on  the  morning  of  the  Otli,  Wagner  crossed 
his  trooi)s  over  and  took  possession,  the  colors  of  the 
Ninety-seventh  Ohio  being  the  first  planted  on  the  rebel 
defenses.  At  a  later  hour  the  rest  of  Crittenden's  Corps 
marched  around  Lookout  Point  andintothecityandval- 
le}'.  And  thus  fell  without  a  battle — the  rebel  strong- 
hold, the  key  to  Georgia  and  the  inner  South;  the  object 
of  the  National  thoughts,  efforts  and  solicitude  for  one 
l<»ng  year.  This  had  been  the  goal  for  which  Buell  had 
feebly  r(^ached,  and  which  (Jeneral  Kosecrans  by  the  ex- 
ercise^ of  superior  generalship,  had  obtained  in  the  face 
of  difficulties  and  discouragements,  before  which  a 
feebler  genius  would  have  recoiled  in  dismay. 

The  effect  produced  on  the  army  by  the  fall  of  Chat- 
taTiooga  was  electrical.  The  retreat  of  Bragg  was  con- 
sidered such  evidence  of  weakness  that  the  luirsuit  and 
defeat  or  capture  of  his  army,  now  occupied  the 
thoughts  of  all.  The  authorities  in  AVashiugton  who 
had  been  trembling  with  anxiety  for  the  safety  of  the 
Army  of  the  Cumberland,  and  watching  for  the  de- 
nouement of  what  was  considered  a  bold  and  perilous 
undertaking  and  one,  too,  which  they  had  not  properly 
supported,  elated  be^'ond  measure,  urged  a  further  ad- 
vance. If  General  Rosecrans  had  been  averse  to  this  he 
would  have  had  no  discretion.    At  all  events,  the  move- 


116  THE  ONi:  HrxIiUKD  AND  FOURTH 

iiMiit>  «■!  tin-  '.Mil  \Ni-n-  <-i«l«n«l  lo  bf  piishrd  \\\lU  \  i^t>r 
a;;aiiis!  thfciifuiy  (mm  ri<:lil  to  h'fl,a  distaini*  of  forty 
to  finiy-livt*  iiiiU'S. 

The  First  IJri^atU'  passiMl  tin-  iii^lii  of  tin*  Mli  wiili- 
oiit  any  alarm,  ami  on  the  IHli  marcluHl  south  three 
miles  to  the  foul  of  Steven's  (Jap,  where  at  four  p.  m. 
Nr^ley's  l>i\ision  havinj^  rome  <lo\\u,  the  winth*  f»u'<<* 
nioveil  hy  ai  ron;:h  nairow  roa«l  through  a  lane,  one  mih- 
to  Itailey's  Cross  Koa«ls.       This  was  foun«l  to  be  a  men- 
hamlet  of  a  few  loj;  houses,  situated  in  the  midst  of 
delist'   Woods  and   surrouudrd   by  rorky   kiudls,     ()u   a 
lar;:e  oak  ire<*  was  noticed  a  si|;n  board  with  the  lej^end, 
"To  ('hattanoo«;a  2."{  miles."     Thirty    y«'ars    later,  tin* 
writer  revisite(l  this,  and  other  [daces  in  the  vicinity, 
and  saw  what  were  eviilently  the  same  lo<^  houses  and 
si;:n  board,  I  here  seeuietl  to  hav«'  been  no  chan;xe.    ( leu- 
eral  Ne{4;ley,  hallinj;  the  main  command  U<v  the  ni;;hi, 
sent  forward  Stanley's  Iirij;a<le  at  five  p.  m.  ou  ji  r«* 
coiinoissaiice  eastward   in   the  direction  of  \U\*^  (Jaji. 
Stanley  uiarclu'd  m*arly  tln-re,  a  «listance  of  three  miles, 
but  lonsiantly  met  and  skirmished  with  ndud  «avalry. 
of  which  two  were  captured  in  a  char^^e  by  Ne«;ley's 
mounted  cscuii.     SiaiiJcN   ilim  withdrew.     Ihirin^  the 
day,  < 'rilieiiden's  ( 'orps  on   the  left,  except    W'aiiiiei's 
Itri^iade,  had   marched   rapidly   up  the  valley   toward 
Uinj;;;old,  in  IJraj^j^'s  rear.    .M((  'ook  on  the  ri^rht  had  ad- 
vanced in  the  direction  of  Alpine  to  intei«ept    Hra'ii:. 
X<»ne  of  ihe  thi-ee  corps  w cic    within    supporting    dis 
lance  of  each  other,  Mc<  'otdi's  beinj;  t  w cnly  miles  from 
the  j'onrteenlh  and  separated  also  by  hi;:h  niouniains. 
If  .Mc<'ook  had  Miienipt<-d  lo  jujn  by  ilie  from  lie  woidd 
have  met   Hra^^^'s  whole  army  and  have  been  crushed, 
In*  «ould  only  effeii   a  junclion    with    TluMuas    by    re- 
croKsinj:  the  mountains  twice,  and  this  is  what  he  <lid  :i 
few  days  later.    Critlendeu  was  as  far  away  as  Mcrook. 
but  had  thea<lvantap'  of  bein^  in  the  valley  with  belter 
roads  to  travt-r'^e.     The  {•'oni-ieeiit  h  <  "orps     (he  cenier, 
wan  the  key  in  the  arch,  and  the  reliance  of  all.     Such 
wnH  the*  Hituaition  nn  the  eveiiin};  of  tlio  Olh.     (Jeneral 
I'o'iecrans  evidently   believed    that    Ttrairt:   wonid    on- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  117 

tinue  to  retreat  aud  based  his  orders  for  the  10th  oii  that 
assiiniptioii.  Had  he  known  what  was  transpiriun 
around  the  cam])  tire  of  General  Bragg,  I'e  wouhl  liavc 
issued  orders  of  a  dilTerent  l^ind.  Another  day  was  re- 
quired to  reveal  the  intentions  of  the  rebel  commander. 
On  Thursday,  the  10th,  in  pursuance  of  orders,  Neg- 
ley's  Division  resumed  the  march  toward  LaFayette 
via  Davis  Cross  Roads,  two  miles  or  more  southeast 
from  Bailey's.  >v  o  other  troops  of  the  Fourteenth  On-ps 
had  as  yet  come  into  the  valley — here  called  McLe- 
More's  Cove.  Sirwell's  Brigade  (the  Third)  led  the  ad- 
vance, and  from  the  first  did  more  or  less  skirmishing 
with  the  rebel  cavalry.  The  road  was  through  dense 
woods,  over  several  hills,  and  was  rocky  and  rough  part 
of  the  way.  Beatty's  Brigade  guarded  the  train  of  four 
hundred  wagons,  through  to  Davis'.  On  arriving  at  the 
latter  point  the  train  was  parked.  From  Dm  vis'  to 
Chickamauga  Creek  (below  called  river)  the  road  led 
throiigh  a  narrow  lane  with  stone  walls  on  either  side, 
the  distance  to  the  creek  being  about  sixty  rods,  and 
thence  across  the  stream  to  Dug  Cap;  the  entrance  to 
this  gorge  in  Pigeon  Mountain  was  not  over  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  from  the  creek.  Parallel  with  the  latter, 
which  at  this  point  ran  northward,  a  solid  stone  ^^  all 
guarded  the  .John  Davis  ])lantation  of  five  huiKlri'l 
acres.  During  the  advance  so  much  opposition  had 
been  shown  that  Negley  became  cautious  on  approach- 
ing Dug  Gap,  and  disposed  his  command  in  the  best  \)o- 
sitions  to  be  found.  He  learned  from  a  Union  citizen  at 
one-thirty  p.-m.  that  his  suspicions  were  correct,  and 
that  Buckner's  Corps  with  cavalry  and  artillery  was  ad- 
vancing from  Catlett's  Gap  of  Pigeon  Mountain,  three 
miles  below,  with  the  intention  of  coming  in  on  our  left 
and  rear.  Dispositions  were  made  at  once  to  defeat  this 
attempt.  It  was  now  late  in  the  afternoon,  and  to  im- 
press the  enemy  a  strong  demonstration  was  made 
against  Dug  Gap,  driving  back  the  rebel  skirmishers 
and  disclosing  heavy  forces  behind.  One  object  was  to 
establish  the  picket  line  well  up  to  that  of  the  rebels  in 
the  Gap,  and  this  was  done.     The  troops    were   then 


lis  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

biviiiiiU'kiMl  iiinliT  anus  mm  iIw  1(m  k\  ri«l;;t's  aioinnl 
l>aviK*  lioiiM*  lu  tlif  li^lii,  fn»nt  ami  Iffi.  SiibstMiiiriit  ly 
at  a  lati*  hour,  llu*  pirki-l  lim*  was  quirtly  drawn  hark 
to  a  new  posiiioii.  TIk*  One  iiiiiidriMl  and  I  uiirtli  lay 
lU'iW  l>a\is'  liMusf.  iMjiiii^  lln*  nij^dil  Nr^d«*y  itM<'iv«Ml 
additional  iwwn  from  liiion  iiini  and  his  scouts,  to  tho 
I'fftHl  that  oiH'-hiilf  of  thf  \vln»h*  ifbrl  army  lay  wi'iiiu 
two  milrs  of  our  «amp,  conrralfd  by  IMjjjrou  Mountain, 
and  intiMnlin;:  to  attack  and  destroy  Nc«;lfy's  l>ivisi«»n 
in  llir  mornin;;.  Thry  stated  that  immrdiatfly  in  front 
was  IliU's  Turps  of  thn-i'  divisions  iwrlvr  l>ri;iad«'s; 
to  tin-  Ifft  HufkuiT's  Corps  tif  i  u <•  divisions,  an«l  For- 
n*st's  cavalry — two  divisions;  while  Tolk  antl  Hrecken- 
ridp;»*'K  ( 'or|is  were  within  su|»iMirlin;j:  distance.  Such 
was  the  sit  uatiiMi  in  fiMtnt  of  Ne;;h'y  on  tin*  ni^dit  of  the 
null,  and  it  may  he  conjectured  thai  the  (Jeneral  and 
his  siafT  liid  not  sle«'p  very  soundly,  if  at  all. 

On  the  moiiiinj;  of  the  11th,  about  ei^dit,  all  w»-re 
much  relii'Ved  by  the  arrival  of  (leiieral  liaird  with  th»» 
Kirst  iiiid  StMond  l?rijiades  of  the  First  Division  (Stark- 
weather's ami  S«  libiier'si.  These  t  roojts  were  put  in  po- 
sition at  once,  .\bout  this  lini*-  <i<-neral  Thomas, 
w  hosr  head«|uarieis  were  at  Steven's  <  Jap,  made  his  ap- 
pearsiiice  with  his  stalT  and  escort  f«u-  the  puijiose  uf 
looking;  over  the  j^roiind.  Fnciv  std<lier  knew  that  we 
Were  in  a  critical  posit  ion.  but  t  he  pieseiic*'  of  t  he  loved 
and  t  rusted  <  onimaiuhf  of  i  he  I'ourteeiit  h  Army  ( 'oips 
^ave  confidence  to  all.  tieiieral  Thomas  had  some  tent 
flvM  pitched  in  Davis'  meadow  and  sat  down  to  business 
as  undisturbed  and  impassive  as  the  ci:i::;:y  mountains 
ariuind.  These  tt-mpoiary  head<piaiiers  were  not  i  • 
moved  for  some  hours  and  until  shot  and  shell  w«'re  fly- 
ing; tlii«-k  aind  fast.  The  wiitei-  havin«;  seen  no  nicu 
tion  of  (ieiieral  Thoiuas'  piesencr  there  in  any  report  or 
history,  and  bein;;  sent  to  tJeiu'ral  Thouias'  headtpi  ir- 
teix.  nioreoxcr,  liaxin^  been  impressed  with  his  appear- 
ance at  thai  time,  records  the  facts  stated  as  a  part  of 
thi»  hiMtory  of  tin*  dayV  events.  About  nine  there  w«ie 
hI^mh  of  the  enemy's  advanci*.  .\  scout  couiin;:  in.  re- 
p«u-ied  that  the  obstructions  in  Dii^,  T.lue  llird  and  ( 'at- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  119 

lett's  (ijips,  wliicli  lirnLin  luul  itlaccd  tlici-c,  Imd  been  rc- 
iiiovcd  jiiid  the  rchcl  a<lvaiic<'  bc^uii. 

(Toueral  Nei»ley  (no  doubt  iiiuler  onh'is  liom  ( Jciicial 
Thomas),  decidiiiji'  that  (nir  position  was  untenable  wit  h 
The  forces  in  hand,  i>i-e])are(l  toreti-eat  to  IJaihw's  Cross 
Ivoads  and  Steven's  Ga}).  Meantime,  durinj;  tiie  fore- 
noon, heavy  columns  of  the  rebels  couhl  be  seen  aj*- 
|n-oachiu<i-,  the  nearest  beinj>'  those  from  l)u«>-  Oap.  Their 
sliari»sliooters  soon  struclc  Sirwell's  Hriijade,  but  Miis 
occupied  an  excellent  ])osition  well  i>rotected,  and  as  the 
rebel  main  line  came  nearer,  poured  in  an  effective  tire 
that  caused  them  to  halt.  Sirwell  lost  here,  three  killed 
and  twenty  wounded.  Then,  b(Mn^'  relieved  by  Stark- 
weather's Bri<iad<%  Sirwell  (piietly  withdrew  to  the 
ridji<'  at  Davis;  Bridij;(''s  Jiattery  of  lieatty's  l)rij;ade, 
stationed  in  Davis'  orchard  or  «>ardeu,  did  some  effective 
work  at  that  time.  It  was  then  twelve,  and  there  was  a 
lull  in  the  o])erations  for  a  short  time.  A  rebel  battery 
had  been  idayini;'  on  our  lines  at  Davis,  but  without 
d(»in_n  much  damaj^e,  excei)t  to  the  residence,  which  was 
a  very  good  one  of  the  better  class  seen  on  Southern 
jdantations,  and  to  the  fe(diniis  of  Mrs,  John  Davis,  who 
was  an  excellent  rebel,  and  vowed  she  would  never  leave 
the  ])reniises.  P>ut  after  endurinu,-  the  crash  and  roar  of 
the  shells  for  a  while,  takiiij»-  her  two  small  boys  by  the 
hand  she  decided  to  evacuate  the  house.  The  writer 
chancinsi'  just  then  to  be  passing-  was  a])])ealed  to  and 
advised  her  in  warm  terms  to  get  behind  the  hills.  She 
stood  not  on  the  order  of  her  going,  but  went  at  once. 
The  vision  of  those  two  bright,  young  boys  conies  before 
me  now.  About  one  p.  m.  heavy  columns  of  cavalry 
were  visible  niar<-hing  through  the  fields  to  our  left.  A 
battery  was  turned  upon  them.  The  immense  ti-ain  of 
four  hundred  wagons  containing  all  of  our  aininunition 
ami  su])plies  was  by  this  time  got  ready,  and  es<-orted 
by  lieatty's  and  Scribner's  Ilrigades,  moved  toAvard 
Bailey's  Cross  Roads.  Their  i)i'eservation  was  as  im- 
portant as  that  of  the  divisions  in  front.  On  the  road 
the  cavalry  endeavored  to  break  in,  but  were  unable  to 


I.'')  THE  ONE  HrXDHED  AND  FOURTH 

do  SO,  t»N\  in;;  |m  I  In-  arii\  it  \  :iii«l  skill  of  (  o'licial  Ileal iv, 
\\  ho  roiiiiiiaiitlril.  Tin*  rolu'ls,  liowfvi'r,  had  thrown  oin* 
rf;;iiiMMil  forward  to  Hailfv's,  whirh  ivtivaicMl  on  «hm- 
a|iitroa(li.  This  iiiovciucut  was  verv  8U)W  and  made 
with  raiitioii.  I'l-oiii  l!aih'\'s  it  was  tout iinic.l  afi«'i- 
tiark  to  St»'V»'ii's  iJap.  Whih*  I  ho  trains  wero  hciii*; 
staito<l  and  «*n  ronto,  lively  work  was  {ioinjr  "'H  i>»  front, 
!lu' oihiT  hri-iados  of  No;rloy'sand  those  of  Haird  hein^ 
hotly  en;;ap*d  around  Ihivis.    Ne^rley  plantinj;  ten  ^nns 

on  the  lidi;e  shelled  t  he  enemy  with  ;;ood  elTect.  (  'olonel 
Stanley  eoniinandin;:  the  Second  ]?rij;ade  look  posiiion 
to  tin*  rij^hl  ami  «lrove  back  i  li<-  rebels  with  mnskei  ry  as 
they  ait|Ho;i(hed  the  rierk.  Starkweather  was  on  the 
left.  I'oiir  companies  i>f  ihe  Nineteenth  Illinois,  and 
one  of  t  he  T\\  eiity-foiirt  h  Illinois,  lay  behind  the  stone 

\\  all  by  t  he  creek,  and  as  1 1 iieniy  ad  \  a  need  almost  to 

tin-  find,  rose  snddeidy,  as  from  the  iiroimd.  and  j  ion  red 
in  a  v<dley  that  sj-nt  them  reeling:  to  the  i-ear.  Thirty 
rebels  fell  dead  at  the  lirsi  tile.  jlow  inaiiN  weir 
W'oiimled  is  nnkimw  II.  ( )nr  batteries  on  t  he  ridp*  tiring 
<tver  the  infantry  did  iearfnl  execution.  The  rebel  ad- 
\aiici'  was  then  thoroii;ihl\  checked  for  a  liiiie  and 
Stanley's  command  withdraw  n  nearer  to  havis.  Stin- 
le\  *s  loss  was  li\  e  kilh'd,  t  w  eiity-niiie  wounded,  and  four 
missinj;.  The  joss  of  i  he  enemy  was  never  kimw  n  pttsi- 
tively,  bnt  must  ha\e  bei'ii  heavy  as  they  exposed  thein- 
selxcs  with  reckless  coiitidelice,  kliowiiiii  the  stlelll^tll 
opposed  to  them,  li  was  then  after  three  o'chtck  ami 
thon;:h  re|Milsed  <iii  ihc  ri^hi.  Ilnckin'i's  < 'oips  wis 
sleailily  nio\in;:  in  nn  ijn-  jcfi  wiihiii  •<\\iiv\  lanije,  when 
terrific  lirin^i  be^an  on  both  sides,  in  which  ••iir  troops 
had  I  he  ad\  anta;:«'  of  position,  bnt  Neiiley  know  iiii;  that 
they  would  s«»on  «liar;^e  in  n\  i-rpow  eriii^  nnmbers,  w  ith- 
drew  slowly  fr<iin  one  hill  i«>  another.  co\criii^  exi-ry 
nioN  ell  lent,  until  after  dark  In-  i  «-acli.-d  llaih-x  's.  1  in  hi- 
flirt  In -r  orders  l  he  t  rains  had  ;;one  on  to  tin-  foot  uf  i  he 
<  iap  and  w  eie  jiarked  in  rear  «)f  :i  line  of  hills  in  t  he  \  al 
b'\.  The  entire  I  M\  isitui,  also  Haird's,  was  then  placed 
in-ar  tin-  (iap  in  a**  L'oud  pisiiions  as  tonld  be  ubiaiin-d 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  121 

in  the  darkness.  There  we  were  joined  by  tlie  divisions 
of  Brannau  and  Reynolds,  wliitli  had  just  arrived,  and 
General  Thomas  look  coniniand  in  ]>orsoii. 

Tlio  ()n<'  lliindrcd  and  Fourth  dui'iui:  the  (hiy  had 
one  man  woun<led,  and  one,  NVilliym  K.  Kyster,  of  Com- 
pany D,  missing-;  lie  was  i)r(>bably  kilhMl  in  the  thick 
woods,  as  he  was  a  sharpshooter.  M.  Kirkpatrick  had 
his  collar  shot  away  by  a  minie  ball.  Durinu  the  ni<:,lit 
the  Reii'iment  and  l>rii;ade  jdaced  alonj^-  the  hills,  threw 
up  ,some  slip,ht  defenses  of  timber  and  rails,  which  were 
further  strengthened  at  early  dawn  of  the  12th.  Gen- 
eral Beatty  and  staff  spent  almost  the  entire  nioht  in 
the  saddle  postino'  picket  lines  and  preparino-  for  attack, 
which  was  deeiiKMl  certain  to  be  made  in  the  morning. 
Not  a  moment  Avas  spent  in  sleep.  At  three  a.  m.,  Com- 
missary Orr  surprised  our  headquarters  by  producing  a 
bottle  of  wine.  General  Beatty  remarked,  "\Yell,  let's 
drink ;  Ave  may  not  be  able  to  a  few  hours  later." 

Sunday,  the  12th,  dawned  bright  and  warm,  but  con- 
trary to  expectation,  no  enemy  appeared,  and  the  cav- 
alry soon  after  reported  that  they  had  withdrawn  to 
Dug  Gap.  This  unlooked-for  event,  though  a  surprise, 
was  not  unwelcome  as  all  were  thoroughly  worn  out  and 
needed  rest.  General  Rosecrans  received  a  telegram 
from  General  Halleck  at  Washington,  dated  September 
11,  Avhich  stated  among  other  things  that  rebel  desert- 
ers had  come  in  and  reported  Bragg  as  sending  rein- 
forcements to  Lee.  Vide  Reb.  Rec,  Vol.  XXX,  p.  34. 
This  was  only  a  rebel  ruse,  but  Halleck  did  not  seem  to 
discredit  it. 

The  writer  has  dwelt  at  considerable  length  on  the 
action  at  Daids  Cross  Roads,  for  the  reason  that  in  all 
the  general  histories  the  affair  has  been  hardly  more 
than  mentioned,  and  only  in  a  general  way,  without  giv- 
ing details  of  what  was  a  formidable  fight,  while  the 
skill  with  which  General  Negley,  aided  by  Baird,  his 
junior,  commanded  and  extricated  the  division  from 
their  perilous  position,  and  the  steady  valor  of  the 
soldiers,  who  could   see  that  they  were  facing  over- 


122  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOL'KTH 

wlifliiiiiij!;  nuinlK'i's,  havr  Im«ii  liairlv  alliulr<l  to.  rinn* 
is,  also,  another  i-rason.  This  was  th**  turniii^  |Miini  in 
thf  ciinipai;;;!!  Im';;uii  .hnu*  «4tli,  iit-ailv  ilirt-f  months 
pri'viouK,  thr  lU'fliniinai'v  o|KMiin;;    of    tht*  IJatth*    of 

<  'hi(-kaniaii;:a,  foM;;hi  ;^  fi'W  «hivs  hit«M-. 

Tlu'  ail  ion  uin-oVfitMl  Hiaj;«;'s  «h*si«::ns.  It  was 
h*arn»M|  soon  afl«'i-  that  hi*  ha«l  issiiril  onh*is  for  an  a<l- 
\  anr«'  in  forrt*  on  i  he  lot  h.  a«zainsi  N«';ih*_v,  bnt  owinj;  to 
ji  niisninlcrstamlin^  on  tin*  part  of  his  (iriirrals — Hill 
an«l  lliinlnian,  ami  the  hcaxv  olisirmt ions  he  ha<l 
ItlamI  ill  t  Im- ;:a|»s,  t  ln*i«' w  as  a  «la,v*s  (h'la\.  ThissavtMl 
N«*;:h*v,  as  no  otlu*r  forces  wen*  ilirn  «lo\vn  tlu*  inonn- 
tain.  It,  also.  ]irolial)ly  sav<*«l  ( 'rittrmlrn,  who.  on  tlie 
11th.  a«lvam(Ml  to  Kin^;,'ol»l  in  thr  valh-v.  |»r«M«Ml«Ml  1>\ 
\\  ihh*r  ami  Mint\,  who  ilrovr  out  tin*  em-mv  ami  th«*n 
wt'iit  as  far  as  Tnnm*l  Hill.  Thcst*  fonrs.  in  fart,  i»as^«'<l 
tin*  ri;^ht  tiank  of  a  part  of  Hra^'j^'s  arin\ ,  ami  saw  the 
irhi'ls  on  rvrry  roa«l.  Hnt  tin*  attention  of  tin*  rebel 
eomiiiaml«*r  bein^i  absorbt'il  w  ith  the  movement  a;;aii!si 
Ne«;ley,  he  m*«;le<t«*<l  < 'fit  t«*mle!l. 

iMirin;;  tin*  «lay  the  inovenu*nts  on  tin*  ri^ht  con- 
\ime<l  .M<rook  that  he  eonhl  m>t  reach  Lal'-ayette,  nor 

coiiinMt  with  Thomas  east  of  I k«int.    Tin*  ex)>erieme 

of  the  I'onrteeni  h  <  "orjts  w  as  almost  comlnsive  e\  itl-p.  ■ 
that  Hrajii:  hail  b«N*n  reinforced,  ha«l  »|oiie  retrt*atin;:. 
ami  was  <letermim*<l  to  brin«;oii  a  bat  I  h*.    <  iem*ral  Kose- 

<  laiis  ;:raspin;^'  tin*  sitnation  ami  coiisnltiiiji  with 
Thomas,  at  onc«*.  on  tin*  iii^iht  of  the  lltli.  ti»ok  im*as- 
nres  for  tin*  coin-eiitrat ion  of  t  he  t  hrce  corpx.  ( 'onriers 
sent  to  .Mc<  \)ok,  w  ho  reniaiin*<l  inact  i\<*  on  i  lie  iL't  h.  did 
not  reach  him  niitil  midnight  of  thai  ilale.  Heat  once 
set  his  <  'orps  in  nntt  ion,  ami  bein;;  oblij;t*d  to  ret  nrn  by 
way  of  N'alley  Head,  had  to  rross  ami  rccross  the  inonn- 
lain  twi«e  in  or«ler  to  reach  Thomas.  T';is  nn»\ ennui 
reipiiretl  four  days  for  its  execntion.  ('ritteinleii  was 
leached  easier,  but  bein^'  then  beyond  l{in;;^'idd  with 
\\  ihb-r  ami  infantry  in  adxame,  had  to  wait  for  their 
r«*lnrii.  This  delayinl  his  inovin;;  mn't Invest.  m*arer 
Thonias.  ami  on  tin*  I'Jlh,  when  In  marched,  he 
was  confronted  with  two  rebel  corps   s«*nt    by    Bra;:;;, 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  123 

Avlio,  having  failed  to  criisli  Xegley,  resolved  U)  deslroy 
Critteiiden. 

The  safety  of  the  army  and  Chattanooga  was  in- 
volved in  this  movement,  lint  snr])risi)ig  as  it  may 
seem,  no  battle  ensned,  thongh  skirmishing  was  carried 
on  all  day,  and  \Vilder  had  a  severe?  engagement  at 
Leet's  Tankard,  with  a  loss  of  thirty  killed  and  wonnded. 
The  enemy  lost  fifty.  The  Corps  reached  Lee  and  (J<n-- 
don's  Mills  ou  the  (Tiickamanga  in  safety,  where  Wood 
lay  with  his  division.  The  Fonrteenth  Corps  lay  qniet 
on  the  12th,  awaiting  developments  and  movements 
elsewhere.    It  was  necessary  also  to  wait  for  McCook. 

General  Kosecrans  aware  of  Crittenden's  critical  ])o- 
sition  gave  him  orders  accordingly.  General  Crittenden 
expecting  an  attack  on  the  morning  of  the  13th,  fortn- 
nately  so  disposed  his  forces  as  completely  to  deceive 
<  reneral  I*olk,  who  commanded  tlie  two  rebel  corps  sent 
to  crush  liim.  He  began  aggressive  movements  on  his 
front  and  left,  and  sent  (Jeneral  Van  Cleve  out  on  tlie 
LaFayette  road  with  one  brigade.  General  Van  Cleve 
soon  meeting  the  rebel  advance  di-ove  it  back  three  and 
a  half  miles.  General  Tolk,  happily  for  Crittenden, 
halted  and  sent  to  Bragg  for  reinforcements.  The  lat- 
ter, perplexed  and  vacillating,  tlien,  to  the  surprise  and 
joy  of  Crittenden,  withdrew  Polk's  Corps  and  gave  new 
orders  for  the  concentration  of  his  army  on  the  Chicka- 
maiiga.  General  Kosecrans  was  kept  informed  by  cour- 
iers as  to  McCook's  movements  and  it  may  be  supposed, 
awaited  his  approach  with  as  mncli  anxiety  as  did  Wel- 
lington that  of  Blucher  at  the  Battle  of  Waterloo. 

It  was  still  possible  for  Bragg  to  crush  or  drive  off 
Crittenden  and  seize  the  roads  to  Chattanooga,  when 
nothing  would  intervene  north  but  three  brigades  of 
the  Beserve  Corps,  then  sup])osed  to  be  at  Rossville,  five 
miles  fi'om  the  city,  ^^'ith  these  threatening  possibili- 
ties in  view.  General  Kosecrans  ordered  Crittend(Mi  with 
two  divisions  to  move  w^est  on  the  14th,  so  as  to  cover 
the  roads  in  the  A-alley,  leaving  Wood  at  the  Mills. 
There  Wood  was  isolated  frcun  any  near  support,  but  he 
could  be  relied  upon  to  take  pretty  good  care  of  his  part 


I-«  TUK  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

•  •f  ihe  liiir.  Wihlrr  wjis  calle<l  uu  it»  «tt\ci-  iln-  ^nuiinl 
l«»  Tlnmias  with  constant  niovonnMils  an<l  tliMiKtnsira- 
liuus  ailing  llu'Cliiikaniau'ia,  tliert*  rapid  an»l  deep  with 
few  fords,  auother  favorable  eirciinistauee  for  Kose- 
<  rans. 

The  Fourte«Mitli  Coi-ps  nio\«Ml  t»iie  niil»'  iiorihcasl  on 
I  he  14th.  (Ml  th<>  ir>th,<Vilonel  A.  H.  Moori*,  and  ('ha]>hiin 
lit  in|isicad,  both  of  whom  had  resigned  not  h»n;;  iM-fori', 
weif  ni>litu*d  «»f  the  arreptaiice  of  their  resij;natious,  on 
aetMiiiM  of  dis;il>ili!  \ ,  and  h'ft  for  jionie. 

Cidoiirl  l>oii;;|;is  llai»cnian  now  assumed  (-onniiniid 
of  the  One  llnndrrd  and  I'onrth. 

It  hein;;  evidrnt  that  a  battle  must  be  fouiiht,  tin-  n  ■ 
nnitinir  '»f  tin*  Aniiv  of  tlu*  ( 'unib«M-laml  became  a  mat- 
ter of  life  and  death  and  all  tin*  efTorts  of  the  command- 
in;:  ;r«-ni-ral  and  lii<  subi>i  diiiaii'^  ut'i-c  din-cifij  to  that 
end. 

<icm*ral  Thomas  advanced  i  he  I'tmiteein  h  «  oips  a 
mile  or  two  each  clay  until  the  ITth,  this  slow  pro^f«'ss 
beinj;  ne<essaiv  on  account  of  Mti'ooU. 

Colonels  Minty  ami  Wilder  were  kejtt  constant  ly  le- 
coniioiterin^  on  the  front  alon^  the  (Miickaman^a,  and 
from  I  hem  and  <»t  her  sources,  it  was  learned  t  hat  Iba^jj; 
was  movin;:  alon^  t  he  «'ast  bank,  and  concent  rat  iiii;  his 
heaviest  forces  on  lheri«:ht.  with  the  evident  intention 
of  tryin;:  his  favorite  tactics  of  massing  on  one  think,  in 
this  instance,  our  left.  Hut  l»ra«ii:,  l»rilliant  eiiouLrh  in 
cuncei\in;i  |»lans,  was  slow  in  ••xe«titin^  them,  lie  had 
intended  lo  citisli  Kosecrans'  army,  "ICxposed  in  detail," 
as  he  expresKe«l  it.  Tiie  pddeii  opportunities  had  been 
lost,  as  he  afterward  claimed,  by  the  failure  of  his  gen- 
erals to  carr\  «nit  his  orders.  \'et,  the  remedy  was  in 
his  own  hands.  Learning;  nothin;:  finni  the  jevsnn  nf 
Havis  Cross  Koads,  and  «ha;;rined  at  the  lesiili.  lie 
I  uriied  in  desperai  ion  a;;ainsl  ( 'rit  leiiihii  with  t  he  >aiiie 
L'enerajs,  and  lln>u;^di  liaxini,'  f"r  ti\e  da\s  the  oppoiiu- 
iiity  to  «rush  him.  weakly  abandoned  ainmst  ceitain  suc- 
c(*HK  and  w  it  hdrew. 

While  Kosecrans  and  Thomas  weit-  waichini:  the 
left  w  it  h  nni«d«l  an.xiety,  sendin;:  courier  after  courier  to 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  125 

liuiTV  up  McCook,  to  their  great  joy  and  relief,  his  heads 
of  column  appeared  on  the  17th,  on  the  heights  of  Stev- 
en's Gap  and  were  soon  in  MeLemore's  Cove. 

The  Fourteenth  Army  Corps  had  no  fears  for  itself, 
llosecrans  and  Thomas  enjoyed  its  full  confidence,  but 
knowing  that  there  is  a  limit  to  human  endurance,  and 
aware  of  the  vast  combinations  of  rebel  armies  called 
from  the  east,  west  and  south,  to  help  Bragg  annihilate 
the  Army  of  the  Cumberland,  3[cCook's  arrival  was 
greeted  with  shouts  and  thanksgivings.  The  cavalry, 
which  had  been  with  ilcCook,  followed  his  infantry  and 
were  placed  on  the  right,  front  and  rear,  to  guard  the 
flank  and  MeCook's  immense  trains  under  the  conduct 
of  the  gallant  General  Lytle,  then  on  the  way  over  Look- 
out. 

The  Fourteenth  Corps  on  McCook's  arrival  was 
moved  beyond  Pond  Spring,  six  miles,  and  bivouacked 
near  the  Chickamauga.  Johnson's,  Sheridan's  and 
Davis'  Divisions  occupied  the  ground  left  by  General 
Thomas,  with  outposts  thrown  forward  towards  Dug 
and  Catlett's  Gaps  of  Pigeon  Mountain.  Crittenden's 
Corps  was  then  within  reach  in  case  of  attack,  and  Gen- 
eral Ilosecrans  suspecting  Bragg's  ])lan  kept  a  watchful 
eye  on  the  left. 

During  the  day.  General  Steedmau,  <tii  recon- 
noissance  toward  Ringgokl,  saw  heavy  clouds  of  dust 
toward  Dalton,  whence  reinforcements  would  arrive 
for  Bragg;  our  signal  officers  on  the  mountains  also  ob- 
served the  same  thing.  These  tell  tale  lines  tended 
toward  our  left.  Rosecrans  was  infornuMl.  From 
scouts  and  spies  and  various  sources.  General  Rosecrans 
had  learned  beyond  the  possibility  of  doubt  that  Bragg 
had  been  reinforced  by  Longstreet's  Cori)s  from  Vir- 
ginia; by  Johnston's  forces  from  Mississippi,  including 
paroled  prisoners  from  Vicksburg;  by  Buckner's  Corps, 
and  by  Walker's  Corps,  from  Georgia;  constituting  an 
army  of  over  70,000  men,  marshaled  on  the  banks  of  the 
Chickamauga,  for  the  purpose  of  not  only  annihilating 
the  Army  of  the  Cumberland,  but  retaking  Chatta- 
nooga.   To  opx)ose  this  vast  aggregation,  Rosecrans  had 


IM  THE  ONE  HL'NDHKD  AND  FOURTH 

imt    n\rr   ."»r»,(MM»    iiicli,    litll    lirilluT    lie    imr     his     SulduMS 

diiiihtiMi  tlit'ii' )il>ilil  V  to  cuitc  Willi  Hia^;;  and  defeat  his 
aniiv.  All  kiU'W  that  a  j:if*at  batth*  iinisl  Itc  f<»n;;ht 
HuoiiiT  or  later,  and  ueii-  anxious  to  have  it  o\ri . 

Some  military  rrilirs,  also  soiim*  j^eiierals,  haNe  as- 
herti'd  that  K»tsiTrai»s  should  have  wit  Inlrawii  his  whoh' 
ariiiv  lit  <'hattaiioo;.'a  on  tlieni^dit  of  the  ITthaml  iMli. 
iiisicati  of  siojipini:  to  li^iiii  at  ( 'hicUamaii^a.  This  rould 
ha\c  Ween  doni-  jtiohaldy  with  some  loss,  hut  in  such 
<ase  tlie  ultimate  results  wouhl  have  betMJ  had,  ha/.ai'il- 
iii;;  iu»t  oiil\  the  possession  of  the  piimary  ohjrct  of  th<' 
(-aini>ai;;n,  but  mI!  I  he  \ast  territory  ^aiiifd  imiih 
to  the  Ohio  KiNtjf,  as  lira;:;:,  with  an  uniirokni 
army,  rould  not  only  have  liesie;;ed  ("hatta- 
Ii«Ki^a  sur«essfully.  Iiut  eould  lia\e  nossed  iIh-  Ten- 
nessee ami  marched  a^ain  into  Kentucky.  There 
sei'ins  to  have  been  on  both  sides  wisdom  in  iIh-  coh- 
rlusioii  thai  a  ;^reat  battle,  both  for  military  and  polit- 
i«al  reasons,  was  an  absolute  neccssiiy.  In  \  lew  of 
the  im)iendinu  contest  all  of  the  trains,  «'\(f|ii  ninmii- 
nition  and  a  few  supjdy  wagons,  were  sent  on  to  that- 
tanoo^ja  by  the  roads  nearest  Lookout  and  lyin^  west 
of  Mission  Itidp*. 

<  hi  the  morniuLr  of  tli"  jsth.  tin-  coi-ps  of  M(("oid< 
and  Tliouias  were  |Mit  in  iii<>iiou  U>v  ilif  l»tt.  Neu- 
|e\'s  ni\ision  «lid  not  march  until  ihiec  ji.  m.,  when 
we  left  our  bivouac  near  (>w«ii's  I'oid,  liM-  miles  from 
CrawJish  Sprinj^s,  ami  prot  ((Mhij  toujud  the  latter 
phu-e.  I'roni  Hweii's  I'ord  t  hei-c  was  tiidy  one  prac- 
ticable road  and  this  was  blockaded  with  troops,  ariil 
jery  and  trains,  makin;;  the  movement  very  slow.  The 
nat  are  of  ihr  country  was  such  as  to  :idmit  of  im  nio\  < - 
ments  tlirou;;h  the  tields,  except  toi-  infaiiiiy.  and  then 
onl\  at  interNals.  Dense  cedar  brakes  ^lowin^on  and 
anioii^  broken  limestone  rocks  abounded  eNcivwheie 
iiliil  prevented  a  |»assa;;e.  Durinj;  the  day  more  or 
lesK  cannonading'  was  heard  away  (Ui  the  left  where 
Crittenden  lay.  Heally's  |{ri;:ade.  after  consuming' six- 
hours  and   makin<^  three  nnles,  halted  at    nine  in  the 

eVenin;;   in   «o||se<|Uence  of  nrders   to   liiKc  ;i    r<»:id    to   ihe 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  127 

right  and  relieve  Colonel  Grose,  who  was  confronting 
the  enemy  at  a  ford  of  the  Chickaniauga,  three  miles 
from  Crawtish.  Bnt  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth, 
being  still  in  the  rear  guarding  a  train,  it  was  neces- 
sary to  wait  for  its  arrival.  Not  having  reported  at 
twelve,  General  Beatty  moved  off  with  the  three  regi- 
ments and  Bridge's  Jiattery,  leaving  the  writer  to  con- 
duct the  Kegiment  to  position.  About  (me  a.  m.  the 
One  Ilundr(Ml  and  Fourth  arrived  and  the  order  was 
given  to  Golonel  llapemau.  The  men  were  greatly 
fatigued  and  needed  sleep,  but  we  must  go.  Falling 
in,  the  march  was  begun  and  though  not  very  long, 
there  were  circumstances  that  made  it  seem  so.  The 
night  was  intensely  dark,  the  road  a  mere  trace 
through  the  woods  with  underbrush  on  each  side. 
There  was  no  talking,  not  a  sound  disturbed  the  still- 
ness wdiicli  became  painful  in  view  of  possibilities,  pain- 
ful to  the  writer,  charged  with  the  responsibility  of 
finding  the  Brigade.  After  marching  for  a  distance 
that  seemed  miles,  a  halt  was  made  and  all  listened 
for  sounds  indicating  our  proximity  to  the  command. 
Nothing  was  heard.  Golonel  Hapeman  and  the  writer 
then  lighted  matches  and  examined  the  road  for  tracks. 
But  having  passed  no  laterals  it  was  certain  that  no 
mistake  could  have  been  made.  We  then  moved  on, 
and  after  another  age,  suddenly  stumbled  upon  some 
pickets— our  own;  the  balance  of  the  Brigade  were 
sound  asleep  in  the  dark  foi-est.  It  was  then  two  a.  m. 
Reporting  to  General  Beatty,  who  was  greatly  relieved 
by  our  arrival,  such  sleep  as  could  be  had  on  this 
cold  night,  was  sought.    No  fires  Avere  allowed. 

The  18th  had  been  em])loyed  by  Bragg  in  massing 
his  heaviest  forces  east  of  the  Ghicakamauga  in  front 
of  and  beyond  Crittenden,  who  held  position  from  Le(» 
anrl  Gordon's  Mills  northward,  with  \Yilder  and  Minty 
to  his  left,  respectively  at  Alexander's  and  Reed's 
bridges,  situated  two  and  five  miles  from  the  mills. 
Tedford's,  Dalton's  ami  Byron's  Fords  were  between. 

General  Bragg  had  issued  orders  for  attack  on  the 
18th,  but  had  been  delaved  bv  the  same  obstacles  as 


128  THE  ONE  HUNDUED  AND  FOURTH 

l{u8«M  rails,  iuimk-In,  ft*\v  ami  IkhI  loads,  aiul  ou  iliis 
uccuuut  loHt  the  advantage  of  u  liay.  The  beuelit  had 
act-nud  lo  the  hilier,  who  was  the  belter  piipantl 
fur  halth*  on  the  TJih.  1  kMnonsiraiions  wen*  made  in 
the  niorninji  l»v  the  enmiv  a^Minsl  I'ahner,  \vhi>  was 
posted  lo  I  lie  rij^hl  of  Crawhsli  Si)rinj;s.  AI>o  aj^ainbt 
Wootl  bv  I'olk's  Corps,  bnt  these  were  «>uly  iniended 
to  divert  attention  from  the  left.  About  ten  Minty 
and  \\  ihh-r  at  tht-  bridj;rs,  wt-re  altackt-d  by  portions 
of  Hood's  and  N\  alker's  Corps.  ;in<l  \\»ri*  abh*  to  keep 
them  from  crossin*;  until  live  p.  m.,  inlliciinj^  a  lieavy 
loss.  They  thfu  joined  Wood.  Toward  t'V«'nin|:,  Ct>l- 
«»n«'l  l>anirl  .M((\»ok,  eomniaiidin^'  the  Se(«tnd  Hri;:ade, 
f>efond  Division,  of  tin*  Kcsiixt-  Corps,  attark»*d  and 
burneil  Heed's  bridjje  in  ili<-  lair  of  ihc  enemy,  and 
disiovrred  that  a  rebel  brij^ade  had  crossed.  The 
bearing;  of  Mct'ook's  iliscovery  on  i  Ik-  e\ents  of  the 
r.Mli,  as  will  appear,  wer«'  importani. 

When  the  shades  of  niy;ht  fell  upon  Clii«kaiiiaii;^a 
valley  two  ;;reat  armies,  nunibt  liii;:  noi  less  tlian  one 
hundred  and  twenty-live  thousand  men,  were  march- 
in;;  to  take  positions  for  the  <ouibal,  iheir  movements 
eonceale«l  from  each  other  by  ihe  Chi«kamau;ia  ami 
deep  forests.  (leiieral  Iba^^'s  ir<»..|»s  spent  the  ni^ht 
in  crossin^^  the  river  and  in  tin-  iiioiuiu^  they  were 
jirraniied  with  Walker's  ( "oips  ou  the  riulil,  lloud  in 
the  center,  I'.uckner  on  the  left,  with  ("heatliam  in 
reHerve.  Walker  was  west  of  Ale.xamler's  bri<l^e, 
Hucklier's  left  one  mile  lioitli  of  Lee  and  (oU'don's 
.Mills.  INdk's  and  Hill's  Corps  wen-  furliicr  up  the 
river,  the  cavalry  i>\\  both  llanks.  (Jeiu'ral  Tluuuas 
spi'iit  the  ni^lit  in  mo\in^f  his  divisi<»ns  to  the  left, 
opposite  those  of  I'.i'a;;^,  and  ai  dawn  of  ilie  I'.Mli  lit- 
had  tive  divisions  in  line  while  others  were  «in  the 
way.  Cieiieral  Crittenden  still  held  the  line  at  Lee 
and  <iordon'K  Mills  as  a  mailer  of  necessity,  to  <'ovei" 
Tln»mas'  movements,  but  I'alinci-  and  \'an  <'leve  were 
move<l  in  the  ni;;ht  near  Thomas.  Central  Xe'jh'V, 
with  two  bri'^Mdfs.  filled  the  space  \acaicd  by  l*alnier. 
;:el(in^  into  position  at  <lavli;^dit. 


j  REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  12» 

Soon  after  daylight  ou  the  19th,  there  was  occa- 
sional tiring  on  the  picket  line  in  front  of  Beatty's 
Brigade,  then  occupying  the  extreme  right  of  our  army 
and  three  miles  from  any  support.  We  occupied  a 
ridge  covered  with  a  thin  growth  of  timber  and  before 
US  was  a  cleared  tield  of  some  twenty  acres;  just 
beyond  this  was  a  narrow  tract  of  timbered  land 
which  bordered  the  Chickamauga.  Heavy  woods  and 
underbrush  were  <»n  each  side  of  the  tield.  The  dis- 
tance to  the  creek  was  a  (juarter  of  a  mile  or  more. 
The  Fifteenth  Kentucky  was  thrown  out  in  front  as 
skirmishers  and  took  position  in  the  woods  below  the 
field ;  skirmishers  were  also  sent  to  the  right  and  left. 
These  dispositions  were  made  before  dawn.  The  enemy 
soon  showed  themselves  on  the  opposite  bank  and 
advancing  skirmishers  across  the  creek,  engaged  ours, 
but  did  not  advance  in  force.  A  desultory  firing  now 
followed  for  several  hours  when  suddenly  about  ten, 
two  rebel  batteries  opened  upon  Beatty's  position. 
Captain  Bridges  replied  with  good  effect.  The  duel 
lasted  nearly  three  hours  and  was  intensely  interest- 
ing. The  reserve  regiments  during  the  fight  were 
concealed  partly  in  the  woods,  and  protected  to  some 
extent.  About  twelve  General  Beatty  ordered  two 
guns  to  be  moved  to  the  right  a  little,  to  another  hill. 
Captain  Bridges  misunderstiinding  the  order,  moved 
the  whole  battery.  The  rebels  seeing  it  fired  faster 
/  than  ever.  General  Beatty  observing  this,  having 
/4^been^ent  elsewhere,  sent  Bridges  back  to  the  old 
position  in  haste.  About  this  time  three  pieces  of 
Schultz's  First  Ohio  Battery  and  the  Eighteenth  Ohio, 
arrived  from  the  left.  The  firing  then  became  fiercer 
than  ever.  The  enemy  also  began  to  advance  infantry, 
but  halted  on  discovering  our  new  battery.  In  half 
an  hour  so  effective  was  the  fire  of  our  batteries,  hav- 
ing dismounted  two  rebel  guns,  that  the  enemy  lim- 
bered up  and  withdrew. 

Bridges'  Battery  lost  in  this  action  two  men  killed, 
nine  wounded,  and  had  twelve  horses  killed  or  dis- 
abled.    The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  lost  one  man. 


IM  THE  ONE  HrXDRED  AND  Fol'RTH 

inoiiall.v  NVtMMHlrd.  ami  ci;:!!!  woiiihI«m1.  on  ili»*  skir- 
iiiisli  liin-  :iii<l  at  llu-  IkHHtv.  .laroh  Ham-.  .>f  t'.Mii- 
|miiv  1.  losi  ln-n«  his  ^.mmI  ii;:lil  arm.  Ai  tliriM-  p.  m. 
(ii'iicral  Hraii.v  n-rriviMl  ..r.lt'is  Im  join  llu-  maiji  ariuy 
to  tlif  Ifft,  Imt  tin*  fiH'iMV  Immii;;  still  in  «»iii-  froiil  anoss 
tlif  rr«fk,  \v«*  uiJlulifw  sl«»\vly  an*l  ran-fullv.  WImmi 
tin-  n*h»'ls  •lisruv«M(Ml  imr  wit luliawal.  thrir  ravaliv  at 
«un-f  rn»ss»Ml  tin*  «-nM>k  ii»  «nir  n-ar,  Imt  ili<l  ii<»i  aitark. 
ami  wr  n-arluMl  Crawlisli  S|iiin;:s  at  tiv«-. 

Wr  had  hranl  «aiiii«»iia«liii;;  all  <lay  itii  tin-  l<n  ami 
kiH'W  that  Ihsiv.v  li^ihtiii;:  was  ^oiii;:  nii  lii.-rr.  Ai 
tlu*  Springs  wr  sa\N  s«<ifrs  of  woiiml***!  «-t»miii;;  liack, 
gome  on  foot  ami  maii.v  in  aiiilmlamrs.  Aftt-ra  halt  t<» 
till  thr  ••aiit«'«Mis,  th»'  l»fi«ia«l«'  imommI  on  noith  towaid 
tin*  sound  of  thr  "rnns,  for  ihrrr  mih-s.  ami  it  tln'ii  l)eiu«; 
•lark,  wfiit  into  hivonac  on  a  ii<l;:»'  near  <  >sliorm*'s  farm 
housr,  ami  m>t  fai- fiom  i  ln' Widow  ( Ih-nn's,  Kosrcians' 
h<*ad«niJirt«'is.  TIm-  imii  iii<-d  and  hnn;;iv  |ini»ar«Ml 
tlndr  s«ant>  m«*al  of  haidta«  k.  Iiaron  and  rolT«M',  and 
whjh*  this  was  lu-in^  «-at«Mi,  witm-ss«'d  in  tin*  twili^dit 
a  rhar;;«'  <>f  N<'jxh«y's  Ilfijzadc  and  \\  ihh-i-'s  mounted 
iiifantrv,  h*ss  than  a  «|nart«*i'  of  a  niih-  i-ast,  w  hiih  was 
Hm'c«»ssfnl,  driving'  hark  tln-iMn-mv  half  a  milf. 

TIm-  lH'a\  V  ti;:liiin^^  of  the  I'.Mh  had  Imm-ii  on  tiir  h-fi  ; 
|M"''ininn;x:it  10a.m..  Ivosccians  ami  Tin  una  s  had  idaictl 
the  divisions  »»f  Haii-d.  Ittannan  and  Krymdds  with 
l*alim*f's  and  Nan  ( 'h'vr's.  in  positions  m-ai-  to  tin* 
I.al'avrttr  loail.  at  Kdlv's  honsr  ami  Ix-yond.  st*  as  to 
«-i»vrr  any  advamr  ffom  Kim-jI's  ami  A  l<\and»'i*s 
hridp-s.  TIn'y  ha<l  ri;:htly  jndjicd  that  llia^^;;  wo\ild 
mass  his  lmavi«*st  font's  on  onf  h-fi  and  i-rai-.  If  snr- 
ri'ssfnl  in  drstroyin;:  that  win^'  of  otir  army  ami  s<'rnr- 
iiijj  tln'  l,al'ay«-tt»'  Koad.  his  way  was  rlrar  to  Kossvilh' 
and  <'liattanoo;:a.  r»-sp«'rtiv«dy  fivr  ami  t<Mi  inih's  tlis- 
tant.  with  m>  army  m»rth  i'X««'pt  ("iran^'rr's  small  «om- 
niand  at  tin*  form«*r  phnr.  to  opposi*  him.  It  was  not 
vi't  known  that  nearly  all  tin-  rrhrl  army  was  wrst  of 
flu*  ('hirkamauLM  :iinl  rapidly  approaihin;:.  y«'t  smh 
was  tin*  fart. 

r.don<*l   han   M.<  ook  ridin;^  up  io  (icui'ial  Thomas 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  131 

early  on  llic  19th,  iiifoi-iiicd  liim  of  liis  ;i(lv(Mitiii-«*  the 
night  hcfoiv  and  of  a  rebel  l)i-i.i;;Hle  heiii;;  isohited  iH'iir 
the  bii<l«;e.     Thi^^  iiifoniiatioii  ied  to  the  «>i)(Miiiio-  of  the 
battle,  and  was  opixn-tunely  given.     (Jeneral  Thomas 
desirous   of  eai)turing    the   brigade,    directed   (Jeneral 
Brannan    to   take   mvo   biiga<h's   and   advance   on    the 
bridge  road,     lirannan  h-aving  Croxton's  brigade  on  tiie 
left  of  Baird,  moved  off  with  (.'oiineH's  and   Vander- 
Teer's.     He  had  not   gone  far  Avlien   he  suddenly  (Mi- 
countered  three  briga^h's  of  cavalry  under  Forrest,  with 
iiifautry  on  his  left.      The  latter  struck  Croxton  and 
severe  tightiiig  began,    (leiieral  Thomas  now  advanced 
Baird.     The  two  divisions  soon  drove  the  enemy  back 
and  captured  200  prisoners.    Meantime  Baird  saw  rebel 
forces  on  his  right  and  faced   King's  lirigade  toward 
them,  but  Lid<leirs  wlnde  Division  ])ouring  in,  swept 
King's  and  Scribner's  Brigades  away,  capturing  ten 
guns.    Starkweather's  Brigade  coming  uj)  met  a  similar 
fate.     But  the  tide  was  to  turn.     Brannan   set  it   in 
motion  by  charging  witii  two  brigades,  one  of  his  regi- 
ments, the  Ninth  Ohio,  recapturing  (lunther's  Battery, 
Fifth  U.  S.  Artillery,  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet.    (Jreat 
difficulty  was  experienced  here  as  elsewhere  in  moving 
artillery  or  men  on  account  of  woods  and  underl)rush, 
there  being  only  now  and  then  cleared  fields.    Thomas 
and  Rosecraus  having  divined  the  meaning  of  these 
attacks,  had  taken  care  to  provide  for  them.    Reynolds', 
Palmer's  and  Johnson's  Divisions  immediately  arrived 
and  Aver(^  sent  into  the  contlict  near  the  Kelly  house 
and  southeast.       (leneral  Bragg  had  made  his  attack 
on  the  supposition  that  the  major  part  of  Rosecrans' 
army  was  yet  in  the  vicinity  of  Crawfish  Springs,  three 
miles  further  south.     He  intended  to  swing  round  his 
right  so  as  to  envelop  Crittenden,  and  then  he  woiild 
also  be  able  to  occupy  the  roads  to  Chattanooga  and 
stand  across  the  line  of  marcli  of  Rosecrans'  center  and 
right.     Being  confused  at  the  unexi)ected  opposition  on 
his  right,  his  center  and  left  were  withheld  and  rein- 
forcements sent  to  his  right.  On  this  account  a  large  un- 
occupied space  between  Thomas  and  Crittenden  was  not 


!   :•  THK  "NK    "•    V'KKI)  ANI»  ForHTH 

1iII«m|  I»\  Hia^ji  fur  >oiii»'  tiiiu*,  wlii«li  also  alloucil 
ICoMM  rails  i«"  iiiakr  in*w  «lis|M»siiioiis. 

<J««iirial  Sam.  l{«-allv*s  ami  l>i«k's  Hri<;a«U's  wnv 
hiirri«M|  forward  bv  ( 'riitfml«Mi,  ami  (Jnn-ral  Davis  ar- 
rived with  Carlin's  and  llrj^'s  I{rij;a«l«*s.  TlK'se  wero 
]ila««'d  on  ihr  ri^lit  of  N'an  ('l«'\«',  ami  none  loo  soon. 
I»a\is  was  siipi(ori«*<l  on  his  rij;hl  by  \\'ihh*r's  inoiinird 
infantrv  with  th«*ir  repratin;;  ritirs,  which  the  rebels 
had  h-arned  to  resjirtt.     In  front  of  \'an  Th'V**,  Davis 

and   NN  ibh-r.  iIh-  rebrls  jtoured   thi'oti^h  the  w Is  in 

ovt-rw  Iwliiiin;;  masses.  A  «h*speral«'  <ontli»t  iImmi  en- 
sued last  in;:  f"i"  scvnal  hours,  the  advaina;^*'  Immii;.:  lirst 
with  one  sid«'  and  ih«*ii  with  the  other.  Hra^^^'s  obje«t 
b»'in<^  i(»  divid«*  our  army  th«'  most  frantic  cfTorts  w«*re 
made  at  this  point,  the  N'iiieyard  farm,  to  swccji  away 
the  f«»r««'s  iiaim-d.  I'iiially.  Dirk's  I?ri;:ad«'  i^avc  way 
and  also  portions  of  the  oijici-s.  At  this  siiprcim'  nio- 
iiH-iit  r»'infortcments  nrii\<d.  TIh-sc  \\t*r<*  llarker's 
r.ii;:ad«'  of  Wood's  Division,  and  l.aiboMt's  and  Brad- 
li'\'s    Hri^adcs   from     Shnidan.      Soon    after    (Iciicral 

\\ I  als«i  arrived  with  Hindi's  and   Harm-s'  nri;:ad«*s. 

Tiirir  timely  arrival  restored  the  fortunes  of  the  day 
for  oiir  army.  The  llankin^^  i-olnmns  of  the  rebels  were 
deft-Micd  and  dri\en  back  alon;:  the  entire  line  and  the 
<  oiitliii  erased  at  that  ))oiiit  for  a  time. 

M)'antiiii«'  iSrannan.  Haiid  and  .lulm-^on.  also  K«>yn- 
ojds,  ha\in;:  defcjited  and  dri\en  back  the  rebel  ri^rht 
uiiii:  iNNalki-r's  < 'oipsi  a  lull  followed.  wlii«li  lasted 
until  r>  p.  m.  when  the  eneiii>  made  a  furious  attack 
on  dohnson  and  IJaird.  whose  di\isions  were  bein^ 
|Mist«*<l  in  a  new  position  near  the  Dyer  house.  «'ast  of 
^flenn's.  Theaitack  failed  and  t  he  »neniy  ret  ired.  The 
tide  of  battle  hail  bei-n  driftin;^  all  da\  toward  the 
Widow  iileiin's  house.  This  stood  on  the  Dry  N'allev 
Koad  to  ( '|iattanoo;:a.  w  hich  one  half  mile  iioii  h  t  uriied 
slii;htl\  to  the  b'ft  throu;:h  a  pass  in  .Mission  Kid^^e. 
Two  hi^h  iid;;«-s  extended  ahui;:  both  sides  of  the  road 
from  <ilenn*s.  .\i  the  pass  ineiitiiuied  a  spur  of  Mission 
Kevenil  hundred  f«ei  hiiili.  heavily  wooded,  ran  east. 
'•urvint:  north,  for  a   half  mile  or  more      This  b<  «   nne 


REGIMENT  ILLIN<:>IS  VOLUNTEERS.  133 

known  as  "Morse  SIkk'  Kidiic"  (Jn  its  noitlKMstorn 
slope  was  the  ''Suodgrass  Faiin."  A  hall"  niih?  tiii-tliei- 
east  was  the  LaFayette  Koad  and  the  Kelly  Farm,  with 
McDaniel's  (McDonaM's)  house  a  little  north  of  K«dly's. 
From  here  tin'  road  trended  southeast  t<»  Lee  and  ( lor- 
don's  Mills.  Toward  evening  the  enemy  made  another 
attack  in  front  of  (Henn's,  wiiieh  was  rejmlsed  by  Ne«^- 
ley  and  Wilder  who  drove  them  half  a  mile.  Darkness 
had  then  settled  down  on  the  battlefield  and  both 
armies  rested  where  they  halted,  i;la<l  of  a  res])ite  which 
all  knew  wonld  be  brief,  for  tierce  as  had  been  the  con- 
tiict,  no  decisive  victory  had  been  ^ained,  and  th«'  morn- 
ing wonld  bring  a  renewal  of  the  battle. 

The  losses  on  both  sides  had  been  very  heavy  in 
killed  and  wounded.  The  latter  on  our  side,  were  taken 
to  the  field  hosi)itals  at  Crawfish  and  in  onr  rear,  bnt 
hnndreds  remained  on  the  field  to  endure  the  tortures 
of  hnnger,  cold  and  thirst — perha])s  to  die.  What 
tongne  can  tell,  what  pen  can  describe,  the  suffering 
and  agon}'  of  those  tlins  left  helpless!  Added  to  all  was 
the  snspense  felt  as  to  the  final  result.  The  day's  fight- 
ing had  revealed  the  fact  that  Bragg's  forces  far  out- 
numbered our  own.  He  had  not  only  overla])i>ed  ours 
on  everv  occasion,  but  it  was  now  known  that  several 
of  his  divisions  had  not  been  engaged  at  all,  also  that 
Long-street's  Corps  had  arrived  from  Virginia.  On  the 
other  hand,  all  of  Kosecrans'  army  excei)t  one  or  tAVO 
brigades,  had  been  in  action.  There  was  a  general  feel- 
ing that  the  chances  were  against  ns.  It  was  true  that 
Bragg  had  been  defeated  in  his  objects  and  his  forces 
driven  back,  but  he  still  had  the  advantage  of  su])erior 
numbers  and  of  the  inner  and  shorter  lim»s  of  attack. 
General  Rosecrans  held  a  better  position  on  the  even- 
ing of  the  19th  than  in  the  morning,  when  his  army  was 
scattered  along  for  a  distan<'e  of  six  miles,  and  in 
consequence  of  which  the  combats  of  the  day  had  been 
a  series  of  distinct  engagements,  first  at  one  point, 
then  at  another.  Fortunately  Ceneral  Bragg  had  been 
prevented  by  various  causes  from  making  the  united 
and  general  attack  he  intended.     The  unity  of  our  three 


lU  THE  ONE  HUNURED  AND  FOURTH 

«oi|is  had  luMMi  <lfsliov«Ml,  lio\VfV(*r,  l»v  tlir  iHMi'»;siti<*s  <»f 
tli«' (lav  ami  iIm*  «livisi«»iis  from  rath  iiiicniiixcil.  This 
iiltiiiialflv  irsuliiMl  ill  a<ivaiiia;:<-  as  ii  ;:av«'  'rintmas  i  Im' 
I  hit'f  i-iiiiiinaii(l  ainl  fMiri's  cimmi^Ii  to  siciii  tin-  li*l«'  uf 
.lisasi«-r  lliat  uMTtuok  tln'ri;:lii  iiiulfr  Mt  ( 'ooU  .-aily 
oil    ilii'   L'Oili    aiitl    wliirli    hilt    fur  Thomas    woiihl    ha\«' 

•  ii;:iilf«'tl  t  hi*  w  lioh*  aniiN. 

'IMh*  moiiiiii;;  of  I  lie  2(M  h.  Siimhiv .  foinni  i  li«-  <  liicUa- 
maii^ia  \'ali«'V  w  ia|>|Mi|  ill  a  th-iisc  fo^i,  which  |»rr\fiii(<l 

•  arlv  movrmmts.  IJostMiaiis  orrii|Mt'(l  a  liiu*  rxtt'iuliii;; 
troiii  ih«-  imrthi-asi  roiinTof  Krilx's  I'arm  across  tht* 
l.al'aN  «•!  tc  Ivtiatl.  tln-ncr  southwest  to  the  \\'i(ht\v 
<il«'iiirs.  Hainl,  Johnson,  ralmcr.  Kc\  iiohls  and  llran- 
naii  were  in  this  or«h'r  on  the  hft.  Alti  r  iniilni'^hl, 
llosoi  la IIS  in  conference,  ;^a\e  orders  for  Mc<'ooU  lo 
form  a  line  with  Sherithin's  and  havis'  Divisions,  ex- 
leiidiii;:  from   (ih-nn's  to  the  h*ft   and  •■oiiiiectin^^  with 

Thomas;  ("ritteiideii  was  directed  to  hohl  Wood's  and 
\'aii  <  "h'Ne's  I  Jivisioiis  in  reser\e.  in  t  lie  rear  of  Thomas' 
riiiht.  read.N  to  reli«'\e  .Mc("otdx  or  Thomas  w  lien  re- 
<|iiiied.  Nej;le\  who  was  then  on  the  rii^ht  of  llrannan, 
with  two  Ini^ades.  was  to  he  sent  to  the  left  of  r,air«l, 
as  ( leiieial  Thomas  ex J lected  t  In-  reliels  would  rem-w  the 
SI  ni<;;ile  I  here  to  ;;ct  in  oil r  left  and  rear  just  Ih-vond  t  he 
Lal'avette  IJoad.  With  this  understanding;  the  ni'W 
ali;.Mime||ts    Wele    he;;lin    iM'fole    davMi^lit,    except    as    to 

Ne;:lev  w  ho  had  not  Imm-ii  relie\ed  and  remained  where 
hewasniiiij  1(»  a.  ni.  <  leiieial  Th'Miias  not  understand- 
in;:  liie  cause  sent  to  int|uire. 

<ieneral  .lolin  Ih-atiy's  i'.ri^^ade  heinj^  unassi;:ned 
was  at  s  a.  in.  sent  to  t  he  left.  .March  in;:  a  Ion;:  t  he  rid;:e 
lie\«ind  W  idow  (lleiin's,  and  descendini:  into  the  \alley 

e;|>t    of    "I  jolseslMM-,**    \\  ( •    cailie    to    the    La  I'a  \  et  t  e    lioad 

mai  Kellx's  house  and  the  narrow  cleared  lield,  w  In-re 
the  liri;:adi>  was  formed  on  the  left  of  Ilaird,  who  fa«ed 
east.     TIm'  haller\    was  idac«'d  near  the  road.     (leiieial 

rhoiiias,  then  on  tie-  hft,  di*si;:nated   the  |Misitioii.      It 

vv  as  a  \ery  ;: I  one,  |»ut  on  t  he  ex t  feme  left  of  t  he  army. 

.1  ml  should  ha \ e  heeii  occu|)ied  Ity  a  di\  ision  as  <  leiieral 

Tlioiiiiis    intended    ;iiid    had    lieen    promised.      Ilridp-s' 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  136 

Battery  was  placed  near  the  rojul  and  a  line  (»f  skir- 
mishers thrown  (Mit  to  the  woods  in  front.  Haird's 
Division  on  the  right  was  Ix'hind  sliglit  bi-casl  works 
of  rails  and  timber. 

General  Kragg  had  siicnt  the  night  in  crossing  the 
balance  of  his  troo]»s  to  the  west  side  of  the  Chicka- 
manga.  lie  had  divided  his  army  into  two  wings — the 
right  and  left,  commanded  respectively  by  Generals 
Polk  and  Longstreet.  Orders  had  been  given  the 
former  to  attack  at  daylight  on  onr  left,  and  this  was  to 
be  followed  at  the  sonml  of  JNdk's  guns,  by  the  rest  of 
that  wing.  General  Longstreet  was  to  await  develop- 
ments and  attacdv  when  expedient.  Hnt  as  nsnal,  Polk 
delayed  an<l  did  not  inove  to  the  assatdt  until  nearly 
9,  ami  after  P>ragg  had  huntiMl  him  ii])  and  commanded 
an  immediate  advance. 

Meantime,  (Jeneral  Rosecrans  had  ridden  the  lines 
and  fonnd  McGook  in  bad  position  with  a  long,  attenu- 
ated line,  which  resnlted  from  covering  too  mncli 
gronnd  in  trying  to  connect  with  'I'homas.  (Mianges 
were  ordered,  bnt  before  the  lines  could  be  rectified, 
it  was  too  late  to  be  effective. 

Soon  after  Beatty  had  taken  position  on  the  left,  as 
before  stated,  an  order  from  General  Thomas  directed 
him  to  move  his  Brigade  northeast  and  toward  Mc- 
Donald's house  a  quarter  of  a  mile  distant.  The  con- 
sequence of  this  would  be  to  leave  a  large  unoccupied 
space  on  our  right  toward  Baird,  bnt  the  order,  though 
unwise,  was  im])erative  as  stated  by  ("'ai)tain  Gaw  of 
General  Thomas'  St>iff,  Avho  added  that  Negley  was  on 
the  way  to  our  support.  At  that  time  General  Thomas 
supposed  this  to  be  so.  We  locdvcd  in  vain  for  him  to 
arrive  as  the  Brigade  mov(^l  across  the  tield  in  the 
direction  ordered.  It  Avas  then  half  i)ast  nine,  the  fog 
had  cleared  away  but  clouds  of  snndve  Imng  over  the 
valley,  through  which  the  sun,  red,  as  if  ^^ith  anger, 
shone  down  liot  and  sultry.  ]\Iore  or  less  skirmishing 
had  been  going  on  for  an  hotir  in  front  of  Paird,  the 
j)remonitory  signs  of  attack.  Beatty's  Brigade  ad- 
vanced northeast  with  two  com]»anies  of  skirmishers 


13*  THE  UNE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

ill  lioiii  i»l'  i;uli  ifj^iiiiL-ui.  Tin-  10i;4lil  v«M<;liili  ludiaiui, 
(Colouei  lliniij»hri»*8)  wan  on  tin*  Ifft,  the  Forly-secoud 
In«li;iiia,  (Lifiiit'iiaiit-roloin'l  MrliiTynM  in'.\t  on  the 
ri^ihl ;  ihvu  raiiM*  ih«-  (  Mn*  1 1  iiiitlird  ami  I'lturih  llliimis, 
(Coluiu-1  IlaiMMiiani  and  thr  Fifimith  K»*iiliuk\,  (< 'ol- 
ttiU'l  Tavhui;  Hri«l;,'r.s'  Uallrrv  follow etl.  The  entire 
bri^iade  nunibeieil  l«-ss  than  twelve  hiiiidnMl  men.  'I'he 
skiniiishers  un**  inniu*diat«d\  <Mi;ia;i«Ml  and  hea\ily. 
Such  a  stronj;  op|»usii  ii»ii  was  nianif«'st«Ml  Ihat  <irn<*ial 
Ih-aliy  ordtTrd  ilir«'f  imui-  cunipanii-s.  unc  aftn-  the 
othrr,  to  h«*  s«*nt  to  tin*  skii-misii  lim-.  w  liirh  uas  about 
t«*n  rods  in  advantr.  Tliis  hit  niil\  ii\.-  <  niupairu's  of 
tin*  <  Mif  1 1  undit'd  and  I'oiiit  h  in  ifst'ivc. 

.Mi-aniinn-.  ilir  IMfl-t-ni  li  Kt-nturky  was  hi-avily  at- 
tacked in  fioiii  and  on  ilu*  ii)^lii  flank,  as  also  tin*  two 
r«';:iiM»-nis  on  iIk-  l.-li.  Ai  i  his  jnn«i  nn*.  <  oMn-ral  liratt  y 
>»Mit  au  Aitlf  lo  Kaiid  lo  rc(|in*si  that  a  lorcf  be  thrown 
into  I  h»*  nno(Tn|»i«*d  s|»;ii  »•  .m  mii-  imliIii,  Im*  also  sent 
Captain  Wilson  to  hurry  up  Nf;^lcy  w  houi  w«*  fondly 
believetl  to  be  al•proa^•hin;,^  The  advan««'  had  been 
slow  and  was  throuj^h  timber  and  underbrush  makin;; 
it  iinpossiide  to  see  nioi-e  than  the  len;;th  of  one  small 
re;^iuieu!.  This  had  laused  irregularity  and  uneveu- 
ness  in  our  lines,  as  well  as  that  of  the  skirmishers. 
Atlvancinj;  northeast  and  under  onlers  from  <Jeneral 
'I'liouias  to  bear  to  the  left  as  nnnh  as  possible  tt»ward 
.M<1  Donald's,  whii  h  insiiurtion  the  wiiter  lieaid  ^iven, 
th«*  two  left  re;iiuienls  became  separated  from  those 
on  the  ri^ht,  leaNin;:  a  u:ap  rtuisiantly  betoiuin;;  wider. 
The  tirin;;  had  then  become  liv«d\  and  bullets  were 
Kin;;in;:  tlieii-  swfet  lullabies  in  the  air  and  anion;:  th«' 
tre«-s  and  brush,  announcing'  the  s|»eedy  arrival  t»f  the 
enemy.  At  this  tiiui-  tlie  writef  was  st-ui  liy  (leueral 
{{eatty    to    luovr  the    I'oftN    second    |o   the   fj^dlt    s«)   as   to 

conned  with  the  ( Mie  iiundretl  and  i'ourtli.  (Mi  ar- 
riving a  few  moments  after  he  found  the  reijiment  t-n- 
^a^ed.  To  move  at  that  time  was  impossible,  raptain 
Lel'evie,  of  thr  stall,  comiii;:  tip  then,  was  kille<l  in  a 

few    luoinellt  s. 

I>uriii<:  this  time  the  I-^fteelilh   KeiituckN    had  been 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  137 

slowly  in'csscd  back  by  superior  iiuiuIxms  on  the  trout 
and  riyht.  I'lie  oikmu}'  were  also  <lisrov(M'ed  poiii-ing 
en  masse,  four  columns  deep,  into  the  interval  between 
the  right  and  left  winj^s  of  the  brigade  and  wheeling, 
with  the  purpose  of  taking  our  left  in  Hank,  but  Captain 
Bridges  opening  Avith  grajx'  and  canistn-  brought  them 
to  a  halt  and  they  fell  ba<k  into  the  timber.  The 
Forty-second  and  Eighty-eighth  were  vSlowly  pressed 
back  and  being  outflanked  on  both  sides  retrcnited  to 
the  ridges  in  the  rear,  with  a  loss  of  over  one  Jiundred 
men. 

Colonel  llapeman,  by  order  of  Beatty,  formed  the 
'One  Hundred  and  Fourth  closely  aligned  with  the 
Fifteenth  Kentuck}-,  when  the  two  regiments  made  a 
galla»t  stand  against  overpowering  numbers,  (leneral 
Beatty  personally  directing  the  movements,  but  they 
were  obliged  to  fall  back  to  the  road,  and  did  so  con- 
testing every  inch  of  the  ground.  The  rebels  were  then 
near  the  battery,  and  firing  into  it  killed  or  wounded 
every  man  in  it  and  all  of  the  horses;  they  also  captured 
two  guns.  Captain  Bridges  almost  surrounded,  saved 
the  remainder  of  the  battery  with  the  help  of  men  from 
the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth,  and  withdrew  it  to  the 
road,  where  that  Regiment  an<l  the  Fifteenth  Kentucky 
made  another  stand,  which  was  rendered  moie  elTective 
by  help  from  Captain  Goodspeed's  Battery.  The  enemy 
were  temporarily  checked.  In  the  charge  on  the  bat- 
tery, the  writer  then  passing,  narrowly  escaped. 

General  Beatty  seeing  the  rebels  in  every  dinM-tion 
and  leaving  Colonel  Taylor,  (senior  officer,)  in  command 
of  the  two  regiments,  started  to  the  rear  to  find  Negley 
or  Thomas  and  urge  the  necessity  for  more  forces  on  the 
left.  As  it  appeared.  General  Negley  had  just  b<'fore 
reached  "Horseshoe"  with  Stanley's  Brigade  and  had 
sent  it  forward.  This  was  formed^  facing  the  enemy 
by  General  Beatty,  with  Colonel  Taylor's  command  on 
its  left.  But  the  rebels  began  pressing  back  the  skir- 
mish lines  and  coming  within  range  were  met  with  a 
volley  that  made  them  halt.  The  brigade  then  charged 
and  drove  the  enemy  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  capturing  over 


us 


Tin-:  oNK  urN'Tdjii .  wii  roi-itrif 


"•111-  liiimit  •-<i  jiiiNoiit  IS,  aiiM'ii;^  ilnMii  <  iciifial  A<l;iiiis 
\vlnt  was  \M)iiii(l«'il.  |{iii  no  i-fiiiforriMiiciiis  arriving, 
tin*  n*ln'ls  a^aiii  advaiuril  aii<l  Siaiil«*\*s  lim*  wit li.ln*\v 
slowlv  i«»  ilir  ri«l;;«'  aii«i  iMok  |Misin<»ii  in*ar  tin*  SikkI- 
j;rjiss  lioiisi*.  Staiilv  in  liis  r«'|»>i't  savs.  "<;»MH'ral 
H«*atty  was  wil  li  nir  aiiti  l»v  his  mtij  an<l  uallaiit  Ixariii^j 
a«Mf«l  lu  tin*  cnt  Imsiasin  <»f  my  unin-is  anti  uhmi,  dr." 
<ii*in*ral  N«'j:l»*v  lia«l  i-rniaiiUMJ  on  iln-  ri(l;;i'  iu  which 
iiiaiiN  of  oin-  hfaH'h  troops  hail  irt  ifatt-d  and  was  i*ii- 
^'aj:«M|  in  foiniini;  thnn  th«M-«'  with  sonn*  l»att»*ri«'S  in 
snpport. 

<i«MH'i-al  llfaliy  was  then  piart  irally  wiihoiii  a  »oni- 
inan*l  as  Majoi*  Lowri<' of  N«*«;h*y's  Stall,  hati  Itrcii  s(»nt 
Ity  N«*;:h'y  ami  withdfawn  th«*  rift«M-iiih  Ktuimky  ami 
iU\f  1 1  until* •« I  ami  I'ourl  li  to  t  In*  ri«l;:<'.  ( 'ohmcKraylor 
ohfviMl  tin*  oi<lrf  witlnMit  ronsnltinir  Hcaity,  foi-  which 
In*  was  aft«Twai-<l  soiry,  f<ir  he  was  a  lna\<'  man  and 
had  simply  •tivmI,  thinking  he  must  oIm  \  ihi-  .Maj(»r 
<i«'m*ial  t<"mmamlinj;.  Soon  aft«'i'.  for  i«*as«»ns  r.\- 
plaim-tl,  ItMt  wholly  unsatisfactory,  (Icncial  Ncj^lcy 
takin;:  the  tiottjis  ah<mt  him.  imlmlin;;  Hcatty's  nii;;a«l(' 
ami  some  ai'tilh'f>.  moved  lowaid  Kossxillc.  a  mistake 
he  aftefwaid  ie;;ietted.  Tlnis  the  <  »ne  llumlied  and 
I'oiii'ih.  with  t  he  exc«*pt  i«>n  <»f  a  few  men,  was  jife\  »MittMl 
\t\  a  Idundei-  fiom  fuitliei-  paii  ieipat  ion  iu  lln-  hattle 
of  the  LMlih. 

The  l!e;^iiueui  lost  in  killed  and  mortally  woun<le«l 
on  the  P.Mh  and  L'Oth,  seventeen  men:  wounded  some 
wvei'ely.  on  those  dat«*s  and  tin-  'Jlsi.  forty-nine 
nien.  Anion;:  the  latter  were  <'apiaiu  Ludin^ton, 
Lieiiienants  Sonthwell,  Sapp,  r<uii-r  aud  Talkins. 
the  latti-r  of  Hrattv's  stafT.  The  entire  loss  of 
the  Itiij^adc  was  thiee  hundred  and  ten.  As 
]ill  the  i-i'«  ords  show,  ami  as  all  know,  it 
did  all  that  inoiial  men  could  <lo  to  hurl  hark  the 
division  hi-on;:lit  a;:ainst  it,  ami  under  a  less  hraxe  and 
skillful  <  ommander  mi;:ht  lune  dom*  less. 

The  relu'ls  had  ;iained  at  last  the  l.al'a  \  .1 1<-  Koad 
and  eould  have  marched  into  our  rear,  hut  failed  to 
do  so,  t  he  i«'ason  liein;:  as  show  u  hy  I  Ira  l:l;*s  report  that 


'    REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  1S9 

his  ri^lit  had  suffered  so  severely  and  been  so  nearly 
iis(m1  lip  that  he  could  not  send  tluMii  uoi-  sicirc  any 
ti'(»(>i»s  fnmi  his  left.      \'idc  Heh.  Kcc,  Vol.  XXX,  IM.  2. 

Keatty's  liiiiijKh*  h;ul  loujiiit  t«'U  times  its  own  num- 
bers and  (ontiibuted  materially  to  that  r<*siilt.  It  had 
also  relieved  Baird  on  our  right  from  what  mi;;lit  have 
proved  disastrous  to  him  and  the  forces  to  his  ri^ht. 

The  tide  of  battle  bej^uu  first  on  the  left  against 
Beatty  r<dled  in  successive  waves  to  the  right,  striking 
Baird  next,  and  soon  after  extending  along  the  entire 
front  to  McCook  at  the  Widow  (Ilenn's.  Baird  well 
protected  lield  his  ])osition  as  did  the  divisions  to  his 
right,  and  after  rei>eated  assaults,  the  rebels  ceased 
to  attack  for  some  hours  at  any  point  on  this  ]»art  of 
the  line. 

Folh»wing  the  retirement  of  Stanley  on  the  left, 
General  Beatty,  ('a]>tain  Wilson,  A.  A.  (x.,  and  the 
writer,  repaired  to  the  "Horseshoe"  ridge,  lying  im- 
mediately west,  sui^posing  the  Brigade  must  be  there, 
but  Xegley  and  all  had  gone.  This  hasty  withdrawal 
for  which  he  was  subsequently  brought  bef(»re  a  Coui-t 
of  In(]uiry,  and  which  lie  ingenuously  explained,  was 
uncalled  for  by  the  circumstances,  and  had  not  (ieneral 
Negley  heretofore  proved  himself  a  brave  and  skillful 
commander  on  many  battlefields,  the  statement  Avould 
hardly  have  been  accei>ted. 

There  were  numbers  (►f  troops  on  the  ridge,  the 
scattered  fragments  of  a  dozen  commands,  but  no 
artillery.  It  had  either  been  captured  or  taken  to  the 
rear.  Baird,  lirannan,  Beyiudds  and  Wood  also,  still 
held  firm,  but  disaster  had  overwhelmed  the  right,  and 
the  evidence  of  it  became  apparent  to  Thomas  and  the 
center  between  eleven  and  twelve,  when  streams  of 
panic-stricken  soldiers  began  to  pcuir  tllrough  the  woods 
in  the  rear  of  the  ridge  held  by  Thomas,  all  going  U(»rth 
as  by  instinct.  Many  of  them  seemed  to  have  very  little 
else  left.  Some  were  induced  to  join  the  line  on  the 
ridge.  All  attem]>ts  to  rally  any  large  numbers  were 
futile.  They  were  in  part  the  fragiiKMits  of  McCook's 
command. 


!*•)  THK  ONE  HUNDRKD  AND  FOURTH 

Tin*  «li.s;i>l«'r  itn  ihc  lij^hi  waN  <lu«'  not  ><•  iiiu«  li  to 
scarcily  nf  sol«lit*rs  ami  |rii;iih  <»f  iln'  lim*  to  b«*  <U*feii«l<'l. 
iiK  to  ba«l  ^iMifialsliip  aiiil  I  In*  (h»;;;;«Mhirss  of  (M*ii«*ral 
W'ooil.  \\  Ih'Ii  riioiiias  lia<l  st-ui  to  Kos«Mi-aiis  for  r**- 
iiifonriiH'iiis  ami  rj'|M'at«*<l  tin*  i-r(|m'sts.  all  was  qiii«*t 
on  our  ri;;lit.  wliirh  simmihmI  to  imlicatr  that  Mfa;;;;  wa^ 
making;  his  sii)>nMm'  attack  on  Tiioiiias  ami  iIm*  Ifft. 
liostMiaiis  t  lifirfuii'  |ii-«*|>ai-«M|  lo  N\  ii  lnlra\\  .Mt<  "ook's 
lim*  ahoiii  10  o'rjui  k.  iiioic  to  ijir  jrfi,  m-airr  'i'lionias. 
()r«h*i*H  \v«*n»  «ji;ivt'ii  lor  i  w  o  of  SlnM-idan's  l)i-i;ia«li*s  aii<I 
two  of  \'aii(  'I«*v«*'s  to  iiioM-  low  aitl  Tlioiiias.  'riii'ic  was, 
tin  Ml.  no  rrs«Tv«*  ••xr»*|(t  W  ildfi's.  Af  t  hat  t  inn-,  an  Ai<le 
i«-|ioii«m1  iliai  Tliomas  was  In-avily  |(I'«'ss(m1  and  timnal 
Jtrannan's  l»i\ision  out  of  lin«*.  rxiMtsini;  K«'\  iioMs' 
ri;;lit.  Tln'i-cii|ton  •ii-ni'ial  KosiMians  stMii  an  oi'tii'i-  to 
Wood  lo  ••(  "|os»'  up  on  Ivfvnolds  as  fast  as  |»ossild«',  and 
snj»i»oit  liiin."  Wood  kinw  that  IJcynolds  was  not  cx- 
jMisi'd  nof  jliannan  out  of  lini-.  tin-  laiii-f  Iti-in^  in  >il(>- 
hill  in  irai-  of  II»-\  nojds,  and  to  clost-  \\\t  on  ilit-  latter. 
Wood  ninst  ]>ass  in  rrarof  lira  n  nan.  lta\  inu  a  L;a|i.  Htit 
^^'ood  r«*;.Mrdin;:  llif  oidff  as  iinpriat  i\  ••  |tro»<M'dt*d 
to  ««x«Mni«'  it.  t  lion^li  as  a  skill  fid  roniinandt*r  td"  known 
abiiilN,  In*  must  lia\»'  forcsiMMi  tin*  «ons«M|m'mrs  ami 
it  \\a>  in  liis  powrr  to  avert  thrni  l>.v  delavinir  tlir  imon*-- 
nuMit  and  ridin;:  to  ln'adt|naiii'is.  Aftt-r  inovln;;  and 
\N  li»-n  too  latt'.  In-  nn'i  Tlionias  who  plan-d  hiin  m'af 
Haii'd.  TIii-oiimIi  i|,,.  w;,|,  madt-  iIm-  llflicls  who  had 
«|nirtl\  a|>|noarhfd.  rnslnMJ  ••n  inassc.  Tart  of  litndlV 
nii^'adr  was  st  link  in  i  he  w  hirl  and  dii\en  l»at  k.  I'ran- 
iiian  was  taken  in  flank  Inii  i|iii(  kly  rhan;:ed  front  and 
held  his  ;:roninl.  Lylle's  and  Walworth's  lni^ades.  also 
Lailtoldl's  of  Sheiidans  di\ision.  rushed  toward  tin- 
enemy  lint  were  soon  repulsed,  <  leneial  Lyile,  the  ;jifted 
soldiej-  |»oet.  Iteinu  killed.  These  with  portions  of 
<teneral  Sam.   |{eatiy*s  and   l>irk*s  hriijades.  Itein;:  iin- 

ahl<*  to  n'Sisf    the  tlense   masses  of  t  he  <   (III  federates,  fell 

liark  over  the  rid;^e  extending  mtrih   from  the  Widow 
^ileiin's.     Manx  pieres  of  art  iller\  w  ere  aNo  lost . 

Thus  li>e  l»ri;iades  had  lieeu  swept  away  from  the 
lield  ;i«*  l»\    the  besom  of  desi  rutl  iou.      While  a   few    men 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  141 

found  their  Avav  to  Thomas,  the  majorit.v  (Mtlier  drifted 
throuj^h  the  woods  in  rear  of  liis  i»(»siti<>n  or  foUowcd 
Sheridan  and  Davis  down  the  Dry  N'allcy  lioad  here- 
tofore mentioned  as  passinj^  throuj^h  Mission  iiidge 
about  one  mile  north  of  Glenn's  at  the  very  point 
where  Horseshoe  ridjie  be<j;ins,  on  wliich  and  its  ont- 
lyin<;  spurs,  facin*^'  east,  southeast,  and  soutli,  (leneral 
Thomas  with  portions  of  seven  divisions  and  many 
small  detachments  from  a  hundred  commands,  stood 
firm  as  the  everlasting  hills  about  them  from  noon  till 
nijiht  and  hurled  back  the  ever  advancinj^  hosts  of  the 
enemy  led  by  Lonjistreet  and  his  veteran  legions,  who 
kad  been  accustomed  to  walk  triumphant  over  the 
Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  had  come  south  as  some  of 
those  who  were  captured  remarked,  ''To  show  Kra<ij»- 
how  to  fioht." 

There  was  nothing  to  preve^it  Sheridan  and  Davis 
with  their  brigades,  yet  partially  intact,  from  joining 
Thomas  by  deflecting  to  the  right  at  the  debouchure  of 
the  Dry  N'alley  Koad  near  Villetoe's — except  the  panic 
which  temporarily  seized  the  majority  from  generals 
to  privates.  That  this  could  have  been  done  was 
proven  by  the  arrival  on  the  ridge  of  the  Forty-fourth 
Indiana  and  Seventeenth  Kentucky  and  other  detach- 
ments. Also,  further  proven  by  the  i)assage  of  hun- 
dreds of  fugitives  over  the  right  of  the  ridge  in  rear 
of  Thomas,  whom  many  officers,  among  them  the  writer, 
tried  to  stop  by  persuasion  and  a  guard  line.  Failing 
in  this  Sheridan  and  Davis  could  have  gained  Thomas 
by  way  of  McFarland's  Gap  tAvo  and  a  half  miles  north, 
with  the  greatest  ease.  But  instead  of  this  they  went 
on  to  Rossville,  and  as  all  the  histories  say,  which 
seems  farcical  to  the  writer,  effected  a  junction  with 
Thomas  by  the  La  Fayette  and  Dry  A'alley  Roads! 
They  met  his  withdrawing  troops  after  dark,  too  late 
to  be  of  any  service.  Had  they  gone  to  the  ridge 
Thfnnas  most'  probably  would  not  have  Avithdrawn 
at  all. 

In  the  disaster  that  swept  the  right  wing  from  the 
field.    Generals    Rosecrans,    McCook    and    Crittenden 


l«  THE  ONE  Hl'NDRKD  AND  FtU'RTH 

l)«'<;iini-  iii\ii|\c«|  and  si-fiiiiii;:! \  lost  iln-ii-  Im-jhIs.  Tlirv 
all  ui'in  Itt  <  "lianauuti;^;!  iiinItT  !  JM"  iinjnrssioii  thai   tin- 

wliojf  \r{\  mi!«M-  lia<l  Ihm'ii  iMiitrtj.  a  faial  iiiisiakc  for 
tliiMii  iii«liviiluallv,  whicli  im  aiiiMiini  of  fMplaiiaiions, 
t'siMMJaliv  as  ir;:ai«ls  tin*  iwm  lall«*r,  roiilil  f\cr  icihI**!' 
sat  isfai  Imix.  Tin*  w  iit«T.  an  ailiniirr  of  Uosrciaii.s  now 
aii«l  ('\<'r,  saw  lin*  ruiiiniainliii;;  <i«Mii'ial  pass  hark  with 
sttriH-  nf  his  SiatT  aii<l  »'sr»»it.  ami  VNas  m-ai-  •'iiou;^h  to 
Im'  inipi'fssiMl  wiih  the  ith-a  thai  somd  liin;;  had  ;;oiie 
wnm;:  \\ilh*M>hl  Kosv."  w  hat.  hr  kiit-w  not  at  iliftiinf. 
As  this  o.Tiiiictl  on  oin'  of  the  spnis  of  I  |t»i  stsinu*,  it  is 
♦•vitliMirr  that  t  InTr  was  no  dillirnlty  altoiii  joiniiiu; 
Thomas  wln-n  tln'v  fell  hark.  TIm'  siaicnieni  is  ^iven 
to  rrmoM'  one  of  the  manv  myths  of  enrieiii   history. 

Meanwhile.  Kim;:;:  had  auJim  altarked  on  omi-  left 
with  r»i-e«kiniid;:e's  hi\ision  and  W'alkei's  ( "oij>s.  sn|»- 
jMified  hy  ti;:hlini:  I'ai.  ("lelniiiie.  r.iii  liie  liist  was 
utterly  i-oiited  and  dli\en  flom  the  tieM  hy  the  hfi- 
^ades  of  Will  if  1 1.  < ;  iii>e.  a  in!  N'andei-s  ee|-.  w  liije  Walker 
and  ('jehnriie  met  with  tin*  same  fate  at  the  hands  of 
Kairtl.    Hrannan   ami    Keynolds.      These   re|inlses   were 

K()    romplete     that     hltef    ill     the    ilay.     when     LollUSt  feet 

Kent  to  lira;:;:  for  leinfoit  enients  from  the  ri;:hi.  he 
was  informed  thai  "The  li^ht  iiad  heeii  heateii  hark 
so  hadly  as  to  1m-  of  no  servire  to  me."  \'ide  Lon;:- 
stn'et's  KeiM.rt.  K<h.    Kei  ..  Series  I.  \o|.   WX.  Tart   L*. 

(leiieral  Thomas  from  headi|uartei  s  at  the  Snod- 
^I'ass  lions*'  was  watehin;:  the  |iro;:ress  of  alTairs  on 
till'  left  all  unaware  of  the  <lefeai  on  our  riLiht  until 
the  driftin;:  wreeka;:e  from  that  »|uarter  arrested  his 
attention  heiween  ele\en  and  iwehc.  .\  pprehendin'.j 
the  silualitin.  the  Titanir  fon-e  of  the  man  rose  eipial 
to  the  orrasiou.  Theie  was  then  no  attark  on  the  left 
to  riaim  attention,  and  ridin;:  to  the  nest  aho\«-  the 
Snod;:rass  house.  Tlionias  at  oine  he;:an  ronreni  rai  inu 
all  of  the  foices  on  the  rid;:e  and   its  outliers,  in  front 

«>f     l.on;:st  reel.        lie    had     left     for    the    hallle    lilies    pef 

haps    Iweiilx    thitiisand    men.    hut      iio     aiiillei\.       The 

iMIKitioMH   Were  admiiahle   fo|-  defense,   the   lid'^e   pro|ter. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  143 

au(l  the  s])iiis,  sl«>j>in};  olT  (owjird  tlic  ciicmy  in  jill 
directions,  forty-five  (lejj;rees,  and  were  con*'!!'!!  with 
oak  and  other  trees.  Up  those  ruiii;('d  lieii;jits  the 
eueiny  must  ciiai-j^c. 

Lonjistreet  aii(l  his  sohliers,  exultant  with  victory, 
having  rested  ami  re-formed  th^  lines,  soon  appeared 
on  the  slopes.  As  they  came  into  musket  ranjj^e,  our 
lines  opened  with  deadly  volleys  from  whi<'li  tlie  enemy 
recoiled,  only  to  <'hari;t'  ajL^ain.  The  heaviest  first 
attacks  fell  on  Wood  and  Hrannan,  but  tlx'ir  ranks 
remained  unbroken. 

During  a  i)art  of  the  time  the  writer  was  employed 
in  cai*ryinii'  ammunition  to  the  crest  b}'  order  of  (Jen- 
eral  Beatty,  who  was  everywhere?  present,  and  carried 
ammunition  himself.     There  were  few  Generals  there 
with  commissions,  but  man^'  men  who  would  not  have 
disj'Taced  one.     On  one  ])art  of  the  ridi^e  there  were 
soldiers  of  a  score  of  rej»iments,  and  all  bent  to  the 
work  as  with  an  energy  born  of  despair,  none  wavered. 
But  there  was   one   General   present   worth  then 
10,000  men!     ralm,  cool  and  impassive,  with  such  a 
look  on  his  face  at  times  as  the  fabled  Imperial  Jove 
might  be  imagined  to   have    possessed,    bearing    the 
stamp  of  genius  and  God-like  attributes,  (Jeorge  H. 
Thomas  stood  unmoved  and  immovable,  holding  in  his 
hand  that  day  the  fate  of  the  Army  of  the  Cumber- 
land and  of  the  Nation!    Well  did  he  earn  the  title, 
"Rock  of  Chickamauga."     In  the  long  list  of  generals 
and   heroes  Thomas  stands  as  far  above  all  as  the 
towering  mountain  top  above  the  hill  of  the  valley! 
Every  soldier  knew  that  Thomas  Avas  there  an<l  turned 
instinctively  as  he  rode  from  one  point  to  another  in 
the  lull  that  was  only  a  ])relude  to  another  and  fiercer 
attack.     It  was  coming.     Bragg  and  Longstreet  were 
preparing  heavy  columns  to  be  hurled  against  the  right 
and  rear  on  that  tlank  by  way  of  a  gorge  or  ravine 
having  its  entrance  at  the  west  end  of  Horseshoe  ridge, 
ti  few  rods  only  from  the  Dry  Valley  Road.    The  time 
was  about  one,  and  it  was  a  serious  question  how  long 
the  attenuated   lines   could   resist  the  next  assaults. 


H4  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

Aiiiiiiuiiiiioii  wjis  niiiiiiii*:  l<t\\.  Sniuc  fool  lunl  oi(1»m«'(1 
or  laikt'ii  away  tin*  oi'diiaiiif  i  rains  lo  Ivossvillr.  All 
f«*ll  as  if  soiiif  crisis  was  alioiii  lo  ariivr  for  wral  or 
wof.  Thomas  aii<l  oiIhms  \\«'I«*  watrliiii*;  ilic  approach 
of  a  ImmIv  of  troiips  friuii  thi*  icar.  'IMm-v  ini;;h!  In* 
fricmls  or  fo»'s.  ('aptaiii  .lohiison,  of  Nc^ih'v's  SiafT, 
who  was  pr«*s«Mil,  roih-  iloun  lo  sfc.  'I'hcv  iiiarchcil  in 
tjiiick  tinifasihcv  caim-  m-arcr,  ihc<M«l  IMaj:;  lluttcrc<l 
ill  th«'  l»r«*<*zo  al>o\«'  th*-  ;:lin«'riii;i  havoiicis  of  (Iran- 
^••r's  iiu'ii,  four  ihoiisaiiil  strong.  (  "Ikm-is  hniM  mimI  Ion;; 
imIummI  ill  \]^^^  foics!  ij:hiilfs  mikI  aloii^  ilic  liills  ami 
jj«»r;;«*s  h<*l<l  l»\  riioiiias'  iiH-ii,  ami  a  <l»'\oui  praNfr  went 
up  fi'om  maiiv  a  heart  in  i  hankfnlncss.  'i'hc  <hiv  was 
saved.  'I'hcsr  tioojts  wcif  Whiiiakcr's  ami  .Mitchell's 
IJrijiados,  of  the  Keservr  ( 'orps.  In  the  f«)r«'noon  thev 
had  heard  away  otT  at  Kossville  the  low  and  sullen 
lioom  (if  the  lirst  i:nns,  and  had  hccunie  uneasy.  No 
orders  wcic  received  to  «.n>  to  the  front,  Imt  fe('liii«; 
that  they  on;:ht  to  he  there,  orders  or  iio  ord<'rs,  the 
march  l»e;:aii.  At  their  head  nxle  (ieneral  Steedmaii, 
who  had  assumed  the  rcsponsihility  of  ;roiii«;  (o  the 
relief  of  Thomas. 

l.on;:street  had  aeain  ad\anced  with  the  forces  of 
.Johnson.  Ilindman  and  Kershaw,  and  had  gained  a 
part  of  the  lid^e  on  the  ri;_dit,  and  was  pr<'ssin^  U]> 
the  ^or;:e  when  the  two  l»iii;ades  led  l>\  Steedtuaii 
appeared  on  the  lield  and  (piickly  deployiii;;  in  line, 
charged  with  cheers  an<l  yells.  It  was  a  stru<r;:le  of 
Titans  and  the  slau;.'ht«*r  was  fearful.  Steedman's 
horse  l»eiii«r  shot  he  advam*ed  on  foot.  One  of  the 
re;:iments  waverin;:.  Steedman,  seizinir  the  llaL^ 
shouted.  "Hovs,  you  may  j:o  hack,  this  fhiLT  iie\eil'* 
TIm'V  rliar;;ed  ovei-  tin-  «  test  driving  all  Itefore  them; 
the  wave  rolling;  up  the  i:oi-;xe  was  pressed  hack.  There 
were  more  char;;es  and  counter  charires  l>y  ilie  rehels 
when  the  hayonet  was  used,  1ml  the  victory  was  StiM'd- 
maii's,  and  the  rebels  fallin;:  sud«leidv  hack,  lirinj: 
ciMiHed  for  a  titne.  It  was  then  that  l.onjrstreet  called 
for  reinforii'ineiits  and  received  the  answer  already 
ijuoted.      Me    then    or;rani/.ed    another   atta<k,    which 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  I45. 

began  .at  four  and  lasted  until  dark.  In  tliis  Unt 
assault  were  the  ten  brigades  of  11  indman  and  ilie 
sTiSuv      ''''''''  ""^  ^''^'*''''  """^  ^^^""'^^  engaged,  or  only 

rohh.^i'T^  ^^Tf  ^'""'^  ^^^'^'  reorganized  bis  lines,, 
robbed  tie  dead  Of  amu.nnitiou,  both  ours  and  the 
lebel  dead,  Ijmg  by  hundreds  on  the  slopes,  and  was 

o/'foJ^n^    ^  '^"'"'^  *.^'^''  ^^'^-     It  '''^^^  repetition 
ot  former  charges  and  furiously  made.    Onlv  as  ni-jit 

approached  did  the  angry  waves  of  rebellion  reccnle 
having  beaten  themselves  out  against  the  "liock  of 
Uiickamauga,"  and  the  gallant  defenders  of  the  liao- 
Ihe  slaughter  on  both  sides  in  the  afternoon  in  sonr^ 
regiments  was  as  high  as  forty-five  per  cent  and  acres 
were  covered  with  the  dead  and  wounded.     At  one 
point  on  the  ridge  lay  sixty  dead  rebels  close  together 
General  Beatty,  who  was  everywhere  a  conspicuous 
hgure,  at  one  time  commanding,  at  another  carrvin- 
ammunition    says,  "However  much    we    mav    say    of 
those  who  held  comiuand,  justice  compels  the  acknowl- 
edgment that   no   o«ic<^r   exhibited   more  courage   on 
that  occasion  thaiUhe  humblest  private  in  the  ranks.- 
Ihe  battle  was   over  at  dark  except  a   few  slio-ht 
outbreaks   here   and   there,  and  Thomas   held   secure 
possession   of  the  ridge,  but  in  obedience  to  an  or  er 
fiom  Rosecrans  received  soon  after  four,  directing  him 
tune  ZT  ^,?^^^^"?' ^^  ^^^r>nvea  to  do  ^o  at  an  o^po". 
tune  time.     General  liosecraus  says  in  his  report  "lie 
was  to  use  his  discretion."    Evervthing  havinrbecome 
quiet,  Reynolds  began  the  movement  and  in lloin^o 

left  '^""''tl^e'T'"'^''T"^°'  -<^— -.- to  attS>ur 
iett  near  the  La  Fayette  Road.  Revnolds  nuicklv 
formed  m  line  facing  the  enemy,  and  Turch  n's  S  le 

apSo";^'  'Y^^^f  ^  ;^^"^'^  t^^  ^^bels  half  a  S^lie . 
The  wifi^i  '''?  l;"nclerd  prisoners  and  two  cannon: 
Ind  .  wif^T^.  ^.^''^  continued  without  interruption, 
nic^L  r.i  'V't?'''"'/^''^"^^^'^  Rossville  before  mid- 
rofn^  ^f-Ti  ^.^"^  ^^^C^>^1^'«  brigade  of  the  Reserve 
Goips,  which  had  covered  the  rear  during  Oran-ei-'s 
advance,  also  assisted  in  protecting  the  line  of  retreat 


146  THE  ONE   HI'NDRKH  AND  FOURTH 

PnMMHliii^r  tl>«-  arrival  ..f  (m-ii.tuI  Tli..iii:is.  Nr.ul«'V  hiu\ 
Immmi  Imisv  in  foiniin;:  a  lu-w  lin»-  »»f  «l»'feiiKt»  at  the 
s.M.ih.Tn".MHianr.'  of  Ifossvill.'  r.ap.  two  mil.'s  fn.in 
thi'  villa;;t'.  Artill«'i>  aiul  tli«-  tn.ops  lir  lia.l  lakfn  bark 
or  onit-nMl  Uark,  also  .lisoi  ;:aniz«Ml  fia-iiM-nts,  w.-n- 
j)lar«Ml  ill  ]M>sitiou. 

(MMirral    Kos.Mi-aiis.    wh.-ii     In-    l.-fi     ih.-    ti.-M     ainl 
arrived    iln-i'«-,  ronsiili  in;:    with    (;aili«'l<l   ana   otlins, 
aixl  on  th.'  supposition  of  a  total  .Irf.-at,  was  a.lvis.Ml 
to  i:u  on  to  riiattanoojra   an.l   pirpiH'*  ^'»  itMM-iv.'  llio 
ai-inv  if  il.'f.'att'd  an.l   to  I1..I.I    tin*    town    if    p(»ssibU'. 
\Vliilr  hr  i\'u\  so,  <;arti.l.l  was  s.nt  t..  tin*  ff^nt  f«»r  «lrtt- 
iiilr  inf.uination  wlii.li   In-  at   .>nr.'  ..l.taiiHMl  an.l  for- 
war.l.Ml  to   U..s.Mians.     (J.Mirral    lios.Mians  aiiiviMl   m 
Chattanoo^ra  a  lnokt-n-lH'artrd  man,  bnt  the  n.ws  fioni 
th.-fiont  lons.'.l  him  toa.tion.     Mr  at  once  s.-nt  M«('«M.k 
ami  Critirnih-n  lo  ih.-ir  .-..mmands.      What  a  spectarh* 
for  two  corps  .omman.lcrs!    lie  also  sent   sn].pli.'s  of 
rations  forward  to  jjossvillc  for  the  nearly  starved  sol- 
diers,   and    thereafter    was    himsidf    a^Min.     r.cneral 
KosiM-rans'  mistake  was  in  not  joining;  Thomas.      Had 
he  done  so  Hra<:;.^  ni)t  Thomas,  would  hav.-  retreated. 
There   can    be   no   «lonbt    about  this,  ami  hundreds   of 
hi;:h  authorities  have  so  expressed  themselves. 

^The  ni;:ht  ..f  the'JOth  was  spent  by  T.eneral  Thomas 
in  r«MM-;:airi/in;:  th.-  army  ami  .lisposin-  ii  in  iM.sith.ns 
for  .lefT-ns.-  slH.nhl  th.-  .-n.-my  advan..-.  To  a. 1.1  t..  Us 
8tren;,Mh  Minty's  mount. -.1  infantry,  whi.h  ha.l  n.»t  Immmi 

in    tlm    ti;:ht,  but  w.-r 1    the    h'ft,  was  .all. -d  in  an.l 

several    r.';;im.'nis   fr.uu   th.*  r.*ar  arriv.'.l. 

Cen.'ral  Ih-atty.  wh.»  says  that  at  .lark  h.-  ha.l  no 
iib-a  that  the  armv  w.ml.l  r.*tir«-,  and  wlm  cam.-  m-ar 
ri.liii;:  int.»  a  r.-b.-l  bri^ra.Ie  after  dark,  snpp.»sin;r  them 
t.)  b.' our  own  m.-n.  arriv.-.l  at  K..ssvilh'  in  th.'  ni^rht  an.l 
liunt.Ml  up  tin*  nri;;a.l.'.  Th.-  writ.-r  was  w.um.l.'.l  and 
ra|»tnnMl  .m  ll.»rs.*sh.»e  ri.l;;e. 

.\t  .lavli^'ht  .»n  the  *Jlst  H.'an,\'s  i'.ri-ad.-  was  imi 
ill  posili.tn  in  the  front  Iin»'  on  th.-  ri.l;:.'  n.ar  K.»s- 
vilje.  The  reb.-l  a.lvati..*  .lid  not  app.'ar  uniil  n.-arlv 
no.tn,   wh.-n    I'tatty  .'iii:a'-'«*<l   them   (hibn-lTs   Uiii^a.l.i 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  147 

in  skiriiiishinji,  and  ttnjill.v  iiiadc  a  cliaruc,  diivin;*-  the 
enemy  from  the  tiehl,  k'avino-  a  number  of  kille(rjind 
wounded.  Captain  J.eij;hton,  of  the  One  Jlundred  and 
Fourth,  was  severely  wounded,  and  two  otliers  sliolitly 
wounded.  Other  forces  of  tlie  enemy  ai)i)eare(l  on  the 
left  and  on  tlu^  rij^iit  in  ( Miattanoo^'a  N'aHey,  but  did 
not  attack.  Their  mcjvcments  were  merely  tentative  and, 
as  afterward  known,  Kraoo's  army  hadbeen  too  badly 
shattered  to  do  more  at  that  time  tlian  demonstrate. 
He  also  believed  that  Kos(Mrans  had  beoii  strongly 
reinforced  by  Biirnside  ami  other  troops.  Stran«»e 
but  Brajij;'  first  learned  of  his  victory  throuj;li 
northern  sources,  and  then  advanced. 

Rossville  beino-  in  every  way  unsuitabh*  for  attack 
or  defense  excei)t  in  front,  (xeneral  Thomas  advised 
General  Kosecrans  to  withdraw  the  army  to  (Miatta- 
noooa.  The  movement  began  at  nine  on'the  eveninjT 
of  the  21st,  slowly  and  carefully,  and  at  daylight  on 
the  22d  the  shattered  but  reunited  Army  of  the  Cum- 
berland stood  defiant  behind  the  defenses  of  Chatta- 
nooga, which  three  months  before  it  had  set  out  to 
capture. 

Thus  closed  the  battle  of  Chickamauga,  the  blood- 
iest of  the  war  in  ])roportion  to  the  numbers  engaged, 
the  loss  on  both  si<les  approximating  34,000  men  in 
killed,  wounded  and  missing.  The  aggregate  loss  of 
the  Army  of  the  (Cumberland  was  10,330,  specifically 
as  follows:  132  officers  killed,  592  wounded,  270  miss- 
ing; 1,.555  enlisted  men  killed,  8,820  wounded,  4,985 
missing.  Bragg  lost  2,073  killed,  10,274  wounded,  2,003 
missing,  making  a  total  of  20,950.  As  a  large  number 
of  the  missing  were  killed,  they  must  be  considered  in 
the  estimate.  Our  loss  in  material  was  immense,  being 
30  cannon,  15,000  small  arms,  large  quantities  of  am- 
munition, besides  wagons  and  supplies  of  all  kinds. 
Captain  Porter,  of  the  Ordnance  Bureau,  estimated 
that  our  troops  expended  2,050,000  rounds  of  musket 
cartridges  and  7,325  rounds  of  cannon  ammunition. 

The  fighting  qimlities  dis])layed  on  both  sides  were 
of  a  character  to  reflect  credit  on  American  valor,  while 


14«  THE  ONE  HUNI>KED  AND  FOURTH 

llif  ;ilori«'s  uf  ( "liirkam;Mi;:a  Im-Ioh;;  «mjiijiII\  to  all  jiaiis 
of  the  Army  t»f  tlu*  <'uiiilM'rlaiul,  for  all  wnr  n-pn-- 
s<*nt«*<l  in  it,  cvoii  tlu*  ln'i;:a«l<*s  thai  wtMr  mvjtw  Ih'IiiumI 
•  •II  tin-  ii;:lit,  lia\iij^  pifVJtMis  to  that  rvciit  done  tirs- 
|i)ial«*  ti;:litiii^  and  lost  liravilv  in  kill«M|  and  wiMindrd. 
l»nt  tin*  hattlc  was  a  ihti'ssIi y,  ami  wliilf  al  liisi  dis- 
appointin;;  to  tin*  iioit  li,  w  In-n  ii  ranic  lo  he  ninU'i- 
stood  in  its  full  nicanin*;,  was  rcco^ni/i'd  as  <nn*  of  t  lie 
diM-isivr  batlh's  of  t  lie  war.  Swrh  an  on«*  »anin»t  lu* 
jiiodnrrd  liy  tin*  nn*r«*  drfrai  <»f  an  army.  Ii  is  tin* 
<-ons<M|ncm-(*s,  military  and  poliiiral,  that  llow  from 
it  in  surh  a  way  as  to  fon*sliadow  and  ;:ovfrn  tlu*  nlti- 
matc  result  to  the  <«»nt«*ndin^  parlies  or  nation.  These 
were  far  reaehinj;  as  soon  appeared.  X'iewed  in  this 
li;;;hl,  t 'hiekaman<;a  provetl  to  he  a  j;reai  iinnin;^  jtolni 
in  I  he  history  of  I  he  war  on  hot  h  sides. 

The  ( 'onfederales  who  had  ma<le  ihe  niosi  tremen- 
dous pri'parai  ions  ami  romenlraled  larj;e  armies  to 
annihilate  that  of  KosjMians,  exhausiin;;  in  the  elTorl 
the  resoiirres  of  the  south,  failed  in  all  their  ohjecis, 
which  they  a\<»w«'d  lo  he  not  only  toiu|ilete  xiciory 
in  liallle,  hut  also  ihc  repossession  of  ( "hat  lanoti^ri, 
and  the  re-comjuesi  td"  Kentucky  and  Tenm'sse<',  they 
contideiitly  j»r<'dict in;;  thai  those  results  hein;;  accom- 
plished,  the  reco;;nition  <d"  the  <  "onfe«lerate  Stal«*s  and 
the  termination  of  the  war  must  follow.  Hut  iiune 
of  their  fond  expectations  were  to  he  realized.  Their 
\ict<»rv  was  a  harren  one.  w  Imlly  disappointing;  to  .lelT. 
l>avis  and  his  people,  who  e\|»ecied  lar;;«'r  results  after 
su«li  tremendous  sa<riti«es.  Itut  few  su«h  victories 
could  he  alToided.  Therefore  afh'f  a  hrief  period  of 
self  ;;h.rilicai  ion,  they  he;;an  lo  find  fatilt  with  <Jem'ral 
Itia;:;:  and  his  conduct  of  a  campai;;!)  that  offered 
opjiurl  unit  ies  seldom  ;;iven  to  any  <ommamler.  I?ra;;i; 
in  tui'n,  to  defemi  his  tiwn  faiiiie  as  a  <ienei-al,  found 
faidt  with  his  suliordinales.  .Meanwhile  iinahle  to 
attack  Kosecrans  in  his  stron;:hold.  he  siMtled  down 
with  his  army  to  |>esie;;e  his  imumiiv  and  endea\oi-  to 
accomplish  hy  st ar\  at  ion  w  hat  he  had  no  hope  of  do iu;^ 
hv  haltle. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  149 

IXriDEXTS    AT    (MIlCKAMAT^dA. 
Namitiv('  of  First  Serjeant  (later  Lioiiteuaiit)  IM.i- 
lander  Talbot,  of  Company  B: 

'^It  the  time  of  our  re])ulse  on  the  left  ;it   (Miicka- 
mauga,    in    fallino'    back    frcMii    the    skiniiisli    line,    I 
became  sei)ai-ate(l    liom   tlu^   Ke<j;inH.,it  and  fell   back 
with  others  to   llorsesiioe  ridge.     When  I  arrived   I 
found  several  officers  there  uroincr  the  men  to  mak«^ 
a  stand.     They  representcMl  that  reinforcements  were 
comiiio-  and  that  we  would  yet  Avin  the  dav.     Lieu- 
tenant (^alkins,   of  Beatty's   Staff,   was  there  among 
others.     Most  of  the  men  were  willing  to  stav,  though 
some  having  lost  their  regiments,  went  to  \he  rear. 
We  immediatcdy  went  to  Avcu-k  to  s(r<'ugthen  our  posi- 
tion, but   had  done  scarcely  anytliiug  wlieii  the  rebels 
attacked   and    tried   to  di-ive   us   fi-oui    the  ridge,  but 
were  re?»ulsed  by  the  steady  hr<'  of  oui-  men.     We'then 
bnilt  slight  barricades  with   what  loose  material   we 
could  find.     While  doiug  this  the  rebels  made  another 
attack  and  were  again  driven  down  the  hill.     Uy  this 
time  our  ammnnition  was  nearly  gone  and  the  dead 
and  wounded  were  searclu^l  and  what  they  had  left  in 
their  cartridge  boxes  was  distributed.    Keiuforcemeuts 
<Steednian's  Division)  had  arrived  and  borne  the  brunt 
of  the  last  attack.     About  sundown  the  enemy  made 
a  third  desperate  attempt  to  take  the  ridge,  when  tliev 
were  driven  as  before  an<l  charged  with  the  bayonet 
T3eyond  their  own   former  ])ositions.     Our  boys  then 
struck  up  the  ''Katth^  Cry  of  Freedom,"  the  wliole  line 
taking  up  the  strain,  and  when  they  came  to  the  words, 
"Down  with  the  traitors,  up  with  the  Stars,"  every 
fellow  emphasized   them   with  a  vim  that  made  the 
Tvoods  and  rocky  hills  ring.    It  was  one  instance  where 
"Music  hath  charms  to  soothe  a  savage  breast,"  for 
although  the  firing  continued  for  some  time  there  was 
no  further  effort  made  to  drive  us  from  the  ridge,  and 
about  7:30  we  mov(Ml  towai-d  Kossville." 

James  C.  Deegan,  of  (\>mpany  G,  says:  "After  our 
flght  at  Chicka manga  on  the  20th,  P.  A.  Hawke,  J.  F. 
Diehl,  11.  Campbell,  F.  L.  Pound  and  myself  assisted 


IM  THF.  ONE   lirNDRED  ANM)  FOl'ItTH 

in  liauliii-  «»il  >iiim-  ..I  till-  jiuiis  of  Kiid^ics*  Itantiv 
as  I  In-  rrln'ls  \v«*n«  al»uiM  i<»  tak«*  llirm.  Hawk  spikril 
«»ur  «»f  I  In*  ;:uiis  raiHiinMl  by  lln*  n-luls  aii*l  u  liilr  «loini,r 
it  was  sinitk  liv  a  s|M-ni  ball  \vlii«  li  l<fi  a  scar  over 
his  v\i\  \\  •'  <li<l  ii«»t  ii*'\  l>:i<k  l«»  iIk-  K<'.t:iin»-iii  imiil 
I  lit-  L'LM,  and  Immc  with  us  a  rumplinimiaiv  noli-  fn»in 
("apiain   l?iitl;:«s  lo  rxplain  «>nr  al»s«'n««-." 

W  illiain  .M.  Wilson,  of  ( "nin|.any  K,  says:    "On  Tii- 
tlay   ni;:lit   of  Srpn'nibcr   isili.  w  lim   iln-   Kri^aib-  Wad 
n-arlirtl  I  In-  position  assijiiUMJ   lo  it.   I    was  oin-  of  six 
drtailfd  to  <4(t  on  picki't  duty  down  nt-ai-  r|ii.kanian;^a 
(  r«M'k.      \\'«*  rxpfttcd    to   Ix-   iclicvi-d    in    tin*   inoinin;:^, 
ItMi  Wfi-f  not.  and  irniainrd  tliric  all  day,  tin-  ai'tilln-y 
tiiinjr  tiv«'i-  oiii-   in-ads.     'riicrc   wfir   n)inilM'rs  on   this 
|»irk«'t     lint-    and    loward    ni^lil     soni.'    of    tin*    olVncrs 
iMTomin;:  nnt-asy  went   l»a«  k  lo  tin-  hill  for  oidns.  hnl 
i-.-IniiM-<l  ami  said  tin-  liii^Mdc  had  i^mn'  and  that   tliry 
saw    several    new    made    ^M-aves.      Il     was    ilnii    alionl 
snmlown    and    foiMnnalely   some  of  our   tavalry    »ame 
al.Mi;:  and  l«dd   ns  we  had  hetlei-  -ei   oui   .|nirU.  w  lii«li 
we   did.   and    by    keepin;^    under   covei-   of   the   iind>er 
and  brush  al   last   reached  Crawtish  Sprin;:s.  when  oar 
snr;:eons    uanied    us    for   nufses    in    the   tield    hospital 
there,  but   we  declined  ami  left   in  a  liunv.  and  linally 
Joe  W  ilson  and  myself  reached  llie  t  ;ienn  Mouse.  K«»se- 
rrans'   head«piaiieis.   w  lieie  we  la\    down  ami   tried   lo 
sleep.      In    the    movuiu::    we    found    liie    lle^imenl    and 
marciie.l   wiiii   il    to  the  jefi.   when   I    weui   on  llie  skir- 
mish  line  with  the  rest   and  did   what    I  could  to  keep 
back  the  foul-  oi-  live  lines  of  rebels  advancing;  on  us. 
TlnM-e  were  just  acres  of  I  hem  and  we  tired  and  linally 
fell  back.  slop|»in;:  a^'ain  to  lire  as  we  went  and  makint: 
a  not  her  stand  at  l  he  i-oad.      l'r<Mu  i  inre  we  w  eui  lo  i  he 
ridp*  about    half  a   mile,  and  al    niiiiil   airi\ed  ai    Koss- 
vilh-." 

I'irsi  Sei-;;eani  <  ieor^c  Marsh,  of  r.iiiipau\  I »,  says 
in  re;iard  to  <  'hickamau;:a  :  "<  Mi  I  he  I!M  h  we  la.\  around 
our  batleiy  oil  a  hill  m-ar  rhickamau;:a  Tre.d;  and  lis- 
teiietj  half  a  day  to  the  roar  of  the  rebel  ;:uns  and 
ours.      Taplain    |{rid;:<-s.   losint:   a    number  of  his   men. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  151 

a  detail  from  tlic  One  IluiulnMl  and  Foui'tli  1h'1]>(m1  to 
work  the  battery,  and  here  several  were  badly  wounded. 
About  one  p.  m.  our  batteries  succeeded  in  silencing 
the  rebel  guns  and  soon  after  they  seemed  to  be  with- 
drawing down  the  creek.  The  roar  of  battle  all  day 
had  been  tremendous  on  the  left  and  we  soon  moved 
in  that  direction.  As  we  approached  Crawfish  Si)rings 
the  movement  of  our  armies  for  concentration  was  a 
grand  sight.  As  we  drew  nejir  the  battlefiehl  on  the 
left  the  roar  of  the  artillery  increased  and  we  socmj  dis- 
tinguished the  crashing-  sound  of  musketry,  and  met 
long  lines  of  ambulances  with  blood  dripping  from 
nearly  all,  and  from  some  very  fast;  these  were  going 
to  the  field  hospitals.  We  arrived  on  the  ti<'hl  about 
dark  and  in  time  to  see  a  most  magniticent  charge  by 
Wilder's  mounted  infantry,  which  formed  on  our  right 
and  rode  forw?ird  into  the  thick  woods,  where  we 
saw  no  more  of  them,  but  heard  from  their  Spencer 
repeating  rifles  the  most  continucnis  and  ra]>id  fire  1 
had  ever  listened  to,  accompanied  by  the  sharp  crack 
of  their  light  howitzers.  The  rebels  were  equally  in 
earnest,  for  they  had  immense  masses  of  infantry  there 
in  the  dark  woods  waiting  for  them.  Thc\v  also  had  a 
heavy  gun  that  gave  a  deep  growl  about  once  a  min- 
ute and  shook  the  ground  where  we  stood  formed  in 
squares  ready  to  show  what  we  were  there  for  if  ^^'ilder 
should  be  driven  back,  but  he  was  not.  We  then 
went  back  behind  a,  little  ridge  to  sleep — perchance  to 
dream  of  home. 

"On  the  morning  of  the  20tli  we  were  sent  to  the 
extreme  left  and  soon  a  tremendous  battle  was  raging 
all  along  the  line.  We  were  formed  in  some  timber  on 
level  ground  and  our  skirmishers  were  sent  out  when 
we  advanced,  but  we  soon  met  the  rebels  four  lines 
deep  and  were  driven  back.  We  were  attacked  by 
Adams'  Brigade,  of  Breckinridge's  Division.  At  the 
order  of  Colonel  Hapeman  we  fired  by  vfdley  into  their 
ranks,  but  without  stopping  them  in  the  least.  They 
came  on  steadily  with  their  light  wool  hats  pulled 
down  over  their  eyes,  like  men  breasting  a  storm.   Our 


152  THE  ONE  Hl'NDRED  AND  FOURTH 

li^'lil  liin-  Ns.i-  X...II  oMi^.-.l  lo  fall  bark  lo  a  roatl  in 
our  rt*ar  if  In*  La  Faivnti'  K»»a«l),  \vh«*n'  w«'  a«:aiii  f«»nii«Ml 
iM-ar  our  l»ait«Mv  aii<l  iiwuU*  furtli«'r  i«*sisiaii(«*,  Imt 
wen*  iinablf  to  stop  thiMii.  1  lia«l  Immmi  wtniinltMl  in  ilie 
flrnt  attack  and  f»*lt  as  thou<;h  strtirk  by  a  whip;  thoi<» 
"was  no  tiuM"  tlion  to  cxaininr  thr  woninl  and  I  assisted 
in  irnioxjii;;:  on«'  of  tln'  ;;iins,  when  \v«*  rniird  to  th»* 
rid;;i'.  A  I  tin*  load  then*  was  luon*  or  b«ss  fxrilrnnMit. 
■I'olonrl  llaitcnian  was  dtdn;;  his  b«'St,  as  also  Major 
ANidnuM-  to  liold  tin*  I{oj^iinrnt  linn.  LirnttMiant  Kood, 
of  roiii|iany  <i,  said,  'TIn'V  air  just  as  tir«Ml  of  this  as 
you  afr.'  i/KMit«Miant  t'lark  was  disj^'ustcd  brrausi*  his 
n'Volv«*r  would  not  ^nt  otT.  Li<'Ut«'nant  Win.  ( '.  Koss, 
of  Coiupany  H.  who  was  a  ;riant  in  statun',  had  hold 
of  a  sapling;  with  his  h*fi  hand,  and  waving;  his  sword 
with  his  ri^dil,  shouted,  M'onu'  on:  I  ;ini  niou^ih  f<»r  a 
whole  r(';;im«'iit  of  you  luysi'lf.'  1  liaTf  no  douiit  but 
that  ho  fflt  so.  St'r«;«'ant  \\'.  II.  II.  1 1  iitton,  of  Com- 
pany I),  who  had  b<M*n  iironioicd  lo  (  ulor  Ser^joant  on 
tin*  ti«*ld  in  pla««*  of  danu's  <!.  Seward,  of  <\uu|>any  1*>, 
mortally  wounded,  shouted,  '.hisi  as  well,  boys,  to  dio 
ri;;ht  hen*  as  any whcif.'  (  olonel  iiapt'inan  was  not 
exritiMl  and  I  will  say  that  I  never  kn«*w  him  to  seek 
<-over  undrr  lire,  thouuh  In*  lecpiii-cd  tin'  nn-n  to  lie 
down  unless  a  rhar;:**  was  ordered.  .Majrn-  W'idiner 
was  very  art  iv<*  and  enicieut  all  t  hrouj^h  t  he  bai  i  le  and 
brave  as  a   lion,  all  said." 


CHAPTER   XI. 


The  Siege  of  Chattanooga. 


General  Kosecrans,  immediately  after  his  arrival 
from  the  front  on  the  20th,  rode  over  the  ground  around 
Chattanoooa,  and  witli  the  eye  of  an  enj^ineei-,  seh'ct- 
ini"'  the  jioints  of  vantage,  set  the  forces  in  the  town 
to  work  on  ritle  pits.  These  and  some  earthwcn-ks 
left  by  the  rebels,  formed  a  partial  line  of  defense  by 
dawn  of  the  22d,  which  was  further  strengtluMied 
during-  the  day  and  night  by  the  united  labors  of  the 
army  under  the  direction  of  (Jeneral  St.  Clair  Mor- 
ton, Chief  Engineer  of  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland. 

The  line  extended  from  the  river  on  the  north  to 
the  river  on  the  south,  in  a  crescent-like  form  of  about 
three  miles  in  length,  and  within  the  Avorks  the  Army 
of  the  Cumberland  took  position.  McCook's  Corps 
being  placed  on  the  right,  the  P^ourteenth  in  the  center, 
and  Crittenden  on  the  left,  Granger's  Corps  in  sup- 
port. Beatty's  Rriga(h'  Avas  ])laced  on  the  left  of  Fort 
Negley  looking  south.  The  three  cavalry  brigades  of 
General  R  B.  Mitchell,  which,  during  the  19th  and 
20th,  were  on  the  right  of  McCook  at  Crawfish  Springs 
and  along  the  Chickamauga,  and  through  a  misun- 
derstanding of  an  order  to  report  to  McCook  on  the 
20th,  nevertheless  doing  valuable  service,  falling  back 
slowly  at  five  p.  m.  of  the  20th,  on  the  Chattanooga 
Road  and  bivouacking,  spent  the  21st,  as  also  Wilder, 
on  Mission  Ridge  and  in  the  valley,  resisting  tlie 
advance  of  the  rebels  and  covering  the  withdrawal  of 
the  scattered  trains,  artillery  and  stragglers,  by  the 
way  of  roads  nearest  Lookout.  These  and  also  Post's 
Brigade  of  infantry  which  had  not  been  in  the  battle, 
came  in  safely  on  the  22d,  though  not  without  consid- 
•erable  fighting. 


CHAPTER   XI. 


The  Siege  of  Chattanooga. 


General  Rosecrans,  immediately  after  Iiis  airival 
from  the  front  on  tlie  20tli,  rode  over  tlie  around  around 
Chattanooga,  and  with  the  eye  of  an  engineei-,  select- 
ing tlie  points  of  vantage,  set  the  forces  in  the  town 
to  work  on  ritle  pits.  These  and  some  eartliworks 
left  by  the  rebels,  formed  a  partial  line  of  defense  by 
dawn  of  the  22d,  wliicli  was  further  stroiigth'oueil 
duriug  tlie  day  and  night  by  the  united  labors  of  the 
army  under  the  direction  of  General  St.  Clair  Mor- 
ton, ( 'liief  Engineer  of  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland. 

The  line  extended  from  the  river  on  the  north  to 
the  river  on  the  south,  in  a  cr«^sc(Mit-like  form  of  about 
three  miles  in  length,  and  within  the  works  the  Army 
of  the  Cumberland  took  position.  McCook's  Corps 
being  placed  on  the  right,  the  Fourteenth  in  tlie  center, 
and  Crittenden  on  the  left.  Granger's  Corps  in  sup- 
port. Beatty's  Brigade  was  placed  on  the  left  of  Fort 
Negley  looking  south.  The  three  cavalry  brigades  of 
General  R.  B.  Mitchell,  which,  during  the  19th  and 
20th,  were  on  the  right  of  McCook  at  Crawfish  Springs 
and  along  the  Chickamanga,  and  through  a  misun- 
derstanding of  an  order  to  report  to  McCook  on  the 
20th,  nevertheless  doing  valuable  service,  falling  back 
slowly  at  five  p.  m.  of  the  20th,  on  the  Chattanooga 
Road  and  bivouacking,  spent  the  21st,  as  also  Wilder, 
on  Mission  Ridge  and  in  the  valley,  resisting  the 
advance  of  the  rebels  and  covering  the  withdrawal  of 
the  scattered  trains,  artillery  and  stragglers,  by  the 
way  of  roads  nearest  Lookout.  These  and  also  Post's 
Brigade  of  infantry  which  had  not  been  in  the  battle, 
came  in  safely  on  the  22d,  though  not  Avithout  cousid- 
'Grable  fiuhting. 


IM 


THK  «>NK   III  M»UKI»   .\N1»   FmIUTH 


Tin*  I'fln'ls  d'hl  in»i  ailvaiKi*  in  fuiT«'  iinii)  tin-  'JlM, 
wIhmi  tlifV  lM*;;nii  lakiii;;  |Misiii«tii  fium  Missiuii  Kiih^r 
oil  tlu*  <*aKt  to  Loiikotit  MiMiiitaiii  mi  tli<*  wrst.  sontli- 
\\«*si  from  ( Mi:in:iii«Mt;;a.  Imm  ilirir  lMavi«*st  fnirrs  wrre 
plat  »m|  in  tin*  Viillrv  «l«is«'l\  rMiifiMiii  iii^  our  I'iih's  tlim*, 
rMNrriii;:  on  iln-ir  Irft  llaiiU  tin*  l>as«*  uf  |.4»okMMt  lo 
< 'liatlaiMMi;:a  <'nH'k.  wliirli  nrar  bv  runs  into  tin*  Tiii- 
ii«*sK«i'.  TlifV  als<»  (Mrtijiirtl  Lookout  Mountain  on  tin* 
L'.'M.  (our  small  foni's  w  iilnliaw  in;:  iif^  tln*v  a|i|Moat|i«*<l) 
ami  lM-;ian  «*r«Miin;i  wiuks  |Ui|»aratorv  to  jiianiin;;  a 
l»att»*rv  with  wliitli  to  sjitii  iIm-  town,  ihirr  mil«*s  dis- 
tant, also  Moccasin  l't»ini.  o|(|Misitc  an«l  across  t  he  river. 

The  Tciim'sscc  tlowin;:  lt\  the  north  side  of  the 
city  makes  a  smhleii  cur\e  at  the  uestern  extremity 
soulhwai'ii,  until  striking;  the  base  of  l.o«»koui  it  runs 
wt'st  for  a  short  dislancj*,  ami  then  tlous  northward 
a^iain,  ffuinin;:  a  )»eninsula  of  the  exact  shape  of  a 
moccasin.  (oMieral  Lou^si  rt  et  was  sent  to  occujty 
Lookout  N'aliey  west  of  the  .Mountain.  These  disposi- 
tions eiialdeil  Hra;;^  to  cut  oiT  all  communications 
hetw'tiMi  <  Miat  lanoo;;a  and  nridi;«*iKUi  hy  way  of  the 
ri\er  and  railroad  on  which  the  l(elea;;uered  army  was 
dependent  foi*  food  for  mail  and  beast,  ex»ept  by  the 
wa;;on  road  on  the  imiih  side  of  the  ri\er  sixty  miles 
Ion;;,  o\e»-  Walden's  Kid;:e,  ami  thence  d<»wn  the 
Se«|uatclii«'  \alley  to  r,iid;;eport .  This  remlered  sii|>- 
plies  uncertain  e\en  in  ;;oud  weather,  and  as  the  laiiis 
KtMiii  set  in  tin*  road  be<-ame  almost  impassable,  and, 
liioi-eovef,  wjis  «'.\ posed  to  raids  should  r.rat:;:'s  ( "axalry 
cross  the  ri\ er. 

(>ii  the  L'L'd  Kosccraus'  army  numiiered  .I."..! mil  nicu 
and  he  had  on  hand  tifleeii  da\s'  rations,  so  the  pros- 
pect for  starvation  not  far  in  the  future  was  \<rv 
;:ood.  Later  ( Jeijeral  lira;;;;  sent  word  thai  he  iiiiemjid 
to  keep  our  army  there  until  it  a|ipre(  iated  mule  meat 
and  horse  flesh.  The  lirst  work  of  the  army  was  to 
make  the  town  impre<;iiable  to  attack,  and  workin;; 
da\  and  ni;;ht  this  was  done  in  a  few  days,  but  elab- 
orate f<ii  t  iticat  ions  weie  planned  and  carried  to  rcuii- 

pleliiin     mole     |eisuii-|\.        <  Ml     till-    •Jlih     <ie!|eral      KoS«"- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  155 

craTis  tclciii'MplKMl  the  rrcsidciit  that  Ik*  could  not   be 
dislo(l«;ed.     Many  (liaiiks  were  due  to  Hnij;<^  for  liav- 
iii*»-  left  some  partial  defenses  when  he  retreated  and 
Brajiii'  afterward    expressed   his  regret  for  doing  so. 
As  it  appears  tli<'  rebel  coniniander  expected  Rosecrans 
would  not  attenii»t  to  hold  Chattanooga,  and  his  signal 
officers  and  scouts  rei)orted  on  the  22d,  Uod  and  24th 
that    Rosecrans    was    moving   his    trains    and    much 
infantry  across  the  Tennessee,  which  ini]di(Ml  retreat. 
On     the  24th     Bragg     demonstrated     along     onr 
front    and    in    the  skirmishing,  which  lasted  all  day, 
the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  engaged,  Fort  Neg- 
ley  taking  a  part  by  shelling  the  rebels  over  the  heads 
of  onr  troo])s.     But  it  became  evident  to  Bragg  very 
soon  that  no  retreat  was  intended  and  he  began  for- 
tifying his  lines  with  rifle  pits  and  forts  across  the 
valley,  and  on  the  slopes  of  Mission  Ridge,  there  being 
no  less  than  two  or  three  lines  of  rifle  pits  along  the 
base  of  the  latter  and  one  on  the  top  with  earthworks 
for  batteries,  extending  at  least  three  miles.     Lookout 
Mountain  fortified  by  nature  on  every  hand,  was  fur- 
ther guarded  on  top  by  rifle  pits  along  the  north  and 
west   sides,  and  two    miles    south,   by    an(>tlier    line 
extending  east  and  west  across  the  mountain.      Large 
portions  of  these  as  well  as  those  along  Mission  Ridge 
can  still  be  seen.     Away  up  on  the  northeast  side  of 
Lookout,  eighteen  hundred  feet  above  the  valley  below, 
are  the  i)alisades  of  perpendicular  sandstone  three  hun- 
dred feet  high,  and  beneath  these  the  Craven  house 
and  farm  of  forty  acres,  the  ground  sloping  off  steeply, 
but  cleared.     Here  the  rebels  took  great  pains  to  for- 
tify the  front  looking  toward  Chattanooga,  but  they 
left  the  back  door  open  toward  Lookout  Valley,  and 
through  this  Hooker  afterward  walked  in  while  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  knocked  at  the  front.     On 
the  26th  the  enemy  attacked  our  picket  lines  on  the 
left  early  in  the  morning,  but  after  sharp  firing  was 
driven  back.     General  Rainier  received  a  severe  flesh 
wound.    Under  a  flag  of  truce  arrangements  were  made 
for  the  paroling  and  removal  of  our  wounded  from  the 


lU  THE  ONK  HVNDHEI*  AND  Kol'RTH 

Iu>s|)itiils  oil  tilt'  )ia(ll«'li«-l(l  lu  (  liaitaiiuo^a,  <-.\(t|n  a 
iiuiuLci*  t»f  rawK  loo  si*\<'i<-  lo  iiciinii  <»f  il.  Mcdual 
ortirtTs  iiiid  siijtplifs  hail  Imm-ii  l«'fl  willi  tlit'iii  wIkmi 
iIm*  army  fell  l»ark.  'I'akiii;;^  «arr  of  iln-  iIkmismiuIs  i»f 
WoUIhUhI   taXrd    I  III-   n'solilrrs  of  (lie   Mcliijil   ('or|is  to 

tlu*  utmost  ami  Immii^^  niiahlc  to  «|iiart<'i-  all  in  Imilil- 
iii^s,  a  lai'p*  (cut  rapaltlt-  of  JioMin^r  tiftci'ii  liiiii<li'f<|, 
was  tTtMiiMJ.  Hospitals  \v«m»'  csiahlislMMl  also  at  otlu*r 
points.  I'oit  unaU'l.N  t\\«»  linntli<'<l  lialrs  of  »ot  ton  wtTo 
fonml  in  tin-  town  ami  nearly  t\\<>  liiinihr*!  nn-n  wore 
iI('tail<Ml  to  maUc  it  up  into  mat  i  irssfs,  so  that  in  a 
f«'W  Ways  all  tlio  nnoiuhIcM  ha<l  tomfortahir  ImmIs.  If 
Hra;;;:  hail  imt  rontcmidatnl  altacUin;;  it  was  tln*ii 
too  lali'.  It  was  rviilciit  that  mat  tors  hail  sett  Inl  ilown 
to  ;i  n-^iular  sir;;*',  in  wliirh  starvation  was  to  ih*  i  1m' 
Work  that  l»ra;;;;'s  army  couhl  not  arconiplish.  Loiilt- 
strrt't  hail  sii^'^rstcil  a  movommt  norlhwaiil,  ho|iiiii; 
to  iil»li;^f  liosrrrans  it>  n-in-ai.  Ion  IJra^i;  iliil  iio( 
fa\iir  il. 

.Mi-antimr  tin-  iM-sirm-ij  army  si-iih-il  ijnwii  in  await 
••viMits  ami  with  that  ailapiahility  to  rii  riimstamcs 
whirh  rvi'fy  sohlicr  soon  aripiiri's,  proiciMh'il  to  make 
itself  at  home  l>y  the  ronsi  rm  I  iim  of  i|iiarters  from 
the  (ielnis  of  houses  in  the  town.  Theii'  was  an  alom- 
<lam-e  of  hriek  ami  rla\  ami  these  were  ulili/ed  in  the 
walls  ami  <himneys;  tin*  shelter  tents  serveil  for  roofs. 
The  si  rmt  iires  w  ere  very  small,  Imt  romfoit  aMe.  These 
tjiiarters  «Io|teil  the  hillsiiles  ami  \alle\s  in  iln-  town, 
ami  i-arrieil  om*  hark  to  the  time  when  the  imlians 
oeeiipieil  hi-i-e  Ncry  similar  ahoih-s,  whirh  the  early 
pioneers  tan;;ht  I  hem  to  loiilil.  It  is  related  by  ( Jeneral 
Heatty,  of  two  soldiers,  that  while  in  their  ki'iuiel  one 
day  a  rehel  shell  from  Lookout  dropped  inside,  when 
one  t  u riling'  to  t  he  ot  her  said  :  "Theii',  ymi  Manked  t<nd, 
w  hat  did  \ou  leaM'  t  he  do(»i-  o|ieu  for?" 

\'ery  souii  aflei-  ^iettin;;  seiilcd  dow  u  with  no  li^ht- 
in^'  to  do  in  the  tield,  the  ihou^^hts  of  all  and  the 
ton;;iies  of  all  w  ere  Imsy  in  disrnssin;;  t  he  reeent  hat  t  le 
and  the  art  ions  of  .Mr(  'ook,  <  'lit  tenden  and  Ne^^ley.  Imt 
•  •-I"'  iaih  the  two  foniicr.    This  was  to  ln-ar  fiuit  soon 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  IST 

after  in  the  removal  of  those  gentlemeii  to  await  the 
slow  proceedinjjis  of  courts  of  iiiquiiy.  As  to  General 
Ivosccraiis  he  still  liad  tiic  coiifith-uce  of  the  army  and 
it  would  have  eoutiiiiK'd  to  fijj^ht  under  him  so  ion*;-  as 
Thomas  was  his  great  Lieutenant,  for  they,  consider- 
iii*;-  the  past,  looked  upon  the  two  as  a  combination 
j)oss(*ssed  of  all  the  elements  necessary  to  success. 
They  saw  no  reason  wliy  he  should  be  shelved  for  one 
mistake  any  more  than  Grant  for  P^tsburg  Landing, 
saved  by  Buell's  army,  and  superseded  by  Halleck  for 
a.  time. 

Matters  in  Chattanooga  remained  comparatively 
(|ni<'t  until  October  5th,  when  the  rebels  at  one  p.  m. 
ojK'ued  with  their  battery  on  Lookout  and  two  guns 
from  Mission  Kidge,  but  the  range  was  too  great  and 
little  damage  beyond  wounding  one  soldier,  foll(>w(*d. 

On  the  Otli  in  accordance  with  orders  froui  the  War 
Department,  the  Twentieth  and  Twenty-hrst  Corps 
were  consolidated  and  became ^he  Fourth  Corps  with 
General  Gordon  Granger  as  commander.  This  retired 
McCook  and  ('ritt(Mi<1en,  There  was  also  a  new  organ- 
ization of  brigades  and  divisions  consequent  on  the 
consolidation.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was 
assigned  to  the  First  Brigade,  First  Division,  Four- 
teenth Corps,  General  W.  P.  Carlin  commanding  the 
lirigade,  and  Posseau,  afterward  General  P.  W.  Jolin- 
son,  the  DiA'ision.  The  other  regiments  of  the  Brigade 
were  the  Second,  ThirtA^-third  and  Ninety-fourth  Ohio, 
the  Tenth  Wisconsin,  the  Fifteenth  Kentucky,  the 
Thirty-eighth,  Forty-second  and  Eighty-eighth  Indiana,, 
nine  in  all,  with  an  aggregate  of  2,072  men,  or  about 
230  to  the  regiment.  In  the  Department  General  Peyn- 
olds  was  made  Chief  of  Staff,  General  W.  F.  Smith 
Chief  Engineer,  and  General  Brannan  Chief  of  Artil- 
lery. All  of  these  changes  had  become  necessary  au<l 
were  regarded  favorably  by  the  army,  which  realized 
that  the  present  inactivity  could  not  continue  for  any 
long  period.  The  rations  were  daily  becoming  shorter 
and  forage  for  the  animals  impossible  to  obtain.  They 
began   dying   rapidly,   and   many   were   turned   loose 


IM  THK   oNK    Ml    NI'ICI-I'    AN1>   KlUKTH 

aiiitMt;^  tilt*  Itills  ;iii«l  uiiMiiiiaiiis  un  ihr  inti'ih  side  to 
|»irk  lip  a  liviii;i  hftt  t'Vriit  iiallv  tt»  dir  of  slow  starva- 
tion. 

Tin*  irlu'l  (M'iM-ral  \\  iu(l«  r,  having;  siu«  immUmI  in 
iToHKiuj;  tin*  TriiiH'SstM*  with  a  lar^t*  ravali'.v  foirt*  on 
UrioiMM-  1st,  iiia<l«'  a  laid  on  our  line  uf  sii])pl\  to 
|{riil;^rlM»it,  aiitl  at  A  inl«'i's«>irs  ( 'i«»ssioa<ls,  drst  lovrd 
a  train  «if  tliici*  liiiiidrtMl  wagons  Ittadcd  with  supjdics. 
<'«doln«|  Mcronk,  Jliovili;;  ffolll  niid;irpolt ,  uvclltiuk 
W'hcfh'i's  foi'crs  and  diM\«*  thnii  arross  th«*  \alh\.  kill- 
in;;  soiiif  and  riM-apt  uiiii;:  (•i<:;hl  lniii<lrrd  niiilis  and 
way;ons.  \\'ln'«d«'i\  wln»  had  tliirc  ctdunins,  Mni\rd 
nrarlv  to  .Miii-fnM*sln»fo,  doin;:  iini»  h  daiiia;:*',  Itiii  Immii;; 
pni'snrd  liv  all  «>iii-  ravalrx  in  \\  hirh  In-  lusi  h<-aivil\  by 
ti;;htin;;  and  dcst-it  ions,  was  ;ilad  l<i  rsrapr  atitiss  tin* 
'rmiK'ss***'  in  a  disiir;^ani/«'il  t-unditiun. 

Tin*  tiUfstiMn  of  sii|»|ili<'s  fop  (he  ln-siri^rd  was  tin* 
\ilal  on<*  and  d('iiiaiid<*d  inniirdiali'  sohition.  (i<*in*i'al 
ijonki-r  had  Im-cii  sent  with  lln*  lOh'Vcnlh  and  Twrlfih 
< 'oips  from  tin*  Aiiny  of  tin*  I'otoinar  to  Krid;:»pnri  in 
ant  ii-ipat  ittii  of  iiiov<-in<-nis  lo  Im*  nn*l*'i'lak<-n  for  tin- 
raisin;;  *tf  t  In*  si«'i:<*. 

nra;:;;'s  aini\  iiavinu  <oniro|  uf  iIh-  list-i-  on  iIm* 
sonth  sidi*.  Ktisrcians  picpaiod  jdans  lo  dislod;:r  him 
l»v  a  iiioN«*iin*nt  of  Hooker  from  Hiidi;t'|>ori.  snppoiiod 
liv  foicrs  from  ( "liattainM»;;a.  A  siramhoat  at  tin*  lat- 
ter |da«<*  was  repaired  and  a  new  one  hnilt  at  Hrid;;e- 
|»ori.  Toiitoons  Were  also  ronst  rncted,  all  nnder  the 
snper\ision  of  (Jeiieial  W.  I"\  Smith.  In  the  midst  of 
these  prejiarat ions.  (Jeiieial  IJosecrans  was  rern*ved 
from  eommand  lt\  \ii'iiie  of  an  or<ler  froni  iln-  I'resi- 
delil  of  (>e1o|H*|-  It'tlh.  The  same  o|-der  ereated  a  new 
Military  h)*partment  with  <iem*ral  <irant  as  Com- 
inanderin-< 'hief.  and  this  new  I  division  im-lnded  Ten- 
nessee. At  the  same  time  (lem-ial  Thomas  was 
iippoinied  lo  rnminand  ihe  .\rm\  and  hcpari  nn-iil  of 
llie  < 'nmlteiland.  <ieneral  lvost*rrans  leavin;:  his  fare 
well  order  to  the  ariiiv  to  he  read  after  he  left,  started 
for  <'inrinnali  on  the  e\fnin;x  (»f  tin*  llMh.  When  the 
older-  l»etame  known  there  was  nnnh  re;;ret  anion;;  the 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  159 

soldiers,  with  whom  he  had  lost  none  of  his  popularity. 
Had  not  Genernl  Thomas  been  appointed  to  succeed 
him,  there  Avouhl  have  been  the  greatest  dissatisfac- 
tion if  not  open  rebellion. 

General  llosecrans  was  a  ma^  who  had  many  ene- 
mies and  was  often  luisty  and  imperious  to  his  supe- 
riors and  not  s])ariu_t;  in  his  criticisms  of  them.  1  le  liad 
while  in  Mississii)])i,  not  hesitated  to  criticise  General 
Grant,  which  in  time  was  sure  to  bear  fruit.  IJut  his 
tilne  had  come,  and  the  greatest  strategist  of  the  war 
must  step  down.  Time  will  only  increase  tlie  estimate 
of  the  great  services  he  performed  in  the  most  critical 
period  of  the  war  and  cannot  lessen  his  fauie. 

General  Grant  on  assuming  command,  which  he 
did  at  once,  telegraphed  General  Thomas  to  h(dd  Chat- 
tanooga at  all  hazards.  To  this  he  replied,  "We  will 
hold  the  town  till  we  starve."  The  army  was  then  on 
quarter  rations  and  it  was  no  uncommon  thing  to  see 
soldiers  foUoAving  the  wagons  in  order  to  pick  up  any 
grains  of  corn  or  bits  of  hard-tack  that  might  fall  out, 
while  the  horses  and  mules  lost  so  much  of  their  scanty 
allowance  of  three  or  four  ears  per  day  that  it  became 
necessary  to  guard  them  while  eating.  There  was  an 
abundance  of  oak  trees  between  the  town  and  Mission 
Ridg(^  and  elsewhere.  The  rebels  Avere  in  possession 
of  the  greater  part  of  tliis  space,  their  picket  lines  in 
front,  but  our  boys,  or  some  of  them,  looked  with  long- 
ing at  those  trees,  believing  that  acorns  would  prove 
an  acceptable  article  of  diet  and  help  to  fill  an  empty 
void,  so  many  attempts  Avere  made  on  dark  nights  to 
get  them.  Marshall  BagAvill,  of  Company  (J,  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth,  thus  relates  his  experience:  "While 
on  picket  in  front  of  tow^n  and  being  very  hungry,  I 
located  an  oak  tree  during  the  day  near  the  rebel  line, 
which  I  concluded  had  plenty  of  acorns  on  it,  and 
resolved  to  get  some  after  dark.  When  night  came  I 
crawled  out,  but  observing  a  rebel  picket  not  far  from 
the  tree,  was  obliged  to  craAvl  around  him.  This  occu- 
pied an  hour,  but  I  finally  succeeded  in  climbing  the 
tree  and  filled  my  pockets  Avith  acorns,  and  they  proA^ed 


1«0  THE  ONE  HL'NDKEl)  AND  FOURTH 

lo  Im-  \i  r\  swffi  and  jjikhI.  1  iheii  iviui'iuhI  as  care- 
fiillv  as  1  wfiitl"  TliiH  siinplf  lalt*  shows  tlic  j^irat 
|irivati*iiis  i«i  wliuli  tin*  aniiv  had  Ihmmi  n-diniMl,  but 
iiuid  all  ihtTf  was  a  f«*<liii;;  that  irlit-f  woiihl  s«m(Ii 
■  <»iiu«  iiiid  ihf  uiiiviTsal  sfuliiufiil  was,  starvi-  l»ui  ii<\(  r 

'IMu'  davs  draj;;:td  shtwlx  mi.  I'irin;^  tm  i  he 
I»i«  krt  liiH's  liad  rrasrtl  liv  iiitttiial  a;;i«M'iin-iil  and  tlie 
|»irki*ts  fiiMjiU'iit  Iv  iiu't  to  roiiipai'c  iioifs,  i*\(han;z^e 
li»bairo,  n»fT«'«*  aiiid  iu*wsj»aiH*rs.  These  iiHM.*liii«j;s  «llil 
;:ood  ralhrr  than  harm  l«>  oiii-  side.  Neither  part  v  weiv 
tht'ie  ill  hostih-  ariav  l>e«aMse  thev  hated  each  oth«*r, 
e.\t»'|it  ill  rare  insiaiires,  hut  beeaiisi'  tiiev  had  an  itiea 
liiat  thev  were  li;;htin;;  for  prinriph's  and  rights.  The 
war  was  the  inevitahh*  ronse(|iM*iiee  of  the  two  svsteiiis 
of  what  ue  call  civilizal  ioii,  so  ahsoluielv  antaj^tmistic, 
lioui'Ver.  in  theii*  tearliiii;;  and  ieiideii(i«'s  that  the 
"'tin<:;ile  had  to  rtiiiie,  and  t  InTefoic  all,  except  the  most 
i;idiral,  wfi'e  inclined  to  make  it  as  huniane  as  pos- 
•>iltl<-.  oil  oiir  siilr  lo  icjiipci-  lirmness  and  zeal  wiiii 
<!in-  loiisideial  ioii  for  ilw  masses  (»f  their  enemies, 
whom  iIm'V  toiisideled  ;is  the  tools  of  a  sla Ve-rulill{^ 
o|i;i;i|-cil\  ,    uliicli     \\;is    IIIH-    hcvolhl    :ill    (|Ucslioii.       The 

wiiitT  desires  to  ohseiNe  here  as  a  result  that  cannot 
Im-  di-nied,  thai  the  war  made  the  thiIlkin;,^  intelli^^ciit 
soldiers  of  both  sections,  better,  more  patriotic  and 
I  uiisi'ivative  cili/fiis,  and  in  that  view  abun'  Wiis  not 
'•iil\  an  educator,  but  a  iialional  blessing. 

'I'lie  Uin-  Hundred  and  I'ourlh  was  moved  on  the 
ir»ih  over  to  the  ri\er  nearer  Lo<»kout,  and  there- 
after did  ]»icket  duty  aloii;;  t 'hat  taiioo;;a  ("reek,  the 
rebels  holdiii;;  the  south  bank.  (JeiieiMl  Kosecrans 
liaxin;:  possession  of  Moccasin  Toim  had  placed  s«une 
liea\ y  ;,'uiis  there  which  fre<pieiilly  exi  lian;;ed  com|»li- 
meiiis  with  the  rebel  battery  on  Lookout,  but  beyond 
aiiinsiii;;  the  boys  and  relieving;  the  ^jeneial  monoiony. 
neither  did  much  damage  except  to  animunit  ion. 

<ien«-ral  <irant  arrived  on  the  '2'.U\.  and  on  the  'Jhli. 
accompanied  b\  <ieneral  Thtunas  and  <ieneral  Siiiiili, 
mad'-  ;i  I  Ik  •lull '.'Ii  ii-i  iniiioissa  inc  of  t  lie  Tennessee  belt  iw 


REGIMENT  If.LIXOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  161 

Cbattaiioojuu  on  the  i)1()1>(>s(m1  line  of  ()])('iati<»ns  against 
Long-street,  for  the  puri)ose  of  deterniiiiing  uixni  tlie 
plans  already  prepared  for  opening  the  river  and  rais- 
ing the  siege.  General  (Jrant  having  approved  of  all 
that  was  proposed,  (reiieral  Thomas  hastened  forward 
the  enterprise  so  (piicklv  and  (|nietly  that  alniosl  Ix'fore 
onr  army  realized  what  had  been  done,  snccess  crowned 
his  efforts  and  the  blockade  of  the  river  was  at  an  end. 
That  very  day,  the  24th,  General  Thomas  ordered 
Hooker  to  concentrate  the  Eleventh  Gorps  and  one 
division  of  the  Twelfth  (Gieary's)  at  Bridge])ort,  ready 
to  cross  the  river  and  advance  toward  Lookout  Valley. 
Hooker  was  to  arrive  in  the  valle}'  on  the  28th,  which 
he  did.  The  greatest  secrecy  and  nicety  of  calculation 
for  the  corresponding  movement  from  Ghattanooga 
was  necessary,  and  to  General  W.  F.  Smith,  who  com- 
manded the  expedition,  was  also  due  the  credit  for  all 
the  details  of  arrangement.  The  night  of  the  20th 
was  fixed  for  the  movement,  and  under  cover  of  the 
darkness  sixteen  hnndred  i)icked  men  under  General 
llazen  were  embarked  on  fifty  pontoon  boats  and  two 
tiats,  in  companies  of  twenty-five  each  and  an  ofhcer. 
General  Tnrchin  Avith  his  own  brigade,  the  rest  of 
Hazen's,  and  Major  M<^ndenhall  with  three  batteries, 
went  overland  across  the  peninsula  to  Brown's  Ferry, 
where  the  landing  was  to  be  made,  and  remained  con- 
cealed in  the  woods,  ready  to  cross  when  the  boat  exi)e- 
(lition  should  become  established  on  the  southwest 
side,  or  cover  it  in  case  of  failure.  At  three  a.  m.  on 
the  27th,  the  boats  manned  by  oarsmen,  moved  down 
the  river  close  to  the  right  bank.  The  moon  was 
obscured  by  clouds,  and  there  was  a  mist  hanging  over 
the  river.  It  was  nine  miles  around  to  the  place  of 
landing,  seven  of  which  was  patroled  by  rebel  pickets 
on  the  left  shore,  while  opposite  Moccasin  Point,  Look- 
out frowned  down  upon  them.  But  the  trip  was  made 
in  safety,  an.d  as  the  first  boat  arrived,  the  pickets 
fired  a  A'olle^'  and  fled.  All  tlie  men  then  quickly 
disembarked  and  forming  in  line  rushed  up  the  hill, 
where,  meeting  a  small  force,  they  dispersed  it  and 


ItJ  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

lic«;an  f«»rtifyiii^.  Meantiuic,  Tiirtliiu's  ami  llazeu's 
iiHMi  w«*n*  l»rou<;ht  ovn-  the  rivtT  in  tin*  lioais.  Tlu' 
n*lM'ls  having'  nM«»v»T«M|  from  iIhmt  sur|ii'is«'  hnnijilit 
up  i'ciiif<in<Mii«Miis  of  alioiit  a  tlioiisaii<l  iiifii  aii*I 
attatkiMl,  hill  wiTr  soon  ihivfii  olT,  h»siii;:  soim*  in  kilknl 
and  rapliii-tMl.  Ilaz<'n's  h»ss  was  ihirt.vtM^lht.  Our 
troops  taptiiriMi  hfic  two  tlioiisainl  hiislicls  of  roiii  an«l 
t\\«Miiv  rallh*,  whirh  was  a  \«mv  iiii|>oriaiit  a«hliti«»ii  to 
thi*  foiiiniissarv  at  that  tinu*.  In  a  f«*w  hours  thi*  phice 
was  nunh*  stTiirc  a;;ainst  attack  and  the  ptuitoon  hrid^r 
hiid  ai-ross  th«*  rivrr.  The  si;;nitiraiur  of  th<*  uiovtMueut 
did  not  s«'<'iii  to  dawn  upon  the  minds  of  thi'  rchcl  i-oni- 
niandt'rs,  as  no  mor«*  atliMiipts  w«*i«*  mad«'  diirin;^  th«' 
day  to  dish»dji«*  lla/.^'U,  thou;:h  the  ndnds  kept  up  a 
harmh'ss  homhardiiKMiT  from  Lookout  on  the  pontoon 
ami   I  la/.rn's  position. 

Ilookci-.  moving;  from  |{iidu:''l»«»rt  on  th»*  L*7th, 
n-aclH/d  tin*  virinit.v  of  Lookout  \'alh*v  at  lhr«M'  p.  m. 
with  his  head  of  c*)!^!!!!.  TIk'H  lirajj:*;  and  Lon;i;stri*t*t 
lH*«;aii  to  wake  uj>  to  the  meaning;  «»f  the  Hrown's  Ferry 
atta<k,  hut  too  late,  as  we  already  had  five  thousand 
men  thei-e.  I  looker  advancing  east  from  Wauhatrhie, 
enioiinteied  the  enemy's  skirmishers  ami  driving;  them 
before  him  without  mmli  trouble,  w«mh  into  camp 
al)out  six.  a  mile  from  Brown's  I'erry.  (Jeary's  nivision 
bivouacked  at  \\auliat«hie,  three  miles  distant.  The 
two  forces  thus  covered  the  loads  to  Hrown's  and  Ktd- 
b'v's  Fi'rries,  whih*  llo«»ker  threw  out  a  rei:imeiit  to 
^uard  a  crossing;  of  I^iokout  t'reek.  .\hout  iwehe  at 
ni;:ht  Lon^^street  advaiiceil  with  two  divisions  to  make 
an  atta<k  and  encitiinleied  this  re^iimeiit.  This  «;ave 
Hooker  lime  to  form  the  Kleventh  < 'orps  (Howard's)  in 
line.  <iearv's  IMvision  beini;  isolated  ami  sonie  three 
miles  fnuii  Howard,  was  fearful  of  an  attack  and  had 
remained  under  arms  with  stioujx  pi«kets  thi-own  out. 
Soon  aflt'r  Lon;istr«*ers  forces  tlivided  into  twt»  lutdies. 
ntta('k<Ml  <iearv  tiercel \.  expecting;  to  sur|>rise  him,  but 
in  this  W4're  disa)»poini«M|.  Hooker,  advancini;  a  part 
of  Ijiiward's  Torits  to  aid  <ieary,  struck  the  rebel  «ol- 
unite*  ami   thus  tin*  b.Mtlc  la-jed  alon-j  the  wIimJ..  line. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  163 

lasting  in  front  of  Geary  for  two  hours.  But  the  rebels 
were  routed  at  all  points  and  fell  back  to  the  hills  in 
the  valley  where  they  had  intrenchments.  Howard's 
troops  pursued,  climbing  up  several  hundred  feet, 
which  would  have  been  difficult  to  do  even  in  da^dight, 
and  drove  the  enemy  from  their  works  at  the  point  of 
the  bayonet,  capturing  over  one  hundred.  The  rebels 
then  withdrew  from  the  valley  and  "Fighting  Joe 
Hooker"  was  in  possession.  Meantime  General  Thomas 
had  sent  reinforcements,  but  they  were  not  needed. 
Hooker  lost  in  killed,  wounded  and  missing  437  men, 
the  enemy  1,500,  of  which  Hooker  buried  on  the  field 
153  dead  rebels.  The  river  was  now  open  and  repairs 
on  the  road  to  Kelley's  Ferry  began  at  once.  The 
steamer  Paint  Rock  passed  down  on  the  night  of  the 
29th,  and  though  shelled  by  the  rebel  guns  on  Look- 
out, was  not  harmed.  The  steamboat  at  Bridgeport 
came  up  to  Kelley's  loaded  with  supplies,  which  could 
be  hauled  the  eight  miles  to  Chattanooga  without 
trouble.  Thus  was  solved  the  question  of  food,  and  so 
easily  and  quickly  that  Bragg  and  Longstreet  must 
have  been  struck  with  amazement  as  well  as  shame. 
By  this  brilliant  stroke,  of  which  General  Thomas  saj'S, 
^'Preliminary  steps  had  already  been  taken  to  execute 
this  vitally  important  movement  before  the  command 
of  the  Dei^artment  devolved  upon  me,"  the  force  of  the 
siege  was  broken,  the  hold  of  the  enemy  upon  Lookout 
made  useless  and  precarious,  while  it  also  must  have 
warned  Bragg  that  it  was  only  a  question  of  time 
when  he  must  fight  for  the  rest  of  his  positions  around 
Chattanooga. 

In  the  early  days  of  October,  Jeff.  Davis  Avhile  visit- 
ing Bragg's  army  and  looking  down  upon  the  besieged 
host,  had  predicted  its  speedy  destruction  by  starva- 
tion. The  announcement  of  the -failure  of  his  and 
Bragg's  liopes  and  plans  must  have  seemed  like  the 
handwriting  on  the  wall,  pointing  to  his  own  over- 
throw. 

The  effect  upon  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland  was 
magical.       The  prospect  of  having  full  rations  again 


IM  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

very  shortly,  tojifetlKM-  witli  iIm*  |trus|uTi  ni  tlrivin^ 
Itraijrj;  fmiii  his  riMiiainin^  stroiij:h«»hls,  aiid  n*viMi«;iiiy; 
('hickiiiiuiii;^a,  pivi*  in«\v  vip»r  to  all.  Hut  the  work 
couhl  not  proriMMl  at  oiur  fur  various  n*asoiis.  Th«*re 
wtMr  iio  horsrs  io  iirnvr  t  hr  arillliMy,  <M*iH'ral  Mcijis, 
l2tiari«'riiiasii-r-(  MMUM-al,  «*siiiiia(»Mi  that  ovi*r  1(>,(MMI  ani- 
mals had  |M*rislMMl  iliirin;^^  tin*  sit*^«*;  tin*  few  Ifft  couhl 
hardly  dra;:  tln'Misrlvrs  around.  Morr  troojjs  with  sup- 
jdics  of  all  kinds  s«M'nnM|  r«M|uisit<*  io  render  su«-«fss 
irriain.  llou««\«*r,  with  a  fatality  thai  seeins  wondrr- 
ful  in  virw  of  his  past  and  rrirni  fXin'rit'iircs,  (Jcneral 
Hrajjy:  («»r  Pn-sithMit  l);ivis)  jjraspinj;:  at  straws,  <h»- 
tarhiMl  l,«»n|,'stn'<t  with  his  corjis  a  f«*w  days  aft»'r  his 
th'frat  \n  llotd;rr,  ami  smt  liiiii  to  lM'si<'<;c  Knowilh'. 
lie  did  this  in  rxpertat ion  of  overwln'lniin<j:  Hnrnside, 
thinkin;;  that  he  <-oMld  hold  his  lines  around  ('hatta- 
noo;;a  in  the  meantime,  ami  y;ain  a  victory  that  would 

revive    the    failing:    eaiise    of    the    Confederacy    and     the 

spirits  of  his  army. 

<Jenerals  <Jranl  ami  Thomas,  anxious  to  take  ad- 
vanta;;e  of  nra;;;:'s  error,  prepared  to  attack  on  the 
Till,  hut  havin;:  made  a  t  horou;:h  lei  .tiinoissam*'  of  t  lie 
enemy's  lines  herame  ron\inced  that  it  would  he  ini- 
prartiralde  to  do  s<»  just  then,  mu-  until  SherniMii 
shoidd  arrive  with  the  Fifieeniii  Turps,  wliidi  would 
;;lve  ( J  rant  a  pre  pond  era  nee  of  men  o\er  Uimu^.  though 
the  hitter's  position  tin  Mlssitm  liid;:;«*  would  eipializc 
the  differeme.  I''rom  that  tim«'  forward  the  si^iis  of 
hnsy  pre|>:iration  everywhere  within  the  lines  of  our 
army  hctokciied  that   a  hat  tie  would  soon  oi(  ui. 

The  ( Mie  llun<lrei|  and  I'ourth.  which,  iluriii;^  ilu' 
sie;ie,  had  done  its  share  of  duty  on  the  skirmish  ami 
pi<ket  lines,  was  increased  somewhat  lu-etweeu  the  1st 
anil  1 1th  by  the  arrival  of  memliers  who  had  been  sick 
or  wounded,  and  had  returned  froiu  home  or  hospitals. 
.\mon;:  those  were  Sheiiujin  Lelaud  ;ind  Ser;::eant 
(HMir;,^'  .Marsh,  of  Company  I  >.  The  latter  was  (piitc 
wvercly  woundeil  at  < 'hickamaii'xa,  ami  ohli^'ed  to  uo, 
much  against  his  will,  to  hospital  at  Nashville.  Tuder 
the  ilatc  of  Novi'inhei-     llih,    .Marsh    savs:     "W  ••  arc 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  165 

camped  in  the  western  part  of  town,  and  are  on  a 
quarter  to  three-quarters  rations  of  hard-taclv  and  fresh 
beef  only.  We  have  comfortable  cabins  roofed  with 
pup  tents.  Our  pickets  and  the  rebels  are  close  together 
but  very  friendly,  exchanging  surplus  articles,  of  which, 
however,  there  is  very  little  of  anything.  The  enemy's 
batter}'  on  Lookout  throws  an  occasional  shell  that  does 
no  harm.  This  is  a  shabby  little  town  of  few  houses 
and  completely  covered  by  our  guns  and  works.  There 
is  no  danger  of  an  attack,  or  rather  no  ho])e  of  one." 


<ii.\i'ii:k  Ml. 

The    Battles   of    Lookout    Mountain   and   MlBslon    Ridge. 


Tin-  hisi  rliaptrr  closed  witli  the  Army  of  tln'  Cmii- 
ImtIuihI  still  hesii'gtil  ami  on  short  rations,  hut  these 
'  alaiiiiiies  ranu*  to  be  repmhMl  as  incidents  of  the  serv- 
ir»'  w  hirh  NNoiihl  soon  piiss  jiway  with  a  rorr(.*spon«l- 
iii;:  « «im|M'Ms;Mion  foi-  tlu'  siilTfTiiij^s  tMiilured.  (lent'ial 
IJia;;^,  iiieai»al>k*  of  prosecut in|j:  olTensive  niovenu'Uts 
against  his  enemy,  whik*  ktM'piny:  up  the  semblance  of 
a  sie<:«',  had  l>een  weakenin^^  his  army  and  looking^ 
wildly  in  other  direct it>ns  for  opportunities  to  achieve 
ii  success  that  would  aid  the  Confederate  <ause.  At 
the  very  moment  of  j^reatest  peril  he  detathed  Huck- 
ner's  Corps  to  aid  Lony:street,  apparently  unconscious 
of  the  vasi  forces  bein^^  arrayetl  against  him,  at  least 
nt»l  sioppin;^  to  consider  \n  hat  it  all  meant,  or  else  *i'\y- 
in;;  a  wrong  interpretaticui  to  the  nio\ ciiieiits  ;^oiii<;  on 
almost  within  view  of  his  lines. 

<  Jem'ral  ( iraiit,  keeidy  alive  to  i  he  op]i«iri  imiiy  pr«'- 
>>eiited  for  sirikin;:  an  elTective  blow  and  breaking:; 
ihioii;ih  the  barriers  that  held  the  army  inactive,  ha<l 
hurried  Sherman  forward  with  the  Fifteenth  Army 
Corps  of  four  divisions  from  Mississijtpi,  and  in  the 
middle  of  November  the  leadini:  di\isioii  of  (ieneial 
dohn  K.  Smith  reache<l  Hiid;.;e|(ort,  bin  i  lie  oi  her  divi- 
>ions  were  far  behind  owiii;:  to  ba<l  rnjnls  and  their 
immense  trains.  However,  CoMieral  Ciaiii  ]ilaiined  to 
illack  on  the  iMst. 

Ceneral  Sherman  rude  forward  lii>m  l»rid;iejtort 
•  n  the  I.'ttli  liy  (Iranl's  reipn'st,  when,  with  'I'lnunas,  a 
<  onference  was  held,  and  (Jeiieral  Sherman  made 
ac(|uainted  with  the  pro|»osed  plans  and  the  part  his 
"•WII  troojis  were  expected  to  perform.  Ibietly  Statetl, 
<!eliel;ll    Slie|-||i;ill    \\;is    In    lll(i\e    lii^;    fiilir    tli\isiii||S    frmii 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  167 

Brown's  Ferry  up  the  north  side  of  the  river  to  a  p(»iut 
opposite  the  mouth  of  South  Chickamau^a  Creek,  where 
he  was  to  cross  on  a  pontoon  bridge  to  be  laid  down 
by  General  Smith,  and  assail  Bragofs  right,  which  was 
siipp<;»sed  to  occupy  the  noith  end  of  Mission  Ridge. 
At  the  same  time.  General  Hooker  was  to  operate  on 
the  enemy's  left  from  Lo«»kout  Valley,  It  being  ex- 
jjected  that  Bragg  would  draw  from  his  center  on  the 
ridge  to  strengthen  his  flanks,  General  Thomas  with 
the  forces  under  his  command  was  to  advance  in  con- 
formity with  Sherman's  movements  and  attack  in  front, 
but  it  seems  to  have  been  TJeneral  Grant's  idea  that 
(reneral  Sherman's  troops  would  have  to  do  the  heavy 
fighting,  and  what  the  latter  has  written  in  his 
"Memoirs,"  Vol.  I,  p.  362.  shows  that  he  derived  sucli 
an  impression  from  Grant.  He  reports  him  as  saying, 
•that  the  men  of  Thomas'  army  had  been  so  demoralize<l 
by  the  battle  of  Chickamauga  that  he  feared  they 
could  not  be  got  out  of  their  trenches  to  a.ssume  the 
offensive."  Again.  "The  Army  of  the  Cumberland  had 
been  so  long  in  the  trenches  that  he  wante<l  my  troops 
to  hurry  up  and  take  the  offensive  first!  after  which 
he  had  no  doubt  the  Cumberland  Army  would  fight 
well."' 

General  Sherman  was  fi*ank,  f<Mdish  and  vain 
enough  t«»  embo«ly  the  foregoing  in  the  form  of  history, 
and  which  in  the  light  of  what  he  actually  did  and  did 
not  do,  had  better  have  been  omitted  in  deference  to 
his  own  fame,  the  truth  of  history,  and  justice  to  the 
herc>es  of  Chickamauga,  dead  and  living.  But  as  events 
developed  on  the  eve  of  action.  General  Grant  modified 
his  pre-arranged  plan  at  least  twice  on  the  suggestion 
of  <.Teneral  Thomas,  but  the  latters  p»rop<:»sal  to  move 
General  Sherman's  divisions  through  Chattanfxjga  and 
up  the  south  bank  of  the  Tennessee  to  the  north  end 
of  Mission  Ridge,  a  plan  that  was  practicable,  ea.sy, 
and  could  be  executed  in  the  night  time,  was  not 
adop»ted.  The  wisdom  of  General  Thomas'  advice  ^vas 
shown  when  Sherman,  after  spen«iing  much  time  and 
labor,  crossed  over  frc»m  the  north  bank,  and  having 


I««  THE  ONE  HrNOREH  AND  FOl'RTH 

lnMoiiM-  «'st;il»lislu*t|,  iuit  willi  in*  rin'iii\  in  siliIiI  loi- 
two  and  «  luilf  niih's,  was  nn-t  by  (mmhtjiI  llowai.l  w  iih 
tliriM*  n-;:iin«'nts  wliirli  ho  lunl  nianlnMl  up  ili«-  s<nnli 
Itank  rally  *in  lli«-  LMlli:  lln'sr  In-  Irfl  Ml  (Jnirnil  SImt- 
nian's  rr<|u«*si  and  iImmi  uiili  his  rscuri  ii'j<tiiHMl  iht» 
main  i-nninianil. 

On  lh«'  isth  <irncral  <Iiaui  aiiii<Min«  .il  in  liis  (nm. 
inainhM-s  thai  ihr  allark  wiMihl  h«'  iiiaWt-  on  ih«*  L'lsl, 
iunl  |n«*|»aial<>i\  lo  ihis,  <i<*in'ral  Thuinas  •linM(«Ml 
llowanl's  Corjis  to  takr  iiosiliMn  hrtwtM-n  hruwn's 
l''«*rrv  and  ( 'hattanoM-ia.  !•»  hr  prphni'd  in  Li»okoiit 
\'alh*y  by  lh«'  bii;,Md«*s  of  Whiilakn-  and  <',|ns«*.  lb* 
also  sfiit  (b'ln-ial  Davis'  ni\ision  and  <'tdonci  Lun^i's 
Tavab-y  !<•  ihf  nui-ih  bank  of  ih«'  livt-r  to  ro-o|M'ial«' 
in  Shfiinan's  inoMMiKiii. 

On  the  LMMh  tirnnal  Iba^^  had  noiiii«'d  (M-in-ral 
<  liani  by  a  thi;;  of  t  rare  l  hat  it  wouhl  br  well  lo  icniovr 
all  ii«»n-«oiid»aiants  fioni  the  town.  Ib-avy  rains  srt- 
tinj;  in  and  (ontinniii;:,  prcvcntrd  Shcnnan's  divisions 
from  ;:«'tlin;i  np,  so  that  no  attack  was  niadi-  on  lin* 
L'lst  or  L'lM.  Oriirral  'riioiiias  then  suuLirsicd  that 
Howard's  ( "orps  should  be  used  by  riciifial  Slu-rnian, 
and  Ostrrhans'  I)i\ision.  if  behind,  be  tnriicd  t»\cr  to 
llook<*r  for  an  attat  k  on  Lookout  .Mountain.  (Inn'ral 
Orant  adoph-d  ihc  sn;;:^«'st ions.  .\rtoidin;:iy.  Ilow- 
ard's  ('orjis  nio\«'d  thron;:h  <  "hat  taiiooi^a  on  tin*  L'.'M, 
and  look  |>osiiion  iumi*  I'ort  Wood  in  plain  siiiht  of 
Mission  Kid;:t'  with  I  In-  ohjcct  of  d<T»-i\  iii;i  r»iai:i:  as 
to  SlnMinan's  niovrnifiiis.  and  also  to  ha\«'  tin*  <  "orps 
within  sujtportin;;  distancr  of  Shrinian.  <i«'n«*rals 
Oram  and  Thomas  wn*'  fearful  that  Hrauu  wouhl 
throw  lip  tin-  sir;:f  and  rscaiM*  without  a  batth*  ami 
bi'raim*  anxious  to  attat  k,  whirh  it  was  xny  desirabh* 
lo  do  whih*  LoiiustiMM't  and  Ibn  kiicr  were  away.  (Jni- 
«'ral  Oiiaiit  was  also  romrrm-d  about  Ibirnsidr,  who 
was  riosi'ly  lM*sir;i<'d  at  Kiiox\ilh>.  lb-  rrsolvrd  not 
to  driax  lon;:cr.  As  an  initial  mo\cm<ni,  a  rcconiiois- 
Haiirr  in  fon-c  wjis  ordcii'd  about  noon  to  b«*  mad**  from 
tin*  ri'iitrr  bv  Wood's  and  Shnidiin's  hixisions  a;:ainst 
till*  rrbi'l  adxam-rd  liiK's  w  hich  o<(  npird  int  r«>m  himnis 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  169 

ou  a  liij^h  ridge  2,100  yards  east  of  Fort  Wood.  The 
center  of  this  line  was  ()reliar<l  Knob,  a  rocky  hill  one 
hnndred  feet  high,  where  the  rebels  had  an  cpanlenient 
for  a  battery.  From  the  Knob  their  ritle  pits  extended 
northeast  toward  Mission  Kidge  for  a  mile  and  a  half, 
where  was  another  line  two  miles  long.  From  the 
Kn(>b  south  there  was  a  low  ridge  extending  half  a 
mile  which  was  fortilied  with  rude  works.  All  of 
these  were  occupied  by  tlie  rebel  outposts.  One  mile 
beyond  lay  Mission  Kidge,  the  rebel  stronghold,  on 
the  brow  of  which  Kragg's  main  army,  supported  by 
nearly  one  hundred  pieces  of  artillery,  were  ready  to 
deal  death  and  destruction.  To  General  Thomas  J. 
Wood  and  his  division  was  given  the  honor  of  making 
the  first  attack  that  was  to  usher  in  two  great  battles 
By  1:30  p.  ni.  of  the  23d  the  three  brigades  of 
Willich,  Hazen  and  General  Sam.  Beatty  were  in  line; 
on  their  right  rear,  Sheridan's  Divishm;  in  support  of 
these  en  masse  Howard's  Corps.  To  the  right  of  Sher- 
idan, l^aird,  while  -Johnson's  Division,  under  arms, 
awaited  events.  As  these  thousands  thus  formed  in 
serried  ranks  on  the  slopes  and  plain  in  front  of  Fort 
Wood  under  the  eyes  of  their  great  Commanders,  Grant 
and  Thomas,  the  sun  of  a  perfect  day  shining  down 
upon  the  starry  flags  and  gleaming  bayonets  of  the 
embattled  array,  produced  a  spectacle  of  military 
grandeur  which  it  seldom  falls  to  the  lot  of  man  to 
behold.  From  the  cloud-capped  summit  of  Lookout, 
on  the  heights  of  Mission  Kidge,  and  within  the  Union 
lines,  more  than  one  hundred  thousand  men  were 
watching  the  grand  pageant.  The  rebel  hosts  looking 
on  in  wonder  and  amazement  mistook  it  for  a  review. 
At  the  sound  of  the  bugle  Wood's  veterans  advanced 
in  perfect  alignment  across  the  plain,  which  for  a  quar- 
ter of  a  mile  was  clear,  but  beyond  thinly  wooded.  Not 
a  man  straggled  in  all  that  long  line  as  it  moved  swiftly 
forward  and  brushed  away  the  rebel  pickets  in  the  edge 
of  the  woods.  Willich's  Brigade  marched  straight  for 
Orchard  Knob,  Ifazen  charged  the  intrenchments  to 
the  right,  which  were  on  a  rock^'  ridge,  and  met  with 


170  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

niiirli  •»p|Misilioii.  but  larritMl  tlit-  wlmli-  line  with  a 
ruKh  at  tiir  jMiiiii  of  the  UayoiuM,  tajit iiiiii^  iln-  '1'\v«mi- 
ty-«*ij:hlh  Alatiaiiia  fiiiin*  with  its  lohn-s.  llazrii  h>st 
ill  kilh'tl  l!2,  woiiihUmI  1(K».  whirh  sh«»ws  th«*  rhannttT 
of  i\n'  ti;:htiii;:.  NN'illirh  losi  I  kilh-<l  and  JO  w<»mi(l»Ml. 
The  casualties  woiiM  have  Immmi  j^rrah-r  hat!  ihi-  attack 
been  Utw  rterei*  aii<l  impetuous.  'Vhr  rebels  who 
esoayuMl  th^l  to  tht-  ti<iirhes  at  the  base  of  Mission 
Ki«lp'.  Itraltv's  Itri^ade  on  thr  h'ft  had  litth'  l«>  do. 
tJeiieral  Thomas  thi-n  din-rtrd  Wo. id  to  f.uiify,  \vhi<h 
he  did  un«hT  a  heavy  artilh  ry  lin-  from  the  rebel  bat- 
teries (Ml  the  rid;:e,  but  <>idy  one  man  was  sli;;htly 
woundfd,  stian<«'«*  as  it  may  sfcni.  Shtiiilan's  division, 
jidvanrin;:  to  tin-  ri;:ht  on  tin*  iirolon;:at  icui  of  the 
(►rehaiil  Knob  ran<;e  to  what  is  miw  the  National  ('em- 
eiery,  met  with  little  resislanee.  and  als<»  foitifi«M|. 
Howard's  ('oi|is  movin;;  to  the  h*ft  and  nortlhast  of 
nrchanl  Knob  drovr  back  the  rebel  pickets  and  skir- 
mishers in  the  Hat  wootled  plaiti  ah»n^  the  headwaters 
of  t'itico  TnH'k,  there  a  mere  brooklet,  ami  established 
his  lines.  There  were  im  lar^e  forces  of  the  em'iny  to 
itppose,  and  thus  the  moM'nients  of  the  day  ended  in 
succ«*ss  and  the  attainment  of  most  advanta^<'ons  posi- 
tions f«ir  further  operations,  one  mile  in  advance  of 
l-'ort  Wood  Mild  about  the  same  distance  fiom  the  base 
of  .Missiiui  Ivid^e,  whose  heiuditfi  from  four  hundred 
to  fi\e  hiiiidreil  fei'i  hJi^h  must  be  stormed,  (ieueral 
<iran;:er.  commanding  the  I'ourth  ( 'orps,  received  an 
•  •rder  after  dark  to  have  ev^Tythin^  rejM'.v  for  furtlu-r 
offensive  operations  <ui  the  lilt  h.  .\s  afterward  known, 
lira;:;:  then  re«alled  a  part  of  r,u<  kner's  (Vups.  The 
One  Hundred  and  I'oiirth  which,  duriiiLi  the  da\  and 
ni;;lil  had,  with  the  nri;:ade,  remained  umler  arms,  was 
to  take  a  ci»ns]iicuiuis  part  in  tlu'  two  approachini:  bat- 
tles. 

The  niornin;:  of  the  L'lih  o|)ened  with  a  slight  rain, 
which  linally  ceased.  <ieneial  <Irant*s  army  of  T<'(JMM> 
men  was  astir  early  and  jueparin;;  for  battle.  The 
lo|t  nf  Lookout  was  Veiled  in  clouds  when  (Jeueral 
Hook<M',    under    orders    from    <Jeneral    Tluunas,    mar- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  171 

shaled  his  command  of  9,681  men  for  the  assault.  He 
had  portions  of  the  Arm}-  of  the  Potomac,  of  tlie  Ten- 
nessee and  of  the  Ciimberhind,  all  strangers  to  each 
other,  but  nevertheless  animated  by  one  common 
impulse,  and  if  any  further  incentive  was  needed  to 
deeds  of  bravery,  it  was  furnished  by  the  very  grandeur 
of  the  battlefield. 

Geary's  Division,  supported  by  Whittaker's  Brigade, 
proceeding  up  Lookout  Creek,  crossed  near  Wauhat- 
chie  at  eight,  capturing  the  pickets,  forty-two  in  num. 
ber.  They  then  moved  on  down  the  right  bank  driving 
all  before  them  and  began  ascending  the  mountain. 
By  eleven  AA'ood's  and  Grose'sBrigades  having  crossed 
Lookout  Creek,  aligning  themselves  with  Geary's  left, 
moved  forward  amid  the  firing  of  artillery  from  several 
batteries  M'hich  Hooker  had  placed  on  some  hills;  these 
raked  the  enemy  severely  in  their  trenches  and  breast- 
works, and  trying  to  escape  they  ran  into  the  infantry 
and  were  killed  or  captured.  There  were  portions  of  sev- 
eral rebel  brigades  represented  there.  The  rest  of  Oster- 
haus'  command  now  came  up  on  the  left,  and  the  whole 
line,  extnding  from  the  palisades  to  the  valley  swept 
forward  regardless  of  all  obstacles  natural  and  artifi- 
cial, and  the  former  were  of  the  most  stupendous  charac- 
ter, until  about  twelve,  the  right  had  gained  the  crest  of 
the  slope  on  the  north  end  of  Lookout  and  immedi- 
ately beneath  the  muzzles  of  the  rebel  battery  on  the 
point,  or  coronal  of  the  mountain.  Clouds  hung  over 
all,  and  amidst  these  the  fighting  was  done.  The  atten- 
tion of  both  armies  all  along  the  eight  or  ten  miles  of 
battle  front  had  been  earnestly  fixed  on  Lookout  since 
early  morning,  and  the  result  was  awaited  w^ith  anxiety. 
The  sound  of  musketry  mingled  with  the  hoarse,  sol- 
emn boom  of  Hooker's  guns  and  the  artillery  on  Moc- 
casin Point,  approaching  nearer  through  the  murky 
clouds,  announced  success.  Soon  the  lines  of  blue  and 
the  starry  banners  appeared  on  the  lofty  heights,  mov- 
ing slowly  to  victory  around  the  point.  Before  them  in 
retreat  was  the  line  of  gray.     Orders  to  halt  and  re-form 


17:'  THE  ONE  Hl'NDHED  AND  FOURTH 

Wfi-e  «lisivjrai-«ltMl.  TIk*  ivbfls  wwv  «»ii  ili»*  rim  -i»aiiic 
sirirkfu.  Our  H-Mups  IImsIhmI  with  siuci'ss  ami  spuiTcd 
on  no  lfs.s  l»v  ilu*  iiisipratiuii  bn-alluMl  iii  in  ilu'fir  souls 
fixun  the  );ran(li*8t  arena  of  conllit-t  known  to  American 
hisjoiv,  than  l»v  tin*  tIhmm-s  and  shouts  of  wait  in;;;  thou- 
samls  on  Ihf  |>lain  lM>h)\\,  rushed  forwanl  to  hurl  the 
«Mn*iu\  from  their  main  snon;:hohl,  rraviMi's  farm. 
Th«'ir  elahoi-ate  works  were  for  them  a  slau^hti*r  \n'\i, 
llookrr's  men  |>our«Ml  into  these  a  «lestru«tive  lire  from 
al>o\»'.  Tlu'V  had  Ihmmi  rt'inforerd  and  atn'mjiird 
rounh'r  nio\«'un'nis  liut  ihrsfoidy  resulted  in  j;r«'airr 
d«'f«*at  anil  ihrv  were  driven  from  the  plateau  around 
Craven's  in  wihl  <lisorder  «»ver  the  rocks  and  precipites. 
About  »  p.  m.  tin-  fij^htin;:  was  over  and  further  opera- 
lions  susptiidt'd  ouin;:  l"  'he  rh»uds  and  dai'kucss  on 
the  mountain.  TIm'  I  w  o  ic^iiiut'iHs  of  ( )sH'rhaus'  on  l  he 
left  ad\  anting'  ahui^^  tlu-  I'oad  reachrd  the  valh'v  and 
opriifd  i-ouiiiiunirai  loll  with  oui*  lines  across  ('hatla- 
noo^^a  < 'reek.  Hooker  was  iheu  tirmlv  estaldished  from 
the  latter  poinl  to  the  {talisades.  lie  had  fou<:hl  num- 
bers e«|ual  lo  his  own  over  ground  that  seemed  almost 
impassable.  His  |irisoners  amounted  to  l',(M)II  or  more. 
.Many  arms  were  captured. 

The  ( >ne  llumlerd  and  I'nnrtii  with  liie  rest  of 
<'ai"lin's  bri;;ade  was  t>r<lere<l  ai  L'  p.  ni.  to  leiiiliuie 
Hoi»ker.  ( 'rossin^  That  tanoui^a  <  leek  at  tliebuiiii  tail 
io;id  brid;:e  they  bej^aii  rlinihiu^  ihe  mountain  on  t  he 
old  .laeksou  t  rail.  <  ieiieial  Hooker  awaited  t  heir  arrival 
and  the  (  Mie  Hundred  and  I'ourth  was  oi-dered  to  take 
position  mi-ouikI  the  <'ra\en  house  and  Imiii.  The 
Ke;:iment  was  disposed  for  al  tack  oi-  defense  by  <  'ulunel 
Hapenian.  I'p  to  li  p.  m.  of  the  ll."it  h,  considerable 
tiling  was  done,  the  lasualties  of  the  entire  ltri;;ade 
bein;;  ll!  killed  and  L' 1  wounded,  but  our  lines  rould  not 
be  dislodged  and  after  that  inai  teis  w  eie  (|iiiei  but  the 
utmost  vi;;ilance  was  preserved  until  dayli;^lit.  The 
camp  lires  on  the  mountain  slopes  wfre  a  Joyful  si;:ht 
t«»  the  army  in  the  \  alley,  but  how  depi-essiiiL:  uiusi  hav«' 
been     their    efTett     on     that     cold     ni'J^ht     to     the    lleeiuir 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  173 

soldiers  of  Bragg  who  spent  the  entire  time  in  retreat- 
ing from  Lookout  and  marching  to  Bragg's  riglit  and 
center  on  Mission  liidgc. 

The  '^Battle  above  the  ch)nds"  liad  been  tlie  great 
event  of  the  da^'  and  little  had  been  done  elsewhere 
except  on  the  left.  General  Sherman  had  spent  part  of 
the  night  of  the  23d,  in  crossing  one  brigade  on  tlie 
pontoons  over  the  Tennessee  and  by  daylight  had  one 
division  across  and  a  ritle  trench  thrown  np.  Tln^  bridge 
was  then  laid  nnder  tlie  direction  of  General  Smith 
and  completed  by  11  o'clock.  Two  other  divisions  then 
marched  over  and  were  followed  by  a  fonrth,  (General 
Davis,)  of  the  Fonrteenth  Gor])s.  General  Howai-d  with 
Bnschbeck's  brigade  of  Steinwehr's  division  had  pre- 
viously arrived  by  marching  np  the  right  bank. 

At  1  p.  m.  General  Sherman's  army  began  the 
advance  toward  Mission  Kidge,  General  Morgan  L. 
Smith's  division  on  the  left,  General  John  E.  Smith's 
in  the  center,  General  Ewing's  with  Bnschbeck's  bri- 
gade attached,  on  the  right,  all  moving  en  echelon. 
They  advanced  abont  two  and  a  half  miles  to  tlie  base 
and  ascending  cantionsly  seized  the  top  of  a  hill  near 
the  tnnnel,  when  for  the  first  time  there  was  a  show  of 
opposition.  Skirmishing  and  one  or  two  small  attacks 
followed  abont  4,  but  the  position  was  held  and  forti- 
fi<Ml.  It  Avas  now  developiMl  that  Mission  Ridge  was  not 
one  continnons,  nnbroken  line,  bnt  furrowed  by  depres- 
sions into  distinct  snmmits.  Throngh  one  of  these 
depressions  ran  the  railroad  tnnnel;  on  a  high  hill  above 
it  on  the  north  the  rebel  forces  were  placed  behind 
earthworks.  These  mnst  be  swept  away  before  Sher- 
man conld  reach  the  tnnnel  or  advance  fnrther  sonth- 
ward  as  his  orders  had  contemplated.  General  Grant 
had  the  impression  that  the  Bidge  had  been  carried  to 
the  tnnnel.  Dnring  the  night  (xeneral  Sherman  was 
instrncted  "to  attack  at  dawn." 

On  the  morning  of  the  25th,  a  heavy  fog  hanging  over 
the  valley  prevented  early  movements,  bnt  every  prepa- 
ration was  made  for  the  final  straggle.  Very  early  some 
soldiers  of  the  Eighth  Kentucky  climbed  to  the  topmost 


IT4  THE  ONE  Hl'NDRED  AND  FOURTH 

piiiiiailf  of  l^>ukuut  aiitl  disfovtMvW  thai  tin-  »ii(*mv 
had  y:nin'.  Th«*  siiii  rising  u\iM'  .Mission  kissftl  with  its 
lirst  nivs  thr  Naiioiial  Fhij;,  wiiicli  uiifoldino  lo  ilie 
br»H'Zi'  l.*,100  f«fi  above  the  valley  i*ev«*ah*il  to  frieud 
and  fo««  alikr,  Hooker's  victoi'.v.  I'lidei-  orders  from 
Thoiiias,  Hooker  |»re]iai'ed  to  int»ve  ai  r«»ss  ( 'haiiaiiooj;a 
N'alh'V  to  Kossvilh',  from  wheiire  to  strikr  nra;^^«:'s  U*ft 
oil  tin*  rid^«'.  <>\vin;4  t"  heavy  fon^s  in  the  valley  anil 
delay  at  < 'hallanooH^a  Creek  to  l>niltl  a  l»rid;;e,  lli»oker 
did  not  start  until  Id.  The  nn«-  llnndred  and  Fonrth 
movril  down  the  nionntain  with  the  rest  of  ihr  hri^Mde 
alMMit  !>  a.  m.,  and  re-«rossin^  the  creek  marrhcd  a<-r«)ss 
the  valley  and  r«*joined  theSeroml  Hri^a<le «>f  .lt)iinson\s 
IMvision,  forming;  on  its  ri«,dit  for  the  jrrand  assatilt  to 
!•••  made  on  Mission  Kid;;e. 

Tin*  entire  irhel  army  was  now  coiniMHiahMl  on 
Hra;:;:'s  last  line  of  defense,  exlendin«::  from  Kossvilh* 
to  Tnnnel  Hill  in  fnmt  of  Sherman,  a  distance  of  six 
miles,  hnt  in  heaviest  force  in  the  c«'nler,  which  was 
•  onfionn-d  l»y  the  Army  of  the  rnmherland.  (leiit-ral 
Hardee  uas  in  immediate  commami  <»n  the  rebel  ri;^ht, 
(leneral  Ureckinridjre  on  ihe  left.  The  divisions  of 
Stevenson  and  Cheatham,  or  what  remained  of  ihem 
after  leaving;  Lookout,  \\«'re  mo\  ini;  to  the  liiihi. 

The  ;:rand  strn^'j^le  was  opened  at  early  dawn  by 
Sherman  and  lasted  tin*  entire  day  without  his  bein;,^ 
able  to  drive  the  rebels  from  their  very  stronjr  positi«Mis 
lhou;:li  his  troops  i  hat  wer<«  en^a;:ed  «lid  sideiidid  li^ilil- 
in;:.  I'  be«ame  evident  to  (Jeiierai  (iiant  about  Id  a. 
m..  that  Sherman  was  makin;:  no  pi-o^^ress  and  would 
be  unable,  thou;:h  bavin;;  then  live  divisions  on  the  line 
or  within  reach,  to  drive  the  rebel  ri;:ht  as  he  had  «itn- 
lemphited.  he  therefore  sent  Howard's  Corps  to  Sher- 
man who  jdaced  it  on  his  left,  ami  renewed  the  attack, 
l»nt  met  with  a  rejuilse  to  the  bri;:a«les  t»f  (ieneral 
John  I'.  Smith,  which,  howe\ei-,  was  met  by  a  counter 
«har;:e  and  the  enemy  driven  to  co\er  by  the  bri;:ades 
of  Coi'se  and  I.onuiis.  Ceneral  (Irant  learnin;;  of  t  his, 
then  sent  Haird's  di\ision  of  the  I'ourteenth  ( 'orps  to 
lilH  aKKistaiice,  thus  ;:iviii;;  to  Sherman   ^cm-u   of   ihc 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  175 

thirteen  divisions  of  his  army,  and  niakin<>-  it  ]»hiin  that 
at  that  hour,  noon,  he  still  adhered  to  his  <)ri<;inal  plan 
of  havinj''  Siiernian  do  the  main  lighting  while  the  rest 
of  the  army  acted  in  sui)port  or  as  the  emergencies  of 
the  battle  should  dictate.  General  Baird  on  arriving  in 
Sherman's  rear  was  informed  that  he  could  not  be  used 
and  was  not  needed,  so  he  countermarched  to  the  left 
of  Wood  and  formed  in  line  there  by  half  past  two. 

The  impression  seems  to  have  prevailed  in  the  army 
and  with  Grant  and  Sherman,  that  the  latter  was  light- 
ing immense  numbers  and  heavy  reinforcements  sent 
from  Bragg's  center  on  the  ridge.  Sherman  in  his  report 
and  ^'Memoirs,"  Vol.  I.,  p.  377,  says  in  speakiui-'  cd'  mat- 
ters as  they  stood  at  3  p.  m. :  "Column  after  column 
was  streaming  toward  me;  gun  after  gun  poured  its 
concentric  shot  on  us  from  every  hill  and  spur  that 
gave  a  view  of  any  part  of  the  ground  held  by  us." 
Grant  in  his  "Memoirs"  says:  "From  the  position  I  oc- 
cupied, I  could  see  column  after  column  of  Bragg's 
forces  moving  against  Sherman."  Also,  in  his  report: 
"Discovering  that  the  enemy  in  his  desperation  to  de- 
feat or  resist  the  progress  of  Sherman,  was  weakening 
his  center  on  Mission  Ridge,  determined  me  to  order 
the  advance  (of  Thomas)  at  once." 

A  study  of  all  the  reports  of  the  Confederate  Gen- 
erals, (vide  Rebellion  Records)  shows  that  there  was 
no  weakening  of  Bragg's  center  at  all  in  front  of 
Thomas.  The  soldiers  seen  "streaming  along  the  ridge" 
did  not  belong  to  the  center.  Neither  was  any  artillery 
taken  from  the  center.  These  reports  state  exactly 
what  forces  were  on  the  right  and  those  sent  to  rein- 
force them.  About  2  j).  m.  of  the  24th,  General  Bragg 
having  learned  that  Sherman  was  then  approaching 
the  ridge,  at  once  sent  General  Cleburne  with  the  three 
brigades  of  Smith,  Lowre}',  and  Govan,  from  his  posi- 
tion one  and  a  quarter  miles  south  of  the  tunnel,  to 
oppose  him.  He  also  had  three  batteries.  These  troops 
seized  and  occupied  the  ridge,  or  hills,  which  Sherman's 
men  fought  so  hard  to  take  that  afternoon  and  nearly 
all  of  the  following  day,  but  without  success.     During 


1T«  THK  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

thf  iii«;:li!  (McbiiriK'  fortiiifil.  Ai  sumis.-  of  tlio  2.">ih, 
In*  was  rriiifuirtMl  \t\  Un»\\  n's  Hri^adc  nl  SirMMiPMn's 
division,  ami  ai  1»  l»v  ('miiiiiiii^is'  Hiif^adf.  riici*-  \\fi«' 
iiM  aiMiiiuiial  fMii^-s  snii  lo  <  IctMiriii*  until  alMtui  L'  p.  m.. 
wIh'Ii  .Maiirv's  Hri;:a«l«*  of  Walkrr's  Division,  which  lav 
tliriM'  <|nartfi*s  «»f  a  niih*  soulh  of  tin-  tnnnrl.  n\n\  oii.« 
small  i«'i;im«"in  of  St<'\«'nson's  l>ivisi«in,  wnr  s«'nl  to 
iIh-  ri;;ln.  'I'ln*  a;:;;r(*;ialr  of  all  these  foiees  opposeil 
to  Sherman's  six  divisions  We  (jo  not  know,  luii  it  coiihl 
not  havt'hjM'ii  laf«re.  ami  it  thus  appeals  t  hat  theie  was 
an  optical  illusion  ami  lai'^^e  imagination  in  the  mimis 
of  (ii'ani  aiKJ  Sheiiiian  alioiit  the  immense  nnmlieis 
"St leamiii^  aloii^  .Mission  IJitl;:e  toward  Shetiiian." 
These  ai-e  histoiical  facts  ami  fof  i  his  reason  t  he  w  litei- 
has  de\otei|  etHisideialde  lime  to  the  subject  fof  the 
|»ui*pose  of  jdacinj;  them  on  lecofd  as  a  tfue  ex|>osititni 
of  matteis  ahoiit  which  all  the  cuii-ent  histoi-ies  have 
been  misleadin;:.  l>min;,^all  t he  li;;hiin«r  by  Shefinan's 
troops,  which  was  se\ere,  relle<tiii^  the  hij^hest  credit 
on  his  soldiers,  (leiieial  ha  vis'  IM\ision  of  7, (MM!  men 
and  all  of  lloward'.'*  l»i\ision,  excejit  one  luii^atle,  w«*re 
n</t  in  action  and  the  reasons  therefor  have  never  l)een 
jxiveii.  ricneial  SlnMinairs  loss  was  !.*."»(>  killed.  l.'UO 
wounded,  and  ."M  7  missing,  (leiieral  ( 'lehtirne'^  loss, 
except  in  Maney's  Hriua'le,  was  .">!»  killed,  .'l-'U  wounded, 
and  .■>(>  missini;.  I  le  also  claims  to  have  capl  ui  ed  eiirhi 
stamis  of  colofs  ami  'M\{\  jirison«'rs. 

I?etw»'eii  IL*  and  1  p.  m.,  <ieneral  Sherman  liasiii;:: 
failed  to  do  the  w»u'k  intended  for  him,  sent  to  ask 
tirant,  "Where  is  Thomas?"  It  is  needless  to  say  that 
the  "|{ock  of  Chickamau^'a"  was  cpiietly  waitinj;  for 
<  leiieral  <  Irani  io  order  his  adxanci-.  Hot  h  were  look- 
ing' for  Hooker's  fold's  to  sweep  Up  <Ul  the  rebel  left 
from  I{oss\  ille,  before  Tluuuas  should  be^in  the  assault 
on  the  cent<M-,  but  the  time  was  drawing'  very  near. 
Hooker  had  been  delaved  three  hours  to  build  a  brid;:e 
and  did  not  reach  Ivossville  until  about  L'  in  the  after- 
noon, when  he  immediately  attacked  the  rebel  forces 
on  the  rid;:e  under  Stewart,  drivini;  them  bebtie  him 
in    rout,   (Kterhaus'    division     alone    capiurini:     J.OIK) 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  177 

prisoners.  Hooker  jilso  (•a])tnred  many  arms,  artillery, 
and  supplies  of  all  kinds  at  ilossville.  lie  then  moved 
on  north  toward  Thomas,  killing,  wonnding,  or  driving 
the  enemy  at  all  points  where  they  o])posed,  nutil  he 
reached  CarlinV  and  Ila])emairs  ])osition. 

The  afternoon  of  the  short  November  day  was  wear- 
ing away.  It  having  become  evident  to  (ieneral  Urant 
that  Sherman  could  not  advance  further,  and  Hooker 
not  having  appeared,  he  decided  that  the  time  had 
come  to  attack  in  the  center,  and  ordered  Tluniias 
to  begin  the  assault  at  the  sound  of  six  suc- 
<,-essive  cannon  shots  from  Orchard  Knob.  The  divisions 
of  Baird,  Wood,  Sheridan  and  Johnson,  the  latter  con- 
sisting of  the  First  and  Second  lirigades  only,  were 
formed  in  the  order  named  from  left  to  right,  having 
a  battle  front  of  two  and  a  half  miles.  By  brigades 
they  were  arranged  as  follows  from  right  to  left:  Car- 
lin's  and  Stoughton's  of  Johnson's  division;  Sherman's, 
Harker's,  and  Wagner's,  of  Sheridan's;  Hazen's,  Wil- 
lich's,  and  General  Sam,  Beatty's  of  Wood's;  Turchin's, 
Vanderveer's,  and  Phelps'  of  Baird's.  This  line  con- 
formed to  the  alignment  of  W^ood's  and  Sheridan's 
divisions,  which  on  the  23d  had  occui)ied  the  first  line 
of  rebel  works  in  the  plain  between  Fort  ^Vood  and  the 
ridge.  Strong  lines  of  skirmishers  were  thrown  out 
and  there  were  reserves  in  the  rear.  The  signal  was  to 
be  given  at  3  p.  m.,  but  delays  occurring,  it  was  half 
past  when  the  sullen  boom  of  cannon  repeated  six  times, 
stretched  the  nerves  of  that  mighty  force  of  20,000 
men  to  their  utmost  tension.  Springing  forward,  the 
long  lines  of  burnished  arms,  and  the  150  standards 
waving  over  the  lines  of  blue,  were  borne  forward.  One 
mile  in  advance  were  the  heights  fiA^e  hundred  feet 
high,  defended  by  a  desperate  foe  equal  to  or  superior 
in  numbers,  and  armed  with  every  modern  implement 
of  destruction.  As  the  line  advanced  sixteen  batteries 
poured  down  on  them  their  murderous  contents.  Not 
a  man  wavered,  only  the  killed  and  wounded  were  left 
behind.  General  Grant's  order  to  Thomas'had  directed 
him  to  take  the  rifle  pits  at  the  base  of  the  ridge,  and. 


178  THE  ONK  HUNDKED  AND  FOURTH 

(|Ui>iiii>:  from  his  ifpori.  "Wlifii  rarritMl  tti  iv-fomi  UIh 
liiH'S  «iu  iIr*  rillr  )ti(s  with  :i  y'ww  !o  (jinviuii  ihc  i»»]> 
of  ihf  rill;:**." 

Thf  t  Mif  IhiihlnMl  ami  I'oiiiMh.  (of  ( 'arlin's  Itii^ailfi 
which  fMi-iiuMl  thf  rxiifiiif  rij^hl  of  iln*  assaulting 
mliimns,  and  rommaiKhHl  by  (Vtloiu'l  Ilapcmaii,  iikivimI 
forwanl  with  tin*  n-st  of  tin*  lim*  at  tin*  si^^aal  liom 
Oirhaitl  Km»i».  (Mi  i«'a«hiiiy;  an  (>|mmi  clcaird  tit*hl 
iH'Vonil  tin*  timlx'i',  all  picssnl  forward  ami  »ai>lnird 
thf  lirst  linr  of  works,  tin*  ri*b«ds  in  tln-m  swarming 
out  and  np  tin*  hill  lik«'  ho  many  lu'fs.  For  the  last 
half  milr  tin*  lv«'j.dnn'nt  was  snhjrrti'd  to  a  f«'rriti«-  lir«* 
of  ariillriy  and  mnsk«'try,  dnrin;:  whirh  LitMiirnani 
Koss,  and  S«*r;;fant  I*.  Talln»t,  both  of  ('«»mpany  It,  wt*r»* 
badly  uoundrd  by  a  pi«M«'  of  slndl;  also  liN»'  otln-rs  of 
onr  bra\»'  boys  wnr  shot  down  by  one  volh*y,  Itni 
I  hf  lit'uinitnt  had  cxrcntrd  tin*  order  of  <  MMn*ral  <  Iiani 
ami  stopped  to  rest  as  well  as  it  cttnltl,  nmler  a  murdcr- 
oiis  tire  frt»ni  above.  Noi  |itM;:di<i  i  lit- im-n  r«*niain  in  the 
«aptnred  tren«hes,  bnl  (•har;^ed  on  up  the  ri«l;;e  from 
one  lim*  to  another  until  tliey«stood  viitoriotis  on  th«' 
summit.  (Jem-ral  t'arlin  says  in  his  r»*i»ort  (Keb.  Ker., 
\ol.;;i,  I't.  '2,  \t.  U\4):  "In  front  of  the  left  of  my  bri-^ade 
was  a  rille  pit  about  half  \\;iy  u|»  the  ri«l«:e  which  was 
occU|»ied  b.\  the  enemy.  After  a  few  \ollevs  they  Were 
<lri\en  frtun  it  and  it  was  occu|>ie(l  by  the  Forty-second 
Indiana,  t  )ne  Hundred  and  Fourth  Illim»is,  and  Fi;:hly- 
eifihth  Indiami.  Tin  stanlif  tdlur  nf  tinst  r((/iin(itts  final- 
Iff  (Iron  (hi  niciin/  fnnii  tin  riiUjt  when  my  uliolc  tiin  ml- 
niiirril  to  till  siininiil."    (The  itali<s  are  t  he  writer's.) 

Then*  had  been  nttwhere  on  that  hui^'  line  any  lial( 
oi-  hesitation  tint  il  the  rille  pi  is  ai  i  he  base  of  the  ridj:e 

w  er cupied,  which  was  done  nearly  simultaneously 

by  theei^rhtyiiine  re;;iments  at  six  dilTereiit  points.  The 
lebels  on  the  rid^e  had  depresseil  the  mu/./les  of  their 
cannon,  and  where  possible,  were  deliverin;;  an  enlilad- 
inj:  fire.  This  with  their  musketry  was  tellinjx  ra])idly 
on  our  ranks  in  the  rille  pits  below,  Stun<x  to  madness, 
knowin;:thal  it  wmdd  bede.ith  lo  stay  t  here;  scoruiiiLT 
retn*at;    and    in--piied    bv   one  couiniou   impulse,   iliei-e 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  179 

was  suddenly  aii  involuntary  movenient  begun  along 
the  entire  front,  up  the  ridge,  which  was  very  steep 
and  covered  with  obstructions  and  small  loose*^  stones 
making  the  footing  insecure.  In  from  twenty  minutes 
to  half  an  hour,  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland  stood 
victorious  on  the  heights.  It  was  nearly  5  p.  m.,  and 
Sherman  still  pounded  away  at  the  rebel  right  holding 
his  positions  of  the  morning,  until  darkness  coming  on, 
Hardee  and  Cleburne  withdrew  their  gallant  soldiers 
safely  beyond  the  Chickamauga. 

The  ridge  having  been  carried  and  cleared  in  front. 
General  Baird  wheeling  his  troops  to  the  left  and  leav- 
ing ten  or  twelve  i)ieces  of  the  captured  artillery  to  be 
gathered  in  by  others,  moved  north  along  the  crest, 
routing  the  division  of  Anderson,  but  was  not  so  fortu- 
nate when  he  came  in  contact  with  troops  sent  by 
Hardee  from  the  right  in  front  of  Sherman.     Here  a 
desperate   fight   ensued   which   only   ended   by   night 
coming  on,  when  the  enemy  withdrew.    General  Sheri- 
dan and  one  of  Wood's  brigades,  pursued  the  enemy 
down  the  east  slopes  of  the  ridge  a  short  distance, 
capturing  prisoners  and  artillery,  but  it  was  too  late 
for  successful  pursuit.     The  heavy  fighting  was  oyer 
and  the  army  went  into  bivouac  on  the  ground  it  had 
won,  and  built  its  camp  fires  from  mountain  to  valley. 
General  Grant,  mindful  of  Sherman,  thus  wrote  him 
at  the  close  of  the  battle:       ''No  doubt  you  witnessed 
the  splendid  manner  in  which  Thomas'  troops  carried 
>\[ission   Ridge  this   afternoon,   and     can   feel   a  just 
pride  too,  in  the  part  taken  by  the  forces  under  your 
command  in  taking  first,  so  much  of  the  same  range 
of  hills,  and  then  in   attracting  the  attention  of  so 
many  of  the  enemy  as  to  make  Thomas'  part  certain 
of  success."    In  view  of  the  fact  that  Sherman  attained 
the  position  he  occupied  with  "no  loss,"  as  he  says,  and 
was  opposed  by  very  small  forces  as  has  been  shown 
from  official  and  undoubted  authority,  the  sympathy  of 
General  Grant  was  timely. 

There  is  evidence  to  show  that  General  Grant  had 
not  determined  when  the  Armv  of  the  Cumberland 


IW  THE  ONE  HUNDKElJ  AND  FOl'RTH 

Klartftl  for  tin-  litlp*,  whether  In  nidt-r  I  Imiii  i.»  ^.>  lo  dn' 
lop  or  in»!.  It  is  ]iroli;ilile  from  w  hal  he  <liil  orMer  ami 
from  his  o\\  ii  wonis  hereltifore  tjuoied  from  liis  report, 
that  he  hoptnl  the  iiioveiiieiit  to  the  bjise  of  I  lie  liilj^e 
woiihl  so  (lisinirl  Mra*:^  t  hat  he  wouhl  rail  haick  eiiou«:h 
tn»ops  from  the  ri;:ht  to  eiiahh*  Sh«Minaii  lo  siuceed 
there  ill  hreakill^  (he  rebel   lilies,  aihl  to  atlvaiii-e  soiltll 

lo\\ar»l  Tiiomas.  'I'liis  view  >\oul«l  seem  t«»  be  the  true 
one  iifti'r  heariii;:  what  (leneral  .F.  S.  Fullerton,  Ad- 
jutant (oMieral  ami  Chief  of  SialT,  «»f  the  I'onith  Army 
Corps,  savs  upon  t  he  subjtM  i.  lie  was  on  (  Mrhaitl  Kiiob 
at  the  time  and  heard  what  he  tells: 

"As  soon  as  this  movement  nip  the  rid^^ei  was  si»en 
fnun  Hrrhard  Knob,  tirant  turned  (|ui<-kly  to  'riiomas, 
who  s'ood  by  his  side,  and  I  heard  him  say  angrily, 
''riioiiias,  who  ordered  iliosi-  men  iiji  the  rid^e?' 
Thomas  replied  in  liis  usual  ipiiei  manner:  '1  don't 
know,  1  did  iioi.*  Then  addiessin;^  (Jeiieial  <iordoii 
<irani:er,  he  said,  'Did  ytui  iU-tler  them  up.  •  Iiaii;;*'!?' 
*No.'  said  <ii-aii;,'er.  *Tln'y  started  up  without 
•  •rdfis;  when  those  fellows  t:;t'l  stalled  all  hell  raniiot 
Ktop  ilii-iii/  <i)-ii«-r;il  ttiant  said  something  io  the 
efTeri  thai  somebody  Would  sulTer  if  it  did  iioi  lurn 
out  w«'ll.  and  iIumi  nirnin^,  stoically  watched  the  ridiie, 
III*  ;;ave  no  further  orders." 

To  show  full\  and  furihei-  the  iiiosi  honorable  and 
;;|orious  part  borne  by  the  <  Mie  Hundred  and  ^^Mlrth 
in  the  battles  around  < 'hatlaiioo^xa,  the  writer  will  in- 
tro«luce  hell'  several  iiariatiNes  i>f  its  un'iiibeis  which 
jfi%*c»  truthful  and  \i\id  pidures  of  wluii  each  saw  an<l 
eXpeliem  ed. 

<ieor;:e  Marsh.  I'ii».i  Scii:caiii  ot  tompaiiy  !>.  says: 
'*\\'«'  then  descended  Lookout  and  prepared  to  assault 
Mission  Kidj^e,  w  hich  is  four  or  lixc  miles  hmi:  ami  live 
huiulred  feet  liii^ii.  \\  c  formed  |tail  of  an  imim'iise  Iiii(> 
«»f  batt  |e  in  some  w  oods  at  A:  l."»  p.  m.,  w  hen  our  <  leiieial 
Carlin  said  to  us:  'Itoys.  I  diuTt  want  you  to  stop  until 
\\v  reaicli  the  top  of  that  hill.  I'oiwardl'  There  was 
a  mile  or  so  of  open  llat  i^round  to  cross,  where  the 
rebels  slu'lled  Us  lu-avily,  and   where  Lieutenant    Koss 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  iSl 

and  Sorjivaiit  Tallx)!  wciv  severely  wonndcd  by  a  shell. 
But  they  i>eneially  overshot  us  and  the  shells  burst  in 
our  rear.  (Jeneral  Carlin  rode  his  horse  to  the  foot  of 
tlH'  ridij-e  and  then  let  him  loose  and  scrambled  up 
with  the  rest  of  us.  At  their  breastworks  half  way  up 
some  of  the  rebels  snrrendere<l  and  others  ran  to  the 
toj).  At  this  point  Lieutenant  Orrin  S.  Davidson  of 
('onii)any  H  was  mortally  wounded.  lie  said,  '(to  on, 
b<\vs,  and  take  the  hill  and  atteiul  to  me  afterward.' 
lie  was  very  ])ale.  We  then  made  a  ^rand  rush  aiul 
killed,  wounded,  and  stampeded  the  rebels  in  front  of 
lis  on  top,  and  the  field  was  ours — at  4:'i0.  Anson  S. 
Smith  was  severely'  wounded  in  the  foot.  Cohu'  Ser- 
lueaut  W.  11.  II.  llutton,  while  beariui;  the  llajj;,  was 
hit  in  the  breast  by  JV  ball,  and  Corpoi-al  Lemuel  F. 
Holland,  S(^izin*»-  the  colors  bore  them  to  the  top  very 
bravely,  and  was  the  first  one  up.  Everyone  tried 
desperately  to  get  to  the  top  and  did  not  look  around 
mneli  except  at  the  middle  breastworks  where  the 
])anorania  of  battle  was  a  magnificent  sight.  The  rebels 
came  into  our  lines  b}'  hundreds.  I  threw  my  blanket 
(hnvn  once  as  I  was  getting  veiw  tired,  not  having  en- 
tirely recovered  from  my  wound,  but  as  it  was  likely 
to  be  cold  at  night  and  I  was  wet  from  crossing  a  little 
stream,  I  picked  it  up  again.  As  we  fired  at  the  re- 
treating rebels  we  aimed  for  an  officer  on  a  white 
horse;  the  prisoners  said  this  person  was  General 
Bragg." 

("olonel  Douglas  Hapeman  in  liis  report,  vide  Reb. 
Rec.  Vol.  31,  Pt.  2,  p.  467,  says:  "The  officers  and  men 
behaved  gallantly.  I  would  especially  notice  Color 
Sergeant  Wm.  IT.  IL  Hutton,  of  Company  D,  who  was 
wounded,  and  Corporal  L.  F.  Holland,  Company  D,  who 
carried  the  colors  safely  to  the  top  of  the  hills,  the  first 
colors  of  the  first  brigade  planted  on  the  enemy's 
works." 

It  was  stated  at  the  time  by  a  correspondent  of  the 
Nashville  Press,  that  the  flag  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  was  the  first  one  of  the  line  planted  on  Mission 
Ridge.  But  the  ridge  being  assaulted  at  six  different 
points,  after  the  troops  had  arrived  near  the  top,  and 


l^:  THE  ONE  HL'XDKED  AND  FOURTH 

Ikmij;;  liidiliMi  from  an  uiiubstriutetl  view  either  above 
or  Im'Iow,  I  his  iiiav  iiol  hav«*  been  so,  Neveriheh'ss,  if 
uoi  I  he  lirsl,  ii  was  oin-of  ih«*iii,  ami  there  wen*  ceitaiiily 
hoiit>rs  «-i)ou;:h  lo  ^«i  roiiihl. 

W'illiaiii  M.  NN  ilsoii  of  <  'oiii|taii\  10.  sa\  s  t>f  liie  tliar;ie 
lip  ih«*  ri<l^e:  "1  was  with  the  lie^ximent  at  Lookout 
Moiiutaiii  ami  Mission  lCi<l;:e,  an<l  will  •niveau  im-iih*nt 
iliat  orrurnMJ.  In  ihf  seron«l  rille  i»iis  where  we 
<«lo|i|M'<|   to   li'Sl,  the  l-ebels  l*otll«!-e«|  oni'  li^ht    paititu- 

hirlv  bv  their  sho«»tin;i,  ami  one  rebel  sharpshooter 
<  onhl  not  be  pit  at,  after  man\  trials,  so  one  t»f  the  boys 
^aid  that  any  one  who  conhl  shoot  l<>ft  hamleil  woiiM 
ii-i«-h  him.  William  A.  Kain,  of  our  < 'ompaiiy,  Ihin^ 
l«'ft  hamleil,  <lri\\  a  bead  on  the  rebel  ami  'silenced 
(hat  .bdiniiN  so  that  he  did  not  boilirr  ns  any  more/" 
W  ill  Kain  was  soon  aft«'r  killed  l»y  a  shot  in  the  neek. 
Most  of  till*  old  members  will  remembfr  t  he  jovial  and 
l>ia\«'  Kain  with  liis  dark  ha/.el  eye  and  pleasant  ad- 
dress, piissessiii;;  eourajie  ami  <ooliirss.  uniicd  wjili  an 
nm-oiiimonly  kind  heart. 

Marsliall  ISa^^w  ill  of  ( '(nupany  (1  says  <d"  t  he  assault 
oil  Mission  Kiddie:  "TIm*  last  charge  at  .Mission  |{idi:«* 
was  my  last,  bein;;;  wounded  in  tin-  ri;iht  shonhh'i-  and 
left  knei'at  their  last  works.  .\  kImI  raised  np  iwi-niy 
fi'*'\  from  me  and  sent  a  ball  through  my  hat  rim.  a  roll 
of  blank»'ts  and  the  shoiiMcrs.  His  m'Xt  three  shots 
lodp'd  in  the  blankets.  lb-  then  threw  down  his  ^nn 
and  snrr<Mideri'd.  I  was  mad  and  about  to  use  my 
bayoiift  >\ith  my  left  hand,  when  a  ball  took  ui*-  iu  iIk* 
kiHf  and  I  u  ilird." 

ib'iirv  Wintersriicidi  of  ( '.im|t:iu\  K  says:  *'\\  Inn 
the  w«>nl  'l''or\\ard'  was  ;;i\en.  the  army  movtMl  slowly 
out  of  the  timber  into  the  open  ;;rountl.  It  all  lookeil 
lik«*  a  ;:rand  dress  parade,  but  in  a  short  time  the  top 
of  till*  hill  iMM-aim*  lively  .Ml  tin-  batteries  there 
bebhed  forth  ;;rap«'  ami  ranisit-r.  and  every  «iiher  kiml 
«>f  niissile.  Soon  the  whole  of  iIm*  loiii;  ridi;*'  was  en- 
veloped in  smoke,  and  t  hm  as  w  e  a«l\  am«'d.  t  he  infantry 
at  t  he  foot  of  I  he  hill  opiiii'd  lire  on  us.  (  Mie  short  n-si 
tt»  ealrh    bi«'ath   and    we   WfUf    :il    llirui    with   a    ^';lukee 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  183 

shout  and  a  rush;  the  rebels  liad  to  give  way  and  they 
went  i^ell  mell  into  their  works  half  way  up  the  hill. 
Onr  flag-  bearer  had  been  shot,  also  the  flag  bearer  of 
the  Eighty-eighth  Indiana;  some  one  shouted,  'Pick  up 
that  flag,  pick  up  that  flag!'  After  another  short  rest 
the  bugle  sounded  again.  Major  Widmer  and  Colonel 
Ilapeman  shouted,  'I  want  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  to  be  the  first  regiment  on  that  hill.'  Holland 
taking  his  hat  in  one  hand  and  the  flag  in  the  other 
sang  loudly,  'Kally  round  the  flag,  boys,  rally  round 
rhe  flag.'  The  boys  formed  around  the  colors  and  up 
the  ridge  we  went.  The  rebel  officers  could  be  seen 
swinging  their  swords  and  doing  their  best  to  keep 
their  men  in  line,  but  all  in  vain.  Thej  called  out,  'Bull 
Run!'  We  replied,  'Chickamauga!'  Our  men  were  de- 
termined ;  the  rebels  had  to  go.  The  Kegiment  captured 
scores  of  prisoners.  When  the  sun  went  down  behind 
Lookout  the  banners  of  the  Arm}-  of  the  Cumberland 
waved  victorious  over  Mission  Ridge  and  Bragg's  army 
was  in  hasty  retreat." 

William  H.  Conard,  of  Company  E,  gives  the  follow- 
ing interesting  account  of  tliat  stirring  period  between 
Chickamauga  and  the  battles  of  Lookout  Mountain  and 
Mission  Ridge: 

"From  the  21st  of  September,  1863,  the  day  of  retreat 
from  Chickamauga,  up  to  the  23d  of  November,  our 
time  had  been  taken  up  in  digging  rifle  pits,  building- 
forts  and  doing  picket  duty,  the  latter  being  no  small 
duty,  as  the  details  were  so  large  that  the  whole  array 
would  come  on  about  eveiw  eight  days. 

"We  were  liable  to  have  a  brush  with  the  Johnnies 
at  any  time,  our  lines  were  so  close.  Our  Regiment  was 
on  picket  the  20th  and  21st  of  November.  This  every 
man  of  the  Regiment  will  remember,  as  it  was  chilly 
and  rainy,  and  we  went  out  without  anything  to  eat. 
On  our  return  to  camp  I  went  to  a  mule  commissary 
and  offered  him  75  cents,  all  the  money  I  had,  for  one 
ear  of  corn,  but  was  refused.  But  the  mules  were  be- 
tween me  and  the  camp,  and  they  had  just  beeu  fed, 
and  before  I  got  to  camp  one  mule  was  minus  three 


IM  THB  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

eiirn  of  i-orii,  iiiid  I  luul  tin*  luMiftit  of  it  ait  the  imilr's 
fX|M'n*jf.  This  will  illiisiratc  the  state  of  our  stoinaclis 
at  (hill  tiiiif.  Our  |Misi(ii)ii  Wiis  on  tht*  fxtrciiu*  ri«;ht  of 
thr  nhl  ( 'iiiiifrhiiiil  Ariiiv,  (oiichiii*;:  the  rtiiiu'sst'e 
IJiviT  ln'hiw  rhaltaiHMipi. 

"Towaril  fVfiiiiij;  of  th*-  L'.M  \\t*  ufic  uitlrrrd  iinu 
liiifaiul  took  out-  |iositioiis  !«•  ih<-  ri^'hi  ami  Icfl  of  l-Nut 
^>**r;l*'>.  i>ii<l  li>iil  oil  our  arms  that  iii;:lii,  Init  did  not 
Hhfp  much,  as  tln*r»*  was  a  ;;o<mI  dral  of  slu-llin;;  ;::oiuj; 
on  most  of  tin*  ni^ht.  Tin*  nioruiii;;  of  tlir  liltli  o|HMU'd 
np  a  lillh'  rain\  but  soon  <-lcar«'<l  a\\a\.  At  noon  t  h«* 
♦•nt-niv  rould  hr  s«*«'n  inovin;;  to  our  h-ft,  ahui;;  tin*  ni-st 
of  Mission  Kid{;r.  So«»n  wo  rould  hoar  tin*  souml 
of  bat th' over  in  Lookout  N'allov.and  about  noon,  above 
tho  misiv  ilouds.  wo  rould  soo  a  lino  of  nion  wavorinj;, 
an<l  soon  anothrr  prossin;:  thoni  rioso.  This  latior  line 
was  •Fi;^htin;:  dor  jjoidioi's'  nion  and  ( >stcrliaus'  l>i- 
visi«»n  t»f  Shoiinan's  IMftoonth  Torps.  I' mil  l'  it'clork 
we  had  list«*nod  to  ami  watrhod  tlio  battle  to  (»iir  ri;^dit, 
thon  Carlin's  liri^ado,  to  NNhirh  our  Ko;;inu'nt  Inloimcd, 
was  ordofod  to  roinfoiTr  llookoron  Lookout  Mouniain. 
W'i'  had  sonio  dini<ulty  in  «rottin«;  ain>ss  ( 'hat  tanoo;;u 
i  'r«*«*k  as  it  is  «|uit«*  dooji  noar  t  ho  mountain,  and  wo  had 
to  bo  foiiiod  ovor.  JJowoNor,  w  r  \\  oro  so«in  arross  and 
woll  up  tho  mountain  sido.  dust  w  Iioim*  wo  »rossod  tlio 
old  dat-kson  trail  that  winds  around  tho  mountain, 
KtiMid  old  ti;;htin;:  doo  bosido  his  ^M-ay  rhar«ior  waiting 
for  us.  <Mir  (lonoral  i<'arlin)  roroivod  his  ordors.  and 
we  at  onro  rrlir\«-d  tJoarv's  nioii  and  tontinutij  ihc 
batth'  until  iiftor  niidnii:lit,  and  thm  laid  on  our  arms, 
our  Ko^imonl  ortupyin^  tho  ;;ardon  of  the  Whiio.  or 
<*ravon,  Ilouso.  Um*  historian  has  said  ili:it  M'ailiii's 
batllo,  aftor  darkiioss  had  sot  in.  as  Niowt'd  friun  tho 
town  Ih'Iou.  was  om-  of  ;ln'  most  int<'i-4«st  in;;  sights  of 
tho  war.'  It  was  a  ;ri'Ji"d  si;:lii  for  us  as  wo  lookod 
dou  n  from  our  idovalion  of  \,siU\  fret  to  the  town  bolow , 
and  irariil  our  lim'S  by  tho  ramp  l»r«'s  as  thoy  strotchod 
away  across  t  ho  valloy.  and  up  t  ho  ii\  or  foi-  sovon  milos. 
At  I>  o'rlork  of  I  ho  L'."»i  h  wo  ( lUunuMood  to  un»vo  tow  aid 
MiKMion     Kid;;o,    ro<rosKin;r    ( 'hatianoo;:a     (fork     and 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  185 

joining  onr  own  division  to  the  right  and  front  of 
Orchard  Knob.  We  had  hardly  time  to  malce  onr  coffee 
when  the  'Fall  in'  was  called  for  the  assanlt  on  Mis- 
sion Kidge.  It  must  have  been  one  mile  from  where 
we  began  to  move  in  line  to  the  first  ritie  pits,  from  this 
line  to  the  last  one  on  top  of  the  ridge  about  seventy 
rods,  there  being  five  lines  in  all,  directly  in  front  of  ns. 
The  ground  was  cleared,  and  as  far  as  we  could  see 
from  right  to  left,  our  lines  were  perfect,  until  we  came 
in  range  of  the  enemy's  lire,  when  our  (ieneral(Carlin) 
who  was  in  the  lead,  gave  the  order,  'Double  quick!' 
Ours  was  a  running  fire  until  the  first  works  Avere 
taken.  From  there  on  our  progress  was  slower,  as  the 
ground  was  rough  and  the  ^rifie  pits  close  together. 
Our  hardest  fighting  was  between  the  third  and  fourth 
lines.  At  this  point  our  loss  was  considerable.  But 
very  few  rebels  got  away  from  the  third  line.  Those 
who  attempted  to  run  were  mostly  killed  or  wounded. 
One  poor  wounded  rebel  lay  just  in  my  line  of  march; 
I  can  never  forget  the  look  of  despair  depicted  on  his 
countenance  as  he  lay  there  begging  us  not  to  kill 
him.  I  stopped  and  gave  him  a  drink  of  water  from 
my  canteen.  How  his  countenance  changed!  He  had 
tried  to  get  away,  as  he  said  that  his  officers  had  told 
them  that  if  they  fell  into  our  hands  we  would  kill 
them,  ^hame  on  the  soldier  who  would  do  such  a 
cowardly  act!  AYhile  our  lines  were  re-forming  on  tne 
crest  of  the  ridge,  an  officer  and  staff  galloped 
diagonally  across  our  front;  w^e  raised  our  guns  to  fire, 
but  our  officers  ordered  us  not  to  fire;  they  said  it  was 
(ieueral  Hooker,  but  it  proved  to  be  General  Bragg. 
He  also  rode  a  white  horse  that  da}'.  Barnes,  in  his 
brief  history  of  the  United  States,  page  247,  says  of  the 
charge  of  Mission  Ridge:  'Up  they  went,  over  rocks 
and  chasms,  all  lines  broken,  the  flags  far  ahead,  each 
surrounded  by  a  group  of  the  bravest;  without  firing 
a  shot,  and  heedless  of  the  tempest  hurled  upon  them, 
they  surmounted  the  crest.'  If  Mr.  Barnes  had  been 
on  the  ridge  with  the  Johnnies  he  would  have  been 
aware  that  there  were  some  shots  fired. 


IM  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

•In  rfnani  t«»  tht*  lii-Kl  lla^  plaiitr*!  on  ilie  v'u\)Xl*  by 
our  forri*»s  1  tjuotr  I  In*  arnjv  rurr«'SjM»n«l»*nt  <»f  the 
•NaHhvilh*  I'lvsM,'  whiili  1  rlii»|»«Ml  from  that  paiK*r  a 
Khort  tinuMifliT  tin-  l»aill«*:  'Tin-  honor  of  lirst  phmt- 
iiijj  the  Natiiinal  Ihi^'  on  Mission  Ki«l;:»*  h('h»n<:s  to 
the  <>n«*  ilnn<li-<Ml  and  Fonrth  K«';:ini«'ni  of  Illinoig 
\'olnnt«frs.  I'ii-si  Hri;:a«h',  First  I M vision.  This  l{«*jri- 
iniMii  rhar«:iMl  uvt-r  tixf  ilisiinri  linrs  i>f  ihr  «Mn*ni,v'8 
wtirkii,  tiriviuj;  iImmt  sharpshooterB  ln-fon*  tlnMn  an<! 
I>hintin;:  tln-ir  lhi^»»n  tin*  «MHMny'8  works  on  the  summit 
of  ihf  ri«l;:«*  in  a<l\an)-««  of  oth«*rs.'  W'r  hivoiiark<Ml  ihal 
nijjhl  on  thi'  ri«lp',  an<l  I  «*njoyc<l  the  h«*si  n-sl  that  1  had 
bud  sin»t*  \vr  haul  hrrn  hrsii*|^nMl  in  riiatlanooy;a,  as  I 
had  the  prlvih»p'  of  shn'pinjj  undt-r  a  robel's  (juilt,  ono 
tliat  was  lar«;«*  rnonj^h  to  covrr  six  of  us.  1  had  not 
hh'pt  und<*r  a  hhinkcl  sinrj*  \v«*  h*ft  St»'vrns(»n,  Alabama, 
on  ih«'  1st  tlay  of  S«*pt«'inb»'r,  wh<Mi  wi-  piN'd  our  knap- 
narks  and  stripped  oursrhrs  for  hard  iiianliin^  and 
li^lhlin;:." 

t'harh's  (I,  j'liilli|is.  of  ("om|»any  I  >.  says  in  ni;ard 
to  the  4*vcnts  of  tile 'J:!d.  iMt  li  aiid  '2~t\\i  (compiN-il  from 
his  h'tlJTH  written  h<»mt'  ai  i  In- 1  iiiH-i: 

"Nov«*nilMM*  *j;{d  was  a  siiriiii;;  day  in  ( "hat  iaiioo;x:i. 
It  was  rohl  and  looked  like  lain.  In  I  lie  forenoon  i  liere 
was  nothin;:  ;:oin^  on  ami  the  boys  were  hunt  in^  aroun<l 
for  someihin;:  to  eat, for  we  w  ere  ou  onefoiirt  h  rat  ions. 
At  *J  p.  m.  tin*  bu^le  blew  ilie  assembly  and  the  (  Mie 
Hundred  ami  I'otirth  took  its  idace  on  the  left  of  the 
bri;;ade.  then  we  lay  in  line  of  battle  all  niirht  without 
tir<*s.  We  did  m>t  sh^'p  innrh  ami  about  .">  a.  m.  of  ijie 
L'lth  we  movi*«l  east  of  I'ort  Ne;:ley.  At  daylight  it 
lM';;an  raining;  and  we  built  some  fires.  About  \'2  w«* 
saw  Hooker's  men  dri\ini:  tlie  rebel  lines  around  the 
|Miint  of  Lookout  and  rheers  were  heard  on  all  parts 
of  our  Ilm»H.  Then  nt  2  we  were  ordeitd  to  manh  ami 
ndnforte  Hooker.  We  reaehed  I  he  foot  of  t  lie  imumtain 
at  snndow  n  and  at  10  reaehed  t  he  ( 'ra\  en  I  louse.  \\  hen 
not  lon^:  after  the  rebels  made  a  sortie  lui  mir  Hi-i^aile 
tint  were  repulsed.  The  liriu;;  eont i nih-d  until  L*  a.  m. 
of  the  lir»lh,  u  hen  all  beramei|uiel  ami  w«' were  alh»wed 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  187 

to  lie  down.  Iii  the  uioriiiug  mauy  rebel  deserters  came 
in  and  said  they  were  tired  of  the  war.  The  Stars  and 
Stripes  were  thrown  to  the  breeze  from  the  top  of 
Lookout  about  S,  amidst  immense  cheerinii'.  At  9  we 
marched  back  to  Chattanooga  and  to  our  position  about 
a  mile  from  Mission  Ridge  and  formed  in  line  for  the 
assanlt.  We  then  stacked  arms  and  waited  for  the 
or«h'r  to  advance.  About  4  p.  m.  the  order  came  and 
the  Kegiment  started  going  through  some  timbered  land 
for  half  a  mile,  when  we  had  to  cross  an  open  tield, 
wliich  we  did  on  the  double  quick  for  the  rebels  were 
shelling  us  from  the  ridge.  At  the  foot  of  the  ridge 
was  a.  line  of  Avorks  which  we  rushed  for  an<l  got  in,  the 
rebels  rushing  out  and  up  the  ridge.  They  had  three 
other  lines  and  were  firing  at  us  lively,  and  those  lines 
had  to  be  taken.  Could  it  be  done?  Yes;  the  command 
was,  'P^orward,  One  Hundred  and  Fourth!'  The  men 
jumped  to  their  feet  and  over  the  earth-works  and 
charged  for  the  next  line,  which  was  full  of  rebels  firing 
at  us  as  fast  as  they  could,  but  when  we  got  pretty  near 
the}'  left  and  scrambled  for  the  top  of  the  ridge.  We 
had  a  good  chance  to  shoot  at  them,  which  we  did. 
When  we  reached  the  rifle  pits  midway  up,  we  were  all 
tired  out  and  a  halt  was  made  to  rest,  but  we  kept 
shooting  whenever  we  could  see  a  rebel  to  shoot  at,  and 
they  likewise  sent  the  balls  thick  and  fast  over  our 
heads  and  among  us,  but  we  had  become  used  to  them. 
After  a  rest  of  about  live  minutes,  the  orders  were, 
'Forward!  Drive  them  from  the  top!'  With  a  shout 
the  men  sprang  over  the  works  and  began  climbing, 
yelling  as  we  went,  at  the  top  of  our  voices,  and  shoot- 
ing as  fast  as  we  could  load  and  fire,  no  one  knowing 
but  what  he  might  be  the  next  one  to  fall.  When  we 
arrived  at  the  top  the  rebels  broke  and  ran  and  we 
after  them.  Our  liag  was  the  first  planted  on  the  ridge 
and  there  was  joy,  shouting  and  handshaking  with  each 
other.  That  was  a  happy  meeting,  to  know  that  the 
Stars  and  Stripes  waved  over  Lookout  and  Mission 
Ridge  again.  There  was  some  more  firing,  but  the 
rebels  had  run  off  and  it  was  almost  night,so  we  were 


I«  THE  ONE  HL'  NURED  AND  FOURTH 

told  to  go  into  raiiip  thfiv.  Tin*  ni^lit  was  v»i\  ((dd, 
but  \Vf  had  m»«Ml  tin-s  and  slrpi  s<nindly." 

'I'h«*  Iti^s  of  liic  (  Mif  1 1  inidi'i'd  and  l-'unn  li  ai  .Missinn 
Kidjir  WHS  HH  fidiiiwh:  KIIUmI  AihdlM-it  S.  Ilannnn, 
<'<inipaiiv  H;  liMiar  A.  r<H)l,  i'Mnipanv  «';  William  A. 
Kaiii.  ('aiiii|iaiiy  K;  rharlfs  M.  M«»«»r«%  <\»nii»any  II, 
llrnrN  < ".  n«)U;:las,  ( 'oinpanx   I.     Tola!,  .">. 

.MmiijiIIn  W  (iiindcd  Li<  iih'iiani  (Miiii  S.  i>;i\idson, 
<'oiii|»aii\  li;  l»avid  < '.  «  hillil  li.  <  "»»ni|tan\  A;  SirplnMi 
J.  Slndl«ni,  < 'onipanv  K;  Sainii»*l  N.  Tn-naix ,  <  "onipany 
F.    Total.  I. 

\\'<>iind«*d  l.itMiifnani  William  < '.  Koss,  < '«»m|iany 
li;  Sfr;:«-ant  IMiilandcr  TallMti,  ( 'umpany  H;  Sci-;:»anl 
W.  1!.  II.  llnUon.  Tonipany  H;  S<Tp*ant  Saminl  Lynn, 
Colli  pa  iiy  4";  Anson  S.  Smith,  <  'um]tany  l>;  .losliua  \\  il- 
hoii,  (\iin|>any  15;  William  W  ilUinstm,  Company  10; 
W'illiaiii  (iottinaii,  C«»mpany  F;  Isaac  W.  <iairlndl, 
<*ompaiiy  F;  Marshall  Ha;;\vill,  Company  (i;  William 
M.  .Inn«*s.  Company  <l;  ("haih-s  l\.  Cook,  Comjiany  (i; 
<  H*or;;«'  W.  I  lammrii,  <  omitany  II;  Kdt;ai-  \\'.  Moshrr, 
Com|»any  II;  .lann*s  .1.  ria\t*r,  ('om|tan\  I:  <'liaih's 
Kuj;«*r,  Company  K;  dohii  <  "oync,  Cdiiipiiny  I.  Toial,  IT. 
T<»tal  kilh'd  and  wonndt-il.  'Jti;  wliii  li  was  laiuf  in 
pro|Hiriion  lo  tin*  arinal  si/r  of  iln-  KcuinnMil.  TIm' 
l«iss  in  iln-  Hii^adf,  ronsisiin;;  of  nine  i-fLrinM-nis.  at 
l^iokonl  .Moiiniain  and  Mission  Kid;:i',  inclndini:  ••ii*' 
kilhil  at  Cniysvill.'  ili<-  n»\t  djiy.  was  'J.'*  kilhd.  1!  1 
wonmh'd.  lis  capinr*-  of  mn  with  amis  in  hand,  .'>00. 
Till-  IMxision  lost  in  killrd  ami  wonmh-d,  from  ihr  two 
lnij:ads.  a  total  «d'  '.'AW.  Its  raplnr  of  piisonis  was 
l,ll».\  of  caniioii  4,  hrsidt's  arms,  rtc  Tho  cnliir  ioIm*1 
liiKK4t<  ill  the  two  hatth's,  imindin;;  tin-  ti^ht  at  Kin;;- 
;:o|d  on  llif  I'Tth,  arroidin;:  to  thoir  lopoits,  wfic: 
KilliMJ.  ;{i;i  ;  wiMimh'd,  LMsd;  missin;:;,  1,1  H".;  t<»tal,  WjUu 
niir  loKHif*  w<T«':  Kilh*d,  7r>;{;  wonndcd.  I.T'JJ;  missin;;, 
.'UM;  total,  .".si'i.  <Jfam)  total  on  hoth  sides,  12, 1'.H. 
\Vr  raplni'i'd  forty  piftos  of  artillery,  many  thonsands 
of  Hinall  arms,  ammnnition,  ua;xons,  supplies,  eir. 

Iiiiportaiil  as  wcvf  the  resnits  tlowin;:  from  the  l»at- 
tl<i«  of  I/Nikoiit  .Mountain  and  .Mission  Kid;:*-;  ^lorions 


REGIMENT  II^LINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  1S9 

as  was  the  record  of  the  gallant  troops  engaged  therein, 
retlectiug  inipei'ishable  honor  on  American  valor,  yet 
not  all  was  accoiiiplislied  that  General  (Irant  had 
expected  and  deewired.  ills  plans  contenipUited  the 
entire  destruction  or  capture  of  General  Bragg's  army, 
and  this  would  have  been  accomplished  had  not  sev- 
eral circumstances  contributed  to  defeat  that  result. 
Over  one  of  these  at  least  General  (jrant  had  no  con- 
trol. The  Urst  was  the  heavy  fog  in  Chattanooga  \'al- 
ley  on  the  morning  of  the  25th,  and  the  necessary  delay 
of  Hooker  by  it,  and  also  by  bridge  burning,  which  i)re- 
vente<l  his  attacking  the  rebel  left  until  nearly  three 
p.  m.,  and  in  consequence  of  which,  perhaps,  Thomas 
was  withheld  so  long.  The  other  circumstance  was 
Sherman's  failure  to  break  the  rebel  right  at  the  tun- 
nel. Had  (xcneral  Grant  himself  been  present  with 
yiierman,  he  might  have  ordered  other  movements  to 
be  made  by  General  Davis'  big  division  and  those  of 
Howard,  which  would  have  changed  the  aspect  of 
affairs  on  that  Hank.  But  General  Grant  could  now 
relieve  Burnside,  and  on  the  night  of  the  25th  issued 
orders  to  Generals  Granger  and  Sherman  accordingly, 
while  the  pursuit  of  Bragg  was  begun  during  the  night 
and  early  on  the  20th,  by  GeneralHooker  and  General 
Palmer,  the  latter  then  commanding  the  Fourteenth 
€orps. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  moved  early  on  the 
morning  of  the  2Gth  with  the  brigade  toward  (rrays- 
A'ille,  in  pursuit  of  the  enemy  and  overtook  them  after 
dark  near  that  place,  but  they  were  in  no  mood  for 
fighting  and  hurried  across  Chickamauga  Creek  by 
wading  waist  deep  in  the  icy  cold  water  and  escaped, 
leaving,  however,  in  our  hands,  a  fine  Napoleon  gun 
and  other  material.  ?5ome  fifty  prisoners  were  also  (*ap- 
tured.  The  command  then  went  into  bivouac.  The 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  had  started  on  this  march 
wludly  unprepared  except  in  the  matter  of  ammuni- 
tion, of  which  each  num  carried  one  hundred  rounds. 
They  were  also  supposed  to  have  rations  for  four  days, 
but  these  were  not  full  ones.     Colonel  Hapeman  says 


1>0  ill  -I^HKD  AND  FOURTH 

ill  Ilis  rr|M»r!:  "A  luimlMi  of  iln*  nun  luul  no  shirts, 
thfir  shot's  wiTt*  \v»trn  out,  t  lothiny;  all  |hm»i-,  and  none 
of  ihiMu  had  <»vt*rfoals."  There  was  eonsiMHu-ntly  much 
8Uff«*rin;^',  hut  they  iheerfully  t*inlurtMl  all.  The  maivh 
was  rrsunutl  on  tht*  HTlli,  an«l  many  pris«»ners  tak»*n 
«»n  the  way.  t  hi  approarhin;;  Kin^';i<tl<l  tin*  sound  of 
lliHiker's  j;iins  was  heard.  Tin*  fneiiiy  hail  made  a 
staiitl  «ui  Tayh»r's  Hidj;**,  and  Osterhans  was  en;;ay;e<l. 
The  <Mie  Hundred  and  roiirih  was  pla«-e«l  on  the  left 
of  his  line  and  two  ronipanies  of  skirmishers  thrown 
f«irward.  who  atlvaneed  t«>  the  to]»,  but  tin*  enemy, 
attacked  every wher«',  withdrew.  The  Ke^nnient  then 
r«*niaineil  in  line  of  haittle  until  ni<:ht,  when  it  was 
detailed  f«tr  pi<ket  duty  on  the  left  flank  of  the  lui;_'ad«*. 
The  I'Mh  set  in  with  both  rain  and  snow,  making 
thiiijTK  very  unpleasant  for  the  Ke;;inn*nt,  whirh  was 
on  pieket  until  four  p.  m.  before  relieve«l.  It  then 
bivouarked  near  the  ritl^e  initil  eleven  a.  m.  of  the 
L".Mh,  when  the  marrh  was  be^nin  for  ( 'hat  tanoo<ra. 
This  proved  to  be  one  of  the  most  i ryin;;  ever  made,  and 
tin  arriviiij;  there  at  seven  in  the  evening;,  the  men  were 
nearly  exhaiisted  fr«>m  (Md«l.  liuu;j:er  and  privation;  some 
had  their  feet  frozen  on  this  return  niar»li.  <;eor;;e 
Marsh  speaks  «»f  \\'m.  1*.  New  comb  shoiMin;;  a  i^oat 
whih*  away.  f<»r  ftuMl.  and  naively  says:  *'I»ul  it  did 
not  taiste  very  jxood,  loo  stron;;!"  l|owe\»i-  ili;ii  nKi\ 
have  Im'^mi.  it  is  far  |ueft  rable  as  an  article  of  diet,  to 
crow,  t'harlestl  I'hillips  remarks  very  honest  1\:  "t  Mi 
arrivinjx  at  t 'hat tanoo^^a  after  dark,  we  were  all  used 
up,  hun>:ry,  tired  and  cold,  and  ;:lad  that  we  had  ^ot 
home."  In  the  Kinj:;:old  alTaii-  Hooker  lost  <».">  kille<l 
and  .'{77  wounded.  The  enemy  left  \'.U)  dead  on  the 
lield.  Numbei'  of  Wounded  not  known;  '2'.U)  piisoners 
were  taken.  I-'urther  offensive  operations  were  soon 
aifter  suspended  and  the  main  part  of  the  army  with- 
drawn to  ( 'hat  iaiioo<;a.  w  luic  ii  w  eiit  into  w  iiiiei-  «|uar- 
lePK.  iJemral  SlM-rman's  troojis  also  returned  fr<un 
Knoxville,  Lon;;street  havjn;:  raised  the  siep-  and 
retreate<I.  ,\  period  of  rest  and  re«*iiperation  was  leii 
dere«I   necessary  before  be;;innin;:  the  next   can>pai;:n 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  191 

into  that  inner  Sonth  of  which  Ohattjinoojia  was  the 
natural  entrance  and  had  been  so  rej^ai(le(i  for  ninirly 
two  years,  and  hence  the  battles  and  campaigns  fought 
and  conducted  with  so  mnch  perseverance  and  fierce- 
ness on  both  sides.  The  Southern  people  were  again 
surprised  and  shocked,  but  probably  not  more  so  than 
General  liragg,  wlio,  withdrawing  his  army  to  Dalton, 
was  soon  after  relieved  from  command  at  his  own 
request  and  succeeded  by  General  Hardee,  who  a  little 
later  was  superseded  by  General  J.  E.  Johnston.  Gen- 
eral Bragg  in  his  report  says:  "Xo  satisfactory  excuse 
can  possibly  be  given  for  the  shameful  conduct  of  our 
troops  on  his  left  in  allowing  their  line  to  be  pene- 
trated. The  position  was  one  which  ought  to  have 
been  held  by  a  line  of  skirmishers  against  any  assault- 
ing column."  (Vide  Keb.  Kec,  Vol.  31,  IH.  2,  p.  (>(;(>.) 
But  General  Bragg,  however,  had  failed  to  recognize 
a  certain  element  that  w'as  one  of  the  factors,  and  a 
powerful  one,  too,  in  these  battles.  That  factor  was 
the  moral  forces  at  work  in  the  minds  of  his  soldiers. 
The  irresistible  and  tierce  charges  of  Hooker's  men  on 
Lookout  Mountain  gave  them  a  dim  foreboding  of  what 
was  to  follow.  The  impressions  made  on  the  plains  of 
Chattanooga  by  the  splendid  and  powerful  array  of 
our  armies,  accompanied  by  the  pomp  and  panoply  of 
glorious  war  when  the  first  advance  was  made  by  Wood 
and  Sheridan,  were  well  calculated  to  weaken  their 
confidence  in  themselves.  And  when  as  a  finale  they 
looked  down  upon  the  miles  of  glittering  arms,  the 
hundreds  of  waving  standards  and  flags,  bore  to  the 
assault  by  Thomas'  advancing  legions,  there  was  a 
moral  force  about  it  that  could  not  fail  of  its  effect. 
They  knew  that  those  men  would  carry  the  heights, 
and  the  courage  of  thousands  failed,  who  on  other  fields 
had  proven  their  valor. 


CHAPTER  Xlll. 


The   Flanktnc  of    Dalton— Advance  to  the  Etowah— BattleB  of  Re- 
Mca    and    N«-w    Hoi*    Church— Seizure  of  Allatoona. 

At    tin*  trniiiiiatioii   of  the   Imtllt-s    ;iiitl    (•;impai«:ii 
ariMiiid    < 'hattaiiuujj^a    tli*'   ()ii«-    I  liiiitli-c*!    aiitl    Fmirili 
fujiiviil  a  iMTiod  of  rrst   from  li;:liliiij;  ami  a^^aiii  s«*t- 
i1»mI  tltiun   to  ihc  «liillrs  «tf  caiiiii  lif«'.     <  Mi    I  )<'t«MiilM'r 
Isi   llw  aniix    itass«'t|   in  irviru    ln-foir  (tciicial  iiiaiit, 
ami  it  was  a  |»ion«l  orrasion  for  the  li«*rocs  of  maiiv  l»ai- 
tlrs,      Dunn;;  tlu*  inoiitli  tin*  K«*;,nim'nt   was  cmploviMl 
oil   tin*   m*w   watn-w «»rks  or  ri'srrvoir,   jirojiMtcMl   ami 
Itiiiit  oil  <'aimM-oii  Mill.      W'Immi  fiiiislnMl  iIh-  watrr  was 
|miiii|»«m1  iiilo  it  from  ihr   r»iim*ss('«*  l>\  iisiii;;  ilio  motive 
]Miwcr  of  an  old  ttoiir  mill  wliicli  stood  on  tlir  hank  of 
tin*  river.      Pipes   were  run   from   the  reservoir  to  the 
<Joveriimeiit    l>uihlin;:s   in    the   t(»\\n.     This  eiiter|)ris(» 
proved  to  he  a  ^I'eat  hlessiii^  to  ( "ha  1 1  a  iioooji  jmd  was 
in  list*  until  a  f«'W  vears  a^'o.     The  n^jiairs  on  the  rail- 
road not  hein;;  rompleted  t  here  was  a  seait  it  y  (d"  rations 
to  feed  the  army  until  the  middle  of  Jannarv.    Christ- 
mas and  New  \'«'ar's  proved  to  l>e  dull  in  many  resjiects, 
iiotaldy   hy   the  absent  e  of   luxuries   fiom    ihe  dinner 
tables  of  the  sohlieis.     W.    11.  ('oiiard   notes,  however, 
that    "W'e   had    <ow    tail    soii|i   for   dinmi."      Sherman 
I^^dand  says.  **Onr  dinner  r(Hisiste«l  of  «  o(Te<'  and   Lin- 
rojn    |dat  forms**   (rrark^Msl.      l{n<    on   .lannary    ]:U\i   :i 
rhaiiire   nime,    produced    by    the   arrixMl     of    the    first 
'M'rarker"  train  over  the  railroad,  and   this  was  soon 
f«dlo\\ed  by  live  others.      Their  arrival  was  o;n.,.t,.d  by 
Mhoiiis  of  j<iy   from   Ihe  army   that    had    been   redmed 
inaiiy   times  t«i  the  very   ver;;e  of  starvation   and   had 
endured  HiilTerin^  for  months,  besides  li;;htino^  two  bat- 
lies  oil  eiiipl\    stomaehs. 

The   Hue    Hundred    iind    I'ourth    had    berome   roiisid- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  193 

erably  reduced  by  battles  and  disease.  The  wounded 
w(M'e  in  hospitals  or  had  btvn  sent  home  to  recover. 
Some,  also,  were  so  fortunate  as  to  be  <»ranted  fur- 
loughs to  ii,<)  home.  Lieutenants  Porter  jind  IJoss,  of 
Company  B,  both  beini;'  woun^led  (the  loruier  losinjj;'  his 
left  arm  at  Chickamauj^a),  J^ieutenant  (Mark  com- 
manded Company  I>  for  a  time.  "Bill"  Ross,  aft(M'ward 
C;ij)tain  of  Comi)any  B,  was  a  man  not  likely  to  be  for- 
j^otten  by  any  one  who  ev^er  met  him  or  had  occasion  to 
lun  ajiainst  his  six  feet  thi'ee  or  four  inches  of  cor- 
poi'osity  and  listened  to  the  dulcet  tones  (tf  his  ])er- 
snasiv<^  voice  when  things  <lid  not  j^o  to  suit  him.  E. 
F.  Mallory,  of  Comi)any  I,  sends  the  writer  the  follow- 
ing; incident  about  our  friend  William,  so  characteristic 
of  him  that  it  seems  api)ropriate  to  introduce  it  here. 
Tie  says:  "If  you  were  with  us  after  the  surrender  at 
Hartsville,  you  may  have  noticed,  as  I  and  otliers  did, 
that  ()rd<'i'ly  Seri;(^aiit  Ross,  with  cane  in  luuul,  went 
limpinj;-  ah^nj;-  with  a  baiKhige  on  his  h^<;-.  This  w.as  a 
blind  he  used  to  keep  his  body  warm,  that  is,  to  keej) 
the  rebels  from  stealing  his  overcoat.  The  ruse  suc- 
ceeded. After  the  battle  of  Mission  Ridge,  while  I  was 
sick  in  Nashville  and  walking  out  one  day,  whom  should 
I  meet  but  Lieutenant  Ross,  with  cane  in  hand  and  the 
same  old  limp.  I  thought  at  once  of  Hartsville  and  it 
seemed  so  natural  and  comical  that  I  began  laughing, 
for  which  T  asked  to  be  excused  as  it  reminded  me  of 
the  Hartsville  limp.  'Yes,'  says  he,  'but  the  curious 
part  of  it  is  that  this  time  it  is  genuine,  and  the  wound 
is  right  where  I  had  the  bandage  then.  Say,  Rastus, 
was  it  a  judgment  from  Heaven?'  I  have  often  thought 
<)f  the  occurrence  since."  About  the  lOtli  of  January' 
Ca])tain  Collins  was  detailed  to  take  charge  of  and 
command  all  the  ambulance  and  medical  trains  of  the 
Fourteenth  Cor])s,  and  thereupon  Lieutenant  Clark 
assumed  command  of  Com})any  L).  On  the  lOth,  Cai)tain 
Ludington,  of  Company  H,  senior  captain,  resigned.  On 
January  22d  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  moved  camp 
about  two  miles  over  to  the  east  side  of  town  beyond 
Fort  Wood  and  near  Citico  Creek.    George  Marsh,  writ- 


iM  THE  ONE  HUNDKEI)  ANI>  FOURTH 

inj:  nil  l\-l»niai\  Tlli,  nuvs:  *M)ii<-  ..f  iln-  hi-  luirU  ware- 
limiM-s  full  of  ariiiv  supplies  IhhimmI  .l.iwn  last  iiijrht. 
Tlif  l»«»ys  liavr  just  iiMi-ivril  «*iu»u;:li  siM-ks  and  inittfiis 
fnuii  tin-  lailirs  of  I^i  SaIN-  rouniv  to  last  tlirin  six 
iii«iiitlts.  Li<Mii*'iisiiit  M.  Osmaii.  S»i;:«aiii  .Major  iy  l>. 
Whitmaii.  S«T;ifaut  NN'.  .Mism-r,  of  t 'oiiipaiiv  r, ;  ( "oii.oial 
L.  F.  Ilollaiul.of  roiupaii.v  H,  and  iVupoial  S.  A.  Si;:iioi-, 
»if  <  'oiiipaiiv  ( *,  liavf  jioiir  hoi  II.'  oil  r.(  iiiit  iii;^  s<'r\  iio  and 
to  H«i*  llirir  faiiiiili«*s." 

As  tin*  aniiv  was  sinut  of  muh's  and  hoi-srs  owiii^ 
iti  llu'  awful  iinutality  duiin;:  tin*  sit';:«',  a  new  sni»pl,v 
iMM-aiiK*  iMM«'ssarv  Infon*  any  now  inovonionls  «-onld  ho 
iiiau;:uialod,  and  *>u  I'ohiuary  lllli  lho(Mio  lliindio<l 
and  I'ourtli  was  smt  to  Nash\ilh'  !••  Itrin^^  forward  all 
that  tould  In*  ohlaiin-d.  This  .m  iiision  was  a^rooahlo 
to  tin-  hoys,  as  it  was  a  hioak  into  iho  iiionoiony  of  ilio 
last  tuo  inoinhs,  and  y;av«'  thoin  an  op|(oiinnily  lo  sit* 
our  woundod  in  NasliNiilo  hos|iiials,  and  !«»  onjoy  tho 
si;:lits  of  the  rapilal,  win  mo  iIm-v  had  fonnoily  sjicnt 
KoiiH*  ploasanl  wooks.  <  hi  :nri\al  iho  Ko<:;iinoni  was 
<|uart««rod  in  Harrarks  No.  ;;,  Iti-oad  stroot,  hut  on  i  ho 
ir»tli  inovod  to  Clin  I'attory.  <'aptaiii  L«'i;:hion.  of 
<'4iiupany  A,  who  was  thm  in  Nashvillo  slill  sulVnin^X 
from  his  wound,  says,  "Tho  One  llnndiiMl  and  I'oiiiih 
an*  lion*  and  having;  a  j^ood  tiino  catchin;;  and  hrc  akin;:: 
inulos  and  onjoyin;:  ihoir  holiday  hy  al!ondin^  tlio  va- 
rious jdaros  of  aniusoiiioiii,  j»rini  ipally  I  ho  1  hoalci'  whofo 
.1.  \N'.  Itooth  is  now  playin;;,  many  of  couiso  attoinlin^ 
•  liurrh  oil  Sunday.  Tho  mulos  aif  mostly  yomiM^  and 
wildor  than  a  ( 'oiiiam  ho  I  ndiaii.  Tho  juoross  of  «at(  h- 
in;:  tliom  is  fun  for  iho  hoys,  hut  <|uito  tho  contiary  for 
tin*  jMior  inuloy.  Tiit-y  throw  a  ro|tc  ovor  his  In  ad  and 
dra^^jiii;;  him  out  of  tin-  di-o\o,  ono  Ht.MZ<'s  him  li\  iho 
oars  iind  throw  s  him  dow  u  w  lion  ho  is  hold  uni  il  luidlod 
and  liarnoss«M|,  tlnu  hoin;;  lot  up,  muloy  lohols,  rofnsos 
to  iiiovo,  liiit  is  put  in  moiii>ii,  not  hy  moral  suasion, 
liiit  liy  11  lihoral  appliralion  of  hlai  ksnako."  Having 
tiy  Manh  'M  soruro«l  om-  thousand  mulos.  two  hiimlrod 
horsos  ami  oi^hty  wa;:oiis,  tho  Ifooimrnt  staiioil  alMUit 
iHMiii  for  tho  front  and  ;:oin;;  four  inilos  woni  into  i-amp. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  195- 

The  following  "itinerary"  of  the  joiirnej^  was  given 
to  the  writer  by  Sherman  Leland  "March  4th.  Broke 
camp  at  eight  a.  m.  Thirty  non-commissioned  officers 
commanded  by  Major  Widmer,  acted  as  advance  guard. 
Halted  at  La  A'ergne  for  dinner,  then  moved  on  and 
camx)ed  for  the  night  at  Stewart's  Creek  near  a  large 
brick  house. 

"March  5th.  Leaving  camp  early  we  made  twenty- 
two  miles  on  the  Shelbjville  Road  and  camped. 

"March  Gth.  Started  early  and  passed  through 
Shelbyville,  a  very  lovely  place.  Having  made  twenty 
miles  Ave  camped  at  night  on  Thompson's  Creclv. 

"March  7th.  Starting  at  eight  Ave  reached  Tulla- 
lioma  at  eleA'en,  where  we  got  dinner,  loaded  forage, 
and  then  pushed  on  to  the  Elk  KiAcr,  Avhere  we  Avent 
into  camp  during  a  hard  storm  near  a  graA'eyard, 

"March  8th.  We  remained  in  camp  to-day  waiting' 
for  teams  that  AA'ere  behind,  stuck  in  the  mud. 

"March  9th.  All  of  the  teams  having  come  up  we 
started  at  eight  and  crossing  the  Elk  reached  CoAA'an 
soon  after  noon.  The  Regimental  Postmaster  joined 
us  here  Avith  a  good  supply  of  letters.  Going  on  a  few 
miles  we  camped  on  a  creek  at  the  foot  of  the  moun- 
tains. There  Avere  fish  in  the  creek,  but  thev  failed  to 
bite. 

"March  10th.  During  the  night  it  rained  A^eiw  hard,, 
but  we  began  to  ascend  the  Cumberland s  and  by  the 
route  followed  when  we  set  out  on  the  Chickainauga 
campaign.  The  road  proved  to  be  most  horrible,  but 
AA'e  made  Tantallon  and  biA^ouacked. 

"March  11th.  The  creeks  were  much  swollen,  but 
managing  to  get  our  stock  across  we  moved  on,  and 
in  some  places  had  to  swim  the  animals.  Mj'  horse- 
stumbling  I  receiA'ed  a  good  ducking.  Camped  to-night 
at  Anderson's. 

"March  12th.  We  moA'ed  on  down  the  valley  and 
passing  through  Stevenson,  camped  two  miles  beyond.. 
We  Avere  now  getting  nearer  the  front. 

"March  13th.  Setting  out  at  seven  a.  m.  for  Bridge- 
port, Ala.,  we  soon  met  a  man  who  was  decrepit  from. 


IM 


THK  ONK   HlNIHtKI'   AM»   F"l   ICTM 


ajjf  au«l  hafiUliip  ainl  was  tlun  «»ii  his  waiv  home  ixflov 
till  iiii|U'isuiiiiirut  (if  si'Vt'll  luttiitlis  ill  Lihltv.  lie  had 
btfii  imairtiTalttl  Imm-uiihcu  I'liioiiisi.  \\ «-  rrosstnl  the 
Ti'iiiu*Ks«M'  ai  nrJ«I;;r|M»rt  jiiid  wmi  iiii«t  ramp  in*ar 
llo;.'  .lau  Nalh'V,  w  hm'  \\«'  slalitiinMl  a  strt»ii;i  pirk**!, 
i(  imw  Immii;;  iHMi'ssarv  to  ^iianl  our  liin-s  >n«II. 

"Marrh  Uth.  Starting;  rail.v  wf  aiiiv«M|  ai  \\  hitr- 
Hliltti  a!  Ihni*  p.  iii.  In  passing;  iln-  'Naiiow  s'  uc  iia«l 
HoiiH*  iliflii  itliv.  as  f»»r  a  iiiih*  Ihrrt-  was  jusi  i«k»iu  Im*- 
twiiMi  ih«*  iiioiiiitaiiis  and  lli«-  river  fur  th«'  rail  and 
\va;;i>n  roads.  I  hm*  look  ad>'anta<;('  oT  I  he  opport  unity 
to  visit  the  famous  Nirka  .la«k  cavr,  where  the  rel»els 
had  sjiltpetre  works.  This  is  a  ^reat  natural  mriosity, 
said  to  run  hack  under  SantI  Mouniaiii  for  miles.  A 
tr»i*k  of  the  purest  watei-  inns  lioni  It;  heauiifiil  in- 
rrustatious  fresro  the  roof. 

"On  the  loth  the  «a\alraile  iiiommI  on,  ami  passin;; 
hy  the  old  road  ar<uind  and  o\er  the  norih  eml  of 
I^iokoiit.  went  on  llirou;:h  rhattanoo;;a  and  into  eainp 
two  miles  from  Mission  lvid;;e.  Here  we  remained 
until  the  17th.  meantime  i  urnin;:  o\  er  unr  siock  in  ;;ood 
order,  and  rollert  in;;  t  he  fV.i;;;;ai:e  left  helliml.  The  I  li]» 
of  live  Wii'ks  had  heell  a  SUr«essful    olle  ami  was  elijnycd 

by  all.  We  foumi  iln-  w(*atln*r  warm  and  |iearli  and 
other  trees  ha<l  been  in  hloom  for  two  weeks." 

iMirin;:  the  alisem-e  of  the  (  Mie  Hundred  and  I 'on  it  h 
vast  preparations  had  heeii  in  pro;:ress  looking;  to  the 
Kpriii;;  eampai;;n  a;:ainsi  the  n-liel  army,  then  eom- 
liiaiided  by  iJeiieral  .loseph  \l.  dohnstoii,  whiih  lay 
iiitreiirhed  at  Ihilt<»n  and  IJocky  I'ace  Kiil^^e,  ready  to 
dispute  the  passa;;e  of  the  Inion  armies  into  (ieoi-;:ia. 
In  .Marrh  (ieiieral  Sherman  had  l)e<>n  desiunaied  by 
<ieni'ral  <5rant  as  the  t'ommamler  of  tin'  .Miliiaiy 
DiviKJon  of  the  Mississippi,  the  laiier  haviie^  been 
made  the  <nMieral-in< 'hief  of  nil  t  he  armies  of  the 
I'liited  States.  .\l»out  .Marrh  L*r»t  h  tJeueial  Sherman, 
areoiiipanied  by  tb'iieial  .Mt  riierson,  repaired  tot'liat- 
tanoo^a  to  eoiifer  with  (b-iieral  Tlnmias  and  arranp» 
the  plans  of  raiiipai<.Mi.  Stron;;  renunioissames  made 
in   I'ldiruary  l»y  several   tli  visions  of    the    I'ourf  »mm(  h 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  197 

Corps  in  the  direction  of  Dalton  had  devel(»i>ed  the  fact 
that  the  enemy  were  in  lieavy  force  at  P»n//.ar(rs  Koost 
of  Jiocky  Face,  and  at  (dhcr  i)oints.  After  sonic  tij;ht- 
inii',  witii  a  loss  of  several  liundrcd  men,  it  was  deter- 
mined tliat  all  attempts  to  <lislod,uv  the  rebels  then 
would  be  futile.  Therefore  the  troops  were  posted  in 
o-ood  positions  to  await  further  deveh)pments.  Two 
brigades  of  .Ff>hnson's  Division  were  ])lace(l  at  Tyner's 
Station  on  the  Knoxville  Railroad,  nine  miles  from 
('hattanooj»a,  and  the  third  at  (Jraysville  with  a  force 
at  }*arker's  (Jap. 

On  tin-  17th  tlie  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  rejoined 
Jcdinson's  Division  at  Tynei-'s,  and  on  the  UMh  marched 
to  (Jraysville.  Leland  says:  ''We  canii)ed  on  the  e<l.ue 
of  a  beautiful  i>rove  of  youno-  pines.  The  tents  were 
pitched  in  ref»ular  order  and  the  boys,  fearing  we  would 
remain  some  time,  beautified  their  (juarters.  Trees 
were  set  out,  grounds  cleared  and  an  evergreen  stajid 
built  for  the  band  boys,  (leneral  Palmer,  (I'ommander 
of  the  Fourteenth  ('orps,  came  along  and  complimented 
us  on  having  the  most  orderly  and  prettiest  camp  in 
the  De])artment."  The  One^  HundrcMl  and  Fourth 
renuiined  at  (Jraysville  engaged  in  heavy  picket  duty 
and  in  preparing  for  the  advance  soon  to  be  made. 
One-half  of  the  Regiment  was  often  on  picket.  A 
number  of  recruits  had  joined  the  Ilegiment,  but  ther^ 
were  less  than  three  hundred  men  in  all,  inclmling  the 
old  members  who  had  returned.  Captain  Leighton 
arrived  on  the  Sth,  but  his  wound  still  troubled  him 
very  much.  He  was,  however,  anxious  *to  be  with  his 
(V)m])any,  which  had  tw(uity-seven  men  for  duty.  On 
the  27tli  of  April  marching  orders  came  and  also  oixh'rs 
to  have  twenty  days'  rations  ready;  all  baggage  was 
to  be  sent  to  Chattanooga. 

General  Sherman,  on  assuming  the  command,  had 
set  about  reorganizing  his  armies  and  nmking  every 
preparation  for  the  long  and  remarkable  campaign  to 
follow.  He  had  the  three  armies  of  the  Cumberland, 
the  Tennessee  and  the  Ohio,  commanded  respectively 
by  Generals  Thomas,  McPherson  and  Schofield,  from 


IM  THE  ONE  Hl'NDRED  AND  F'OURTH 

wliifli  to  HvU'il  his  «:rainl  army  of  invasion.  Me  |»r<»- 
jHiMil  to  taki*  ."itl.CMIO  iiM-n  of  tin*  liist,  :^\(i(M>  of  tin*  sec- 
oiul  aii«l  iri,(K>(l  of  ilic  iliinl.  lot:il  KKI.OOO,  ain)  iiiohilizo 
tln'iii  l»\  liaiiisliin^  \\a;:ons,  tnits,  l>aj:;;a<:«',  and  «*v»*rv- 
thiii;:  in»t  al>s«»lul«-l\  iHMt-ssarv.  Ka«li  n-^j^iiiHMit  was 
allowdl  but  OIK*  wiipin  and  one  anil>ulan(-t'.  Kacli  sol- 
dier and  oHitiT  was  nM|nin'd  to  carry  on  his  jhtsoii 
his  iloihin;:  and  tivr  days'  iali«ins.  A  inul«*  «»r  park 
hoiTir  was  allow  I'd  |o  thr  olVims  of  rjlcli  rompany. 
IVnts  won*  to  \n'  takrn  for  tin*  si«k  and  wounded  only, 
exi*«*|»t  that  each  ln*ad«|nart»*rs  was  allowed  a  tent. 

<S«Mi«*raI  Slu-rnian  and  his  Staff  proposi'd  to  uso  tont 
flies  onl\.  TIh'si'  roiild  In-  spn-ad  ovrr  fcnrr  rails,  jhdes, 
vir.  tirnrral  'i'lionias,  however,  did  not  obey  the  order 
but  had  his  re^Milar  tents,  and  Sherman  says  that  the 
boysciilh'd  his  establishmiMil  "Thomas' Cirrus."  W  hen 
May  2d  airived,  which  lime  hail  Immmi  set  by  (Irant  iTtr 
a  ^^iMicral  and  united  movement  of  all  the  armies  of 
the  I'liiiin  a;:ainsl  the  hosts  of  the  rebellion.  <Iencral 
Sherman's  army  musieretl  as  follows:  Army  of  the 
Cumberland,  riO,77.'i  men :  Army  of  the  Tennessee'.  L'4,4<»."> 
men;  .\rmy  of  the  (Hiio,  ftj,.~i.~».">  men;  ;:rand  ai^irre^ate, 
1)S,7;»7  men;  artilh-ry,  -r>4  j;uns.  This  poweifnl  array 
was  to  be  further  increased  soon  by  cavalry  divisions 
not  yet  attached.  In  addition,  ( ieiieral  I' rank  \\  ]>lair, 
with  t  wo  d  i  visit  t  us.  const  it  nt  in;^  I  he  Se\enieent  h  .\rmy 
Corps,  joined  Sheinian  on  dnne  IMli  at  Ackwoitli  and 
IJi;;  Shanty,  <  la. 

To  op|»ose  this  poweifnl  a;:;^rei:at  it»n  (leneial  .lidin- 
«ton  had  on  .Mii\  1st,  as  pei-  his  i-epoil.  (\ide  Kel>.  Uec, 
Vol.  ;{s,  I't.  :{,  p.  «;i  n.  HMM>i»  inlanny  and  artilh'iy,  and 
about  t,(MM)  cavali-.N.  lint  by  dune  Isi  liis  arm\  had 
be«'ii  increased  to  nearl\  r»0,(MIO  men.  lie  had  in  his 
favor  also  the  advanta;^e  of  choosing;  iiis  positions, 
■which  Were  foriilied  in  ad\ance  by  thousands  of  slaves. 
'J'lie  natural  defenses  of  the  country  were  foiuiidable 
in  character  and  made  every  mountain,  hill  and  \alley, 
UK  Well  3IS  riN«*rs  and  streams,  a  source  of  strength. 
His  army  would  increase  constantly,  while  as  Slieiniaii 
ntoveil    further   awa\    he    must    jo.se    liesides    |ossi*s   in 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  199 

battle,  many  tliousaiids,  detached  to  hold  his  lines  to 
the  rear  and  (h'fend  the  conquered  territory.  'Plx'se 
conditions  balanced  much  of  the  dilTereuce  in  size  of 
the  two  armies.  Captain  Leighton,  writing  on  the 
2<)th  (►f  Ai)ril,  says:  ''We  are  still  at  Graysville.  My 
wound  is  troublesome.  I  am  getting  used  to  the  ohl 
rations  and  camp  life  again.  Things  are  ])leasant  in 
the  Regiment,  the  men  are  healthy  and  in  hue  s[)irits. 
Our  camp  is  situated  four  miles  from  our  picket  lines, 
Avhich  are  south  of  Taylor's  Ridge.  From  the  ])icket 
station  on  to]»  of  the  I'idge  we  can  see  both  lines  of 
pickets.  There  is  a  half  mile  of  neutral  ground.  The 
pickets  exchange  comT)linients  every  day  or  two,  and 
have  tried  several  times  to  drive  our  men  from  the 
picket  station,  but  failed.  This  nu)rning  at  sev(Mi  they 
began  the  exercise  again,  but  without  avail,  as  six 
regiments  wer(^  sent  out.  Ours,  however,  was  not 
ordered  forward — one-half  of  it  being  already  on  the 
picket  line.  Many  ])risoners  were  brought  in.  On 
account  of  my  wound  Colonel  llapeman  assigned  me 
to  light  duty." 

Writing  on  May  1st,  Cai)tain  Leighton  says:  "We 
received  orders  at  twelve  last  night  that  reveille  would 
sound  at  four  a.  m.  and  to  have  the  men  up  and  two 
days'  rations  in  haversacks  ])rej)ared,  all  rea(l.y  to  march 
at  six.  !r?o  immediately  after  the  bugle  sounded  the 
camps  were  astir,  knapsacks  and  haversacks  packed, 
and  all  provided  with  plenty  of  cartridges,  as  it  was 
not  desirable  to  start  without  plenty  of  these  in  case 
of  need.  By  six  the  camp  became  quiet,  an  indication 
that  all  was  ready.  Then  followed  a  period  of  sus- 
pense, and  when  this  had  produced  impatience,  Joe, 
our  bugler,  was  called  for  to  blow  his  horn,  but  seven 
and  eight  o'clock  arrived  and  no  assembly  sounded. 
At  nine  an  orderly  rode  up  with  an  order  countermand- 
ing the  march.  In  five  minutes  one  would  not  have 
supposed  that  the  camp  had  been  disturbed.  During 
the  day  an  order  was  received  directing  that  all  bag- 
gage and  surplus  tents  be  sent  to  the  rear  and  to  take 
nothing   but   what   we   could   carry   on   our   persons. 


a»  THK  o.Sr.   Ml  .NKui.i-   .\M'   i  .»L'UTH 

iCiiiiiors  In  «|;i\  llial  llif  rifhM-iilli  ;iii<l  Tu  »*iil  i<M  li  «"..ii»>i 
llll\i*  Im';;uii  I  III*  ;i«|njui««*." 

Oil  the  .'{il  tlu*  Our  IIiiii<Ii-<mI  and  Foiirlli  iiianlMMl 
Willi  llu-  ltri;:ailf  to  Kiii^;;M|<l  aii<l  raiii|MMl  al  iIm*  f«M»l 
of  TaxlMi's  Kitlj;«'.  Hu  lln-  r»tli  it  wfiit  !••  Parkri's  Tiap, 
rfliiniiii;:  !••  Kiii^:;:o|«|  tm  tin*  «itli.  Slininaii  Lchmd 
miVK:  "This  rvfiiiii;:  wjis  niu'  Ion;:  in  Im'  i<'Iii«'IiiImi«mI. 
onltTK  hi'iiin  riTfivtMl  that  tin*  riiiiif  aiinv  wniil.l  a. I 
vaiHf  lo  iimnow  a;:aiiist  tin*  immmiiv.  StMtii  afin-  «laik 
lioiitirfs  \v«-if  li;:ht«Ml.  all  t«-iils  wm*  illiiiiiitialc<|,  and 
rlHi'rx  ran;;  ff«ini  om*  fiid  «>f  tin-  army  lo  ilif  oiln-r. 
Mili*H  iiwiix  down  tilt'  \alh-y  tin*  «lnMMin;:  cttiiiiinMUMMl, 
and  rolling;  ahm;;  lik«'  iIm-  i<v«'ilM'iaiions  <»f  tiniinh'r. 
Went  fi'oiii  oil*'  end  of  the  valh'v  to  th<*  otli«*r.  then 
lurntil  and,  s«M'iiiin;ily  loudfi-  than  iM-foic,  passed  hack. 
Mixed  with  the  noise  was  the  tiiin;;  td  wci  powder  into 
the  air  from  the  mnskels,  prodiicjii;^  miiiianiie  liic- 
works.  The  releliralion  was  kepi  up  for  i  w  o  Ihmiis, 
when  the  tiimnli  siihsided  and  naught  save  a  tire  here 
ami  there  indieated  that  an  aiiii\  of  lOO.dOO  men  ro- 
|N>Kii|  In  thill  vallev." 

<  Ml  the  morning:  of  .\|a\  Tili  Sliermans  jirmies  wiie 
in  motion  against  the  enemy.  The  ronrieeiiili  Army 
I  orp'^,  with  I  he  Tu  eiiiiei  h  I  i  looker's  I  on  l  he  i  ii;hl.  and 
the  l*'onilh  ( ll<»\\  aid's)  on  ihe  jefi,  advanced  to  Tiimiel 
II  ill  and  drove  on  l  t  he  small  foire  of  relx-K  I  lieic,  who 
f«dl  hark  to  the  slitni^  i»osiiion  of  Kocky  I'ate.  which 
with  its  ;;or;:e  called  |{ii//.ard's  Koosi,  also  ••.Mill  t 'reek 
<!ap,"  was  Niron;;|\  fori  i  tied  l»y  mil  me  and  an.  In  t  his 
iiiovenieiit  the  One  Hundred  and  I'oiirt  h,  t hen  nnmher- 
iii^,  its  per  i  'oloned  I  la|>eman's  report,  L*7!»  enlisted  men 
and  17  onicers.  |iari  i<  i|>aiei|,  and  occii|)ied  that  ni;:ht 
tin-  cani|i  of  1  he  Teiii  h  t  'oiifederale  ( 'a  valry  of  Wheeler's 
roinmand.  The  still  smoldering:  tires  ami  foia^e  scat- 
tered around  showed  that  I  he  enemy  had  left  in  a  hurry. 
The  position  of  |lii/./.ard's  KtMist  hein;;  alniosi  impre^- 
iiahh*  to  attack  in  front,  Sherman  prtiposed  to  iniii 
il  liy  sending:  .Md'heison  with  the  Army  of  the  Ten 
lietiMii*  Ihroii^li  Snake  Creek  tlap  on  ihe  rlL'hi  and 
striking  the  lehfl   rear  enilaiiuer   his   poviiioii   ;ii    hal 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  201 

ton.  Tlierefoiv  t<»  cjiny  out  tliis  ])l;ni,  McPIkm-sou 
b(\i;an  tlio  iiiovonioiit,  while  to  cover  the  real  d('si«;n^ 
the  Fourteenth  Corps  was  to  dcnuonstrate  heavily  in 
front  of  liuzzard's  Koost  as  if  intendinii  to  carry  it.  On 
the  8th  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth,  niarchin<>'  witk 
rarliu's  IJrij^ade,  look  position  on  some  hills  half  a  mile 
southwest  of  \\\\7//AiV(V^  lioost,  aiul  after  m(»vinj;()ii<-e  or 
twice,  camped  for  the  ni«>ht.  The  Dth  was  ushered  in 
by  advances  in  force  of  several  divisions  of  the  Fourth 
(\)ri)s,  and  the  enemy  pressed  back  into  tlieir  lines. 
Genei-al  (Jeary  made  an  attem]»t  to  scale  (Miattooj;a 
Mountain,  but  met  with  resistance  and  it  was  aban- 
doned. I  lis  loss  was  considerable.  The  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth  and  Ei<;i»ty-eiohth  Indiana,  which, 
with  the  ]>ri_i:,ade,  was  orch'red  across  Mill  Creek,  took 
p()siti(ni  on  a  spur  overlooking  the  enemy's  works  in 
the  (Jap  and  was  en<;aj;ed  in  lively  skirmishing-  most 
of  the  (lay,  but  the  Kegiment  lost  no  men.  The  rest  of 
the  l?rima<le,  also  eiiiiagiMl,  met  with  a  sliiiht  h)ss. 
McPherson's  army  entered  and  ])assed  throu<j,h  Snake 
Creek  Oap  on  the  9th,  and  i^reatly  surprised  Johnston, 
but  findin<i-  liesaca  fortified  and  manned,  and  afraid  of 
bein<;-  attacked  from  Dalton,  McPherson  withdrew  to 
the  mouth  of  the  (ia]>  and  threw  uj)  works,  (reneral 
Sherman  claims  that  here  the  Commander  of  the  Army 
of  the  Tennessee  made  a  mistake  in  not  seizing  Resaca, 
which,  when  he  arrived  near  it,  was  occupied  by  only 
one  brigade  of  thv:  enemy.  Or  he  could  have  placed 
his  army  across  the  railroad  and  Johnston's  line  of 
communications  and  have  forced  hini  to  retreat  in 
disorder  over  roads  almost  impassable,  and  witli 
Thomas  and  Schotield  close  behind,  he  would  liave  lost 
half  his  army,  artillery  and  wagons.  By  night  of  the 
9th  it  was  too  late,  as  Hood,  with  three  divisions,  occu- 
pied Kesaca.  General  Sherman,  on  learning  the  result, 
resolved  to  throw  his  whole  army  through  Snake  Creek 
Gap. 

During  the  10th  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  occu- 
pied the  same  position  as  on  the  previous  day,  and  was 
skirmishinjr  more  or  less  heavilv  all  the  time.    On  the 


>>:  THE  ONE  HI'NnHKD  AND  FOURTH 

111  It  ii  \wl^  n-lifV«Ml  afi«r  liaviiiu  Im-cu  iiinln-  lir.-  foi 
foriv  Ihiiii*!*  foiiiiiiiioiislv.  aii«l  r«Mrossiii<;  Mill  •  KmU, 
(-aiii|Mi|  ftir  tin*  ni;;hl  «»ii  soiiit-  liills. 

OiiliTx  having  Immmi  issutMl  l»v  (mmmmjiI  SlHiinaii  l<»i- 
lldWiinrK  TorpK  nln*  Fourth)  and  Sioiuiuairs  Tavalrv 
!«•  rfiiiaiii  iM'foiM'  nu/.zanl's  Koost,  tin*  irst  «»f  tin*  anii.v 
wan  iliiiMictl  lit  iiiairh  I  lii«Mi;:li  Siiaki- < 'nM'k  <  iap.  w  liirli 
il  iliil  on  ilii-  iL'ili  aiKJ  l.''ili.  aii<l  *  uii(ciiti-ai«><l  :iroini<l 
l{«*Mi(-a,  Mtl'iM-isMii  oil  ilir  li^lii,  'riioinas  in  tin*  cimi- 
llT,  tllltl  Srlu»rH'|i|  oil  tlir  h'fl.  rnMltI:il  .luJinstcUl  was 
foiiiiil  to  liatr  withdraw  II  his  aniiy  wiiliin  ihr  vciv 
««xiriisivi' iiml  stitui;:  works,  his  jMiJiry  fNitJciillv  lu-iii;; 
lo  art  on  th««  drfi'iisivr  riitiri'lv.  thus  Iraviii;;  Cn'iKMal 
Sh<Tiiiaii  the  alternative  of  attacking  his  alinosi  iiii- 
|ire^nahle  positions  and  sai  ritieiii;;  thoiisaihls  of  val 
ualde  lives,  or  of  rout  iniiiii^  his  ;;:raiid  slratc^iir  tlaiik 

IIHiVellielitS  wllirll   Would  of  ||i*ressil  V  <-o|u|m-1  .lolmsloli 

to  rrtreat  or  ha\e  his  ronniiiiiiirat  ions  i  iii  olT,  when 
(liKaster  wtHild  he  sure  to  follow  wheihei-  his  army 
foii;:ht  within  the  intreiirhiiients  or  outside.  ( ieiieral 
SlMMiiian  also  had  an  idea  that  he  wtuild  \ei  he  aide 
to  taki*  .lohnsioii  unawares,  as  Mrriierson  *lid  him  at 
Hiiake  Crei'k  iJap,  and  arhie\e  a  \iei«»iy  wiihoni  loo 
iiiin-li  sa«-rifi<e  of  lives. 

The  t  )ne  1 1 II  nd  led  a  lid  I'oiiri  h.  lea  V  inn  camp  on  t  he 
rjth  at  six  a.  in.,  reaelied  the  (la|)  ai  dark  and  iiiarrh- 
in;;  throii^ih  rampeil  in  Siij:ar  N'alhy.  om-  mile  east  of 
the  il(*lMMirlie.  (Ml  the  i:;t|i  ill)-  Ke^^inieiil  took  all 
urtlve  part  in  the  day's  operation.^  and  not  wiihont 
joKK.  t'oloiM-l  llapeinaii  says  in  his  lejioit  :  "The  line 
of  the  hri^ade  was  formed  ahoiit  noon,  the  Ke^jinieiit 
ill  the  lirht  line,  with  the  ICi^rhly-ei-hi  h  Indiana  on  the 
ri^hf  and  the  rift^i'iiih  Kentiirky  on  the  left,  rom- 
panies  A  and  K  were  deployed  as  skirmishers.  .Major 
\\  idnier  in  ehar;;e.  They  ad\  anted  a  «'onsideialde  dis- 
Imne,  driviii;;  the  enemy's  sKliniishers  until  tiny 
r«'iu  IiinI  Tainp  t 'reek,  where  ih<-  en.. my  was  disi.ixcred 
ill  forri*.      In  adviinrin;;  anoss  an  op.n   lirhi   in   front 

*'f  'I neni\'s  Works  tin.  eompanies  lost  .uie  man  iiior- 

lally   Wounded,  and  four  \\  oinMh-ij      The  |:»..^ji,,,.in  ^vas 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  203 

reliovod  in  the  ovonini;-  by  a  portion  of  the  Twentieth 
Corps  and  moved  fuiiiicr  to  the  left"  Durinjj;-  the  day 
Howard  advanced  throu<;;h  Dalton  and  nearly  to 
Resaea,  skirmishing  all  the  way.  McPherson,  with  Kil- 
patrick's  cavalry  in  advance  and  Hooker  on  his  left, 
advanced  on  the  roads  to  llesaca.  Palmer  moving  on 
the  left  was  engaged  all  day  in  skirmishing.  Scho- 
tield's  two  divisions  were  to  the  left  of  Palmer,  and 
Howard  one  mile  from  Scholield's  left. 

(leneral  Johnston  had  formed  his  army  with  Polk 
on  the  left,  Hardee  in  th(^  center,  and  Hood  on  the 
right.  His  heaviest  works  were  in  fnnit  of  Camp 
Creek,  where  the  One  Hnndred  and  Fourth  had  been 
engaged.  General  Shennan  had  already  prepared  to 
get  into  the  enemy's  rear  by  having  two  pontoon 
bridges  thrown  across  the  Oostenaula  Kiver  three  mih^s 
l)elow  Kesaca,  and  had  sent  General  Garrard's  ( Javalry 
Division  to  operate  on  the  railroad,  seven  miles  from 
the  town  at  Calhonn. 

On  the  14th  McPherson,  crossing  Camp  Creek  near 
the  month,  encountered  Polk  and  drove  him  from  the 
hills  to  his  trenches.  The  whole  line  then,  from  Hook- 
ei-'s  left,  was  slowly  swung  round  on  General  John- 
ston's Division  of  the  Fourteenth  Corps,  as  a  pivot,  Car- 
lin's  Brigade  being  the  first  to  encounter  the  foe.  The 
rest  of  the  army  to  the  left  then  came  successiveh^  into 
action.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  formed  with 
the  Brigade  in  line  of  battle,  with  two  companies  out 
as  skirmishers  with  or<lers  to  press  the  enemy  hard. 
The  advance  was  through  thick  woods  and  across  an 
occasional  opening.  The  enemy's  works  were  on  a  hill 
back  of  an  open  field  and  as  the  Regiment  came  up 
and  the  skirmishers  moved  forward,  a  terrific  fire  was 
opened  upon  it  from  every  tree  and  log,  and  from  their 
works  below  the  hill.  The  skirmishing  companies 
advanced  within  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards  of  their 
line,  when  firing  was  directed  upon  them  from  another 
line  of  trenches.  They  then  sought  such  shelter  as 
could  be  had  and  fought  the  enemy  for  two  hours  and 
until  they  kept  very  closely  in  the  trenches,  to  which 


an  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOl'HTH 

all  hail  hiM'ii  driven.  S«*r«;«*aiii  Aiiiold,  of  riunpaiiv  A, 
rolhflin;;  his  ;^niii|>  Im'IiiimI  a  l<>^,  ili<l  ^mul  wuik.  Inn 
tliry  wi-n*  iiiiirli  aiiii«i>«Ml  bv  a  sliaipslnMtirr  in  a  iH)-, 
iiiilil  ilisroMTiii;;  w  linr  lir  was,  ihr  •:ronp  liicd  liy 
vollfjk  ami  Lu'oiijilit  liiiii  iImwh  ratliri-  lash-r  than  a 
n*;:anl  for  IiIk  licalth  wonhl  warrant.  Iln'  htii^ath* 
Immui:  iiiisiip|»ortr«l  maih*  no  rhai';;«*  upon  the  worUv; 
aii«l  linally  f«'ll  l»a«k  to  the  shelter  nf  tin-  < 'irrk.  'I'Im- 
I{«-;:inii*nt  lost  oni*  man  kilh'<l  aiitl  nine  woumh'il.  The 
rasnalfies  on  the  l.'ttli  ami  llih  wri)'  as  follows: 
Kilhil — .lolin  FtMin.  ( 'ompany  1  ►.  .\l<»iially  woimiliMl — 
Si'r;ieant  .\lh*n  Hrn«Mliri,  t'ompaiiy  A;  lacoh  DrlTen- 
l>aii;:h.  ( 'oiiipany  <l.  WonndiMl  \Niii.  Ilaiicit.  15.  W. 
na;:ley  ami  < ".  <  'hi-ist  frlhT,  all  of  <  'onipaiiv  A  ;  <  'oi|(«»ial 
!•'.  K.  I'hi-lps  aii<l  oli\«'r  I].  ( iriest,  of  (  \iiii|taii\  It;  I'irst 
Seri»esint  ha\i«l  niiiikci-,  ('onipaiiv  <";  I'iisi  Sci-^t-aiit 
toil.  Mai'sh,  ( 'uiiipaiiy  I  >;  ( 'oi|M»ral  haiiitl  Mason,  ( 'nui- 
pany  <i;  K.  !•'.  .Malloiy.  ("nniitanx  I:  I'iisi  Sci^cant  ('. 
ii.  Itutterwerk.  < 'om|tan\  K  ;  lltiiiy  Mnkel,  ( Nunjiany 
K;  .\u;iustus  Knsner.  <'oni|tan\  K  :  lltiifv  Tox,  <  om- 
pany  K.  The  lu*a\y  li;,'litiii^'  of  tin-  <la\  was  fartli<r  lo 
the  left  ami  was  en^M^^ed  in  by  Uaiid's  ami  I>avis' 
IMvisions  with  vaiions  smcesses.  aided  l>y  the  ( "oips 
of  llowsird  and  Schnficld.  who  dro\i'  Hn-  i-n<'ni\  from 
tlu'ir  rifle  pits  and  into  theii-  woiks.  An  a<lvamed 
line  was  ;;ai!ied  from  which  onr  artillery  reaehed  the 
rehel  main  lines.  The  mnsketry  and  ;irtillery  lirin^' 
was  territlit-  all  day.  I'inally  ^Jeneial  Johnston  seeing 
that  the  lines  wei'e  diMwinu  <loser  around  hint  res(dved 
to  take  the  olTensixe  ami  try  to  tnrn  Sherman's  left 
Hank.  I'oi-  this  pnrpose  he  sent  Stewart's  and  Steven- 
son's I  divisions  jiml  two  Uii^^ades  of  Walker.  These 
triNipK  were  snereedin;:  when  they  weii' met  ami  hurled 
hark  in  defeat  l»y  Williams*  l>i\ision  of  the  Twi'iilieth 
< 'oips,  iiided  |»y  Sinn»nsoii's  jJatlei-y.  \\\  eveniii<i  other 
IriMips  arrixed  un  the  left,  snp|iorled  also  |»y  Mrt'ook's 
i'liVHJry.  (ieiieral  .lolmston  ordered  another  assault 
to  he  niad«'  in  the  m<»rnin;:.  Init  withdrew  the  order 
aflerw  iird. 

<  Ml   the   |."»ih   the  ad\anla;ies  ;iaim'd   the  day   lietui** 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  205 

were  followed  by  bold  a<»gressive  movements  on  the 
left,  but  these  were  not  in  full  heiuhvuv  until  noon, 
when  Geary  and  Buttertield,  Williams  in  resei-ve, 
advanced.  The  enemy  were  again  threatening  that 
Hank  and  Williams'  Division  was  deflected  to  the  left, 
deary  and  I^utterfi«dd  carried  tlu^  nearest  hills  and 
drove  the  rebels  from  a  battery,  but  could  neither 
remove  it  nor  hold  the  ground,  however,  retiring  a  lit- 
tle, they  kept  the  enemy  from  recapturing  it,  and  hauled 
it  off  at  night.  Further  to  the  right  the  entire  line 
was  engage<l,  particularly  Howard.  In  from  nf  the 
Army  of  the  Cumberland,  heavy  tiring  and  skiruiish- 
ing  occ^urred  all  day.  About  tive  p.  in.  Stevenson's 
and  Stewart's  Divisions  made  a  fierce  attack  for  posi- 
tion, but  were  repulsed  with  heavy  loss,  some  regiments 
being  nearly  annihilated.  The  heavy  artillery  tiring 
was  a  marked  feature  of  the  battles  at  Kesaca.  During 
the  night  Johnston  withdrew  his  army  across  the 
Oostenaula,  aiidOn  the  lOtli  Sherman's  entered  Resaca, 
and  pre])ared  to  pursue  the  enemy.  But  pontoon 
bridges  had  to  be  laid  and  this  caused  some  delay. 
The  Army  of  the  Tennessee  crossed  at  Lay's  Feriy  and 
Howard's  Corps  at  Resaca.  The  Army  of  the  Cum- 
berland followed. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  here  received  the 
knai)sacks  left  at  Snake  Creek  Cap  and  which  had 
been  left  behind  when  the  Regiment  advanced.  Cross- 
ing on  the  17th  with  the  rest  of  the  army,  the  Regi- 
ment marched  on  over  very  muddy  roads,  during  the 
day  passing  through  Calhoun.  The  combined  armies 
adA'anced  in  the  following  order:  Palmer  following 
Howard;  Hooker  on  the  left;  the  Army  of  the  Ohio  to 
his  left;  McPherson  on  the  right,  supported  by  Gar- 
rard's Cavalry;  Stoneman's  Cavalry  on  the  extreme 
left.  General  Howard  met  with  opposition  early  and 
fought  all  day,  the  rebels  retiring  from  one  position 
to  another  and  watching  for  an  opportunity  to  gain 
an  advantage,  but  at  night  Johnston  concluded  to 
retreat  further.  It  had  been  Genral  Shrman's  object 
to  bring  Johnston  to  battle  north  of  the  Etowah  River 


tot  THE  ONE  HVNDHED  AND  FOURTH 

or  iiiakf  liiiii  tfivv  up  Koiiit-  ••!•  AlIattKUia,  tlu-nfuie 
Ihivin'  irivisioii  was  start. -.1  f.»r  tin*  f«>riMci-  jilatf. 

till  iIm*  iNth  tlu'  nn»v«iinMit  was  <MHitimH'«l  l»y  all  the 
ariiiit*K,  ilu*  (Mm-  lhi!uli«-«l  aii<l  r<nntli  iiiairliiii;:  tttwuid 
A«laii>vill.-.  biv.Miarkiii;;  at  iii;:lit  tw«»  iiiiUs  fioiu  that 
plait-  an. I  ilin*«-  mil.-s  fi-..iii  Kiii<:st.m.  Oii  the  l!Mh  the 
Kruiiii.-iit  r.-a.  ImmI  Kiii;:st<ni  alxnit  !i»>«»ii.  This  place 
was  r.iiiii.l  t.»  Im' fiitii.-lv  <l.-s«'it<M|  liy  tin*  iiialc  pojiula- 
tioii.  The  KtrtH'ts  were  full  of  all  Uimls  .>f  ;:.».mIs  whi.h 
tlir  fMsipIr  ha.l  att.MHptf.l  to  i-.iiiMV.-.  Whil.'  .atiiij; 
iliiin.T  «>ii  tin-  banks  .if  a  liin'  .  r.-.U  liiitij,'  l».';;aii  in  iIm- 
fnuit.  iii.li.atiii;;  that  tli.-  .mk-iiiv  was  iicaf.  Th.'  I{r;ii- 
liifiit  s.Hiu  afl.T  luai.lM-.l  to  a  lni.li:.*  .>ii  tin*  l^t<twah, 
f.iur  iiiih'S  southwest  of  tin*  town.  Tin'  lii-iiij,^  was  upnii 
Stanl.'v's  Division,  whi.h  lc«l  lii.'  a.lvan.-.'  in  tin-  •  iii- 
t.T.  hut  picssin^r  foiwai.l  the  hattcry  f.'t i.'at.'.j.  ;iinl 
Staiih'V.  ;:oinji  f«>ui-  inih-s  fuitlit'i-  luft  the  .in'iny  a.l- 
van.in;;  in  stnui;;  f.»i.-.*  in  liii»*  <if  hat  tic  lloNNai.l's 
< 'orps  was  .Ic|iI.»\.mI  ami  ili**  .'H.-iiiy  halt<'<l.  Inn  um.I.'I* 
a  vi;;.»r.»us  aitilh-fy  lif.-  tlicir  liist  line  fell  hark  an. I 
ll.»\\  ar.l  .•«■.  iipi.Ml  t  h.*  posit  ion  and  k.-|)t  n|>  skiiMiiishiiii; 
until  .lark.  Nook. m*  .-am.*  up  in  th.'  lu.'antiiu.-.  During; 
thf  .lay  th.'  latt.-r  ha.l  Immmi  .Mi^ia^rtMl  on  llio  roa.l  to  ( 'ass- 
viih*.  w  h.'i'.*  a|ip.-aran.-.'s  indi.ai.W  ili:ii  J.thnstoii 
u.Mil.l  ;.'iv.' t  h.' hatt  I.'.  In  ant  i(i|»at  ion  (»f  this  (icncral 
Shcrnian  ..•n.-.'iit rat.-tl  his  arnii.-s.  lint  .lohnst.ui  .Inr- 
in;;  the  ni;.'lit  rr.»ss.'.|  th.*  I^towah  with  all  .>f  his  inat.*- 
rial  ami  r.Mr.'al.'.l  to  th.'  str.ui^  .l.'f.Mises  of  Allat.»oiia 
Pans,  lie  ha.l  h.-.-n  r.'inforc.Ml  hy  I'r.-nch's  Division 
an<l  wais  a.lvis.'.l  hy  llar.l.'.'  tt»  ti;:ht,  hut  .hos.-  th.* 
w  is«T  .-ours.',  as  Sh.'rinan  c.Mihl  hav.'  h.'at.Mi  him  at 
raiHMvine.  (icni'i'sil  Davis  .In rini,'  th.'s.- op.'rations  .ap- 
tuffMl  Home  with  a  h»ss  <»f  loO  men.  ami  with  it  th.' 
r.'iM'l  ma.  him- shops  ami  ir.ui  wtuks,  also  \ast  amounts 
of  r. it  Ion.  .'tc,  of  ;:r.'at  vain.*  t.i  t  h.-  rch.'ls. 

Tli.'  On.'  Ilumlr.'.l  an. I  l-'.uirth  mar.  h.-.l  on  ili«-  L'iMJi 
!••  a  |Miint  .in  th.'  railroa.l  f<»ur  mii.'s  from  Kin^rst.m, 
wh.-n-  it  r.'inain.'.l  until  th.'  U.'M.  to  .-nj.ty  a  mu.-h 
ikmiIimI  r.'sl  ami  t.»  pr.'par.-  for  th.-  n.'\t  movcm.-nt, 
whi.-li  wan  ilk.-ly   to  1m-  l<.n.^'  :iii.|  ar.luoMs  wiili    pl<-ntv 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  207 

of  fi«>litiiiji-.  Diiriiiji-  the  halt  all  siiiplus  baggage  was 
sdit  to  rhattaiio(>ga  in  chai-gc  of  Slu'nium  J.^land.- 
The  regimental  wagon  was  taken  away  and  the  Col- 
onel and  Adjntant  carried  necessary  papers  in  their 
hats  or  pockets.  The  same  stripping  process  was 
enfcu'ced  thronghout  the  army,  the  value  of  which 
ai)peared  later  on.  The  whole  army  was  now  halti^l 
on  the  line  of  the  EtoAvah  waiting  for  the  )-epaiis  on 
the  railroad  to  be  completed.  This  was  accomplished 
by  the  24th,  and  cars  loaded  with  supplies  reached 
Kingston.  Many  rei)orts  were  brought  in  by  negroes 
that  Johnston's  army  was  greatly  demoralized  by  con- 
stant retreating  and  the  failure  to  turn  our  think  at 
lleseca.  From  the  beginning  of  the  campaign  the 
southern  ])apei's  and  peoi»le  had  predicted  great  things 
of  (leneral  Johnston,  and  as  he  withdrew  from  one 
position  to  another,  said  that  he  was'  only  drawing- 
Sherman  on  and  when  the  time  came  would  destroy 
or  capture  the  wlude  "Yankee  Army."  In  these  hopes 
they  had  the  synn)athy  of  their  northern  friends,  the 
Co])]»ei'lieads.  That  had  been  the  talk,  but,  of  course, 
their  intelligent  leaders  knew  better,  and  Johnston 
knew  Sherman  too  well  to  delude  himself.  lie  could 
simply  avert  the  evil  day  that  was  to  close  down  in 
darkness  over  the  Confederacy.  Therefore  he  pursued 
the  only  wise  course  by  which  he  could  save  his  army 
and  by  it  served  the  rebel  cause  best. 

On  the  20th  General  Sherman  issued  orders  for  his 
combined  armies  to  move  on  the  23d.  He  did  not  pro- 
])Ose  to  attack  Johnston  at  the  strong  Allatoona  Pass, 
but  turn  it  by  moving  on  Marietta  via  Dallas.  This 
would  oblige  the  enemy  to  come  out  and  fight  or  again 
retreat.  The  Army  of  the  Cnmberland  was,  as  usual, 
the  central  column  and  marched  for  Dallas  via  the 
Euharlee  A'alley  and  Stilesboro.  Davis  marched  from 
Kome.  The  Army  of  the  Ohio  was  on  the  left  of  Thomas 
and  directed  toward  Burnt  IIick<u\v.  Mcl*lierson  kept 
on  the  right.  All  were  to  concentrate  at  Dallas.  The 
country  to  be  passed  over  was  wild,  away  from  the 
railroad,  and  therefore  rations  for  twenty  days  were 


SM  THK   <•.%».    Ml  M'Kl.l'    AM>    F<»IUTH 

iiik«*n  aluii;;  in  tin*  \vaj:<»ns.  Tin*  (Mh*  Iluiidn'd  ami 
r«»urili  Irfl  tamp  at  i'i;:lii  a.  m.  »»n  the  -.M,  and  iroinj; 
T«»iir  iiiili*»<  down  tin*  riv«*r  rrosKinl  by  wjuliii;^.  ihtii 
iiiairliiMl  alioiii   livf  iiiilt's  and  i-anipcd  iirai*  KiiliarliM- 

<  "t*t*»'k.  .\I»< '«Mik*s  1  H\  isioiis  of  «avall\V,  wliicli  plrrrdrd 
'riuMiias,  fmiiid  I  In*  tiuMiiv  in  ftHMM*  and  k«*pl  up  skir 
inihliiiiu  until  ni;.dil-  Tin*  march  was  n'siiiniMl  on  th<' 
l'4lh  toward  Itnrnt  llirkorv  and  skinnishint:  (ontin- 
u«mI.     (iarrards  TaxalrN    «tn    the    i*.\tnMn«*    ri^liJ     nn  is 

attiM-kcd  tlurin;:  th«*  day  by  Hales'  IMvision  of  infantry, 
of  llairihi'V  < 'orps.  Itnt  at  ni;^ht  llnrni  lliik»»i-y  wis 
orrnpied    l»v    1  h«'    I'ouilh    and    Tu  eiit  id  h    <  urps.      The 

<  Mie  I  InndnHl  and  l^Miirt  h  adxancin^  t  hi'<M>  inih's  rross('<l 
|{arro«in  ('reek  and  rainpfd. 

'rh«*  armies  \n  ere  now  w  ell  on  i  he  w  ay  lo  I  Jalhis  and 
the  motive  of  Sherman's  ad\an»e  l»ci  ainc  a|ipMiint  !<• 
dohnstoii,  who  also  saw  in  it  a  inenaee  to  .Marieii;i  and 
Atlanta.  Il«*  tlMMefoie  hastened  to  make  what  resist- 
am«'  in*  lonld.  ih\  the  L*r»t  h  the  advame  was  rontin- 
m^I  with  llookfr's  ("orps  aln-ad  in  the  <enter.  l)nt  his 
thriH?  divisions  w»if  on  separate  roads,  anti  as  he 
ii|ipi'oarhiMl  I'mapkin  \'ine('reek,  he  fonnd  the  ln'id^e 
aeioss  iIh*  stream  defended  by  the  ('inMny's  ravalrv. 
<Jeary*s  IMxision  dro\e  it  awav  and  inirsncd  beyond 
foni*  miles  near  to  ,\  pjare  (ailed  "New  llojte."  from  a 
rlinrrh  of  that  nann-.  hesii-jn^;  to  seiiire  tlie  roids 
here,  whirh  were  important.  Sherman  directed  lloida-r 
to  make  the  attempt.  This  bion^iht  on  a  brisk  en^M^e- 
inent  beiw«i'n  (Jeary's  IMvisioii  and  a  heavy  forre  of 
the  eneniv  whirl)  had  eome  from  Allatooiia.  Hooker's 
hiviKions  of  Ward  ami  Ibit  teiliehl  arriv«'d  on  thesrene 
and  Ihe  ronlest  was  prohmi^ed  into  the  nii;ht,  without 
any  derisive  result.  The  Onr  Ihimlred  :ind  I'ourth, 
with  t'arlin's  nri;,'ade.  remaimtl  in  i;im|t  diirini:  i  he 
-r»th,  and  until  one  a.  m.  (»f  the  next  inoinin;:.  Hn  the 
•Jtlih  the  Ke^inieiif  mairhin;;:  out  on  the  Murnt  lli»  kory 
Itoad  erossed  the  Pumpkin  \'ine  and  took  position  <in 
the  eant  Hide  about  three  miles  from  Dallas.  TIn'dawn 
of  iliiy  rcvejUed  to  Sherman  the  fart  that  .I«dinslon 
with  IiIh  army  slt»od  arross  his  line  ..f  mairh  protected 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  209 

by  heavy  iutreiicliineiits.     He  was  therefore  reduced 
to  the  choice  of  assaulting  in  front  or  of  maneuvering 
so  as  to  outflank  Johnston  and  either  compel  him  to 
retreat  or  fight  on  ground  more  advantageous  to  his 
own  army.     The  conditions  were  very  similar  to  those 
that  had  existed  at  Dalton  and  Resaca,  and  it  seemed 
probable  that  Johnstcm  would  pursue  his  usual  policy 
of  what  his  friends  called  grand  strategy  until  he  got 
Sherman   where  he  wanted   him.      General   Sherman 
had  a  humane  and  great  aversion  to  having  his  sol- 
diers butchered  in  assaults  which  might  fail  when  the 
result  aimed  at  could  be  acctmiplished  with  less  sac- 
rifice of  human  life.     However,  ready  to  seize   either 
horn  of  the  dilemma,  he  proceeded  at  once,  on  survey- 
ing and  grasping  the  situation,  to  make  dispositions 
of  his  forces  calculated  to  bring  matters  to  a  speedy 
conclusion.    To  this  end  McPherson  closed  in  on  Dallas. 
Hooker  held  his  position  intrenched  and  was  supported 
on  the  left  by  the  Fourth  Corps.     Schofield  closed  in 
on  Thomas.     I>avi,s-   Division  was  within  three  miles. 
Baird's  and  Johnston's  had  been  delayed,  but  were 
approaching  rapidly.     The  last  few  days  of  May  were 
spent    in    concentrating   before   Johnston's   lines   and 
heavy    skirmishing    was  maintained    day  and    night 
everywhere  uith  an  occasional  vigorous  attack,  when 
heavy  losses  usually  occurred  to  the  attacking  party. 
General  Sherman  kept  extending  his  lines  further  to 
the  left  so  as  to  reach  and  attack  the  right  flank  of 
the  enemy.     This  policy  led  him  nearer  the  railroad 
and  his  present  objective,  Ackworth,  about  eight  miles 
distant.     McPherson  was  ordered  to  leave  Dallas,  and 
close  in  on   Hooker,  but  before  he  could  do  so  was 
heavily  attacked  on  the  28th,  however,  repulsing  the 
enemy  and  inflicting  great  loss.    It  was  June  1st  before 
he  effected  a  junction  with  Hooker.     On  the  27th  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  moved  in  conformity 
with  the  Brigade  and  the  general  advance,  to  a  point 
on  Pumpkin  Vine  near  Pickett's  Mills  and  took  posi- 
tion on  a  ridge.    On  the  28th  the  Regiment  was  formed 
early  on  the  side  of  a  wooded  hill  one-fourth  of  a  mile 


ji»  THK  u.NK  nrM»m:i'  am>  fmi  uth 

ill  iuivaiit«'  of  tilt*  laiiip  ami  was  .ii^iajitMl  all  »lay.  t ln» 
♦•lu'iiiv  al  oiif  tiiiu'  atlvaminji  wiili  infantry  an»l  rav- 
ailry.  Iml  tlu\v  wen*  proiuiiily  Wiivm  !»ark  with  1»»sk. 
Tli»-  l{«'y:iiinMit  th«*ii  ihit'W  ii|»  woiks.  I»nt  was  f\|tos»Ml 
all  ilay  to  a  scvm*  Iii«*  fr<»ni  tin*  top  of  tin-  hill.  Tlu' 
lirinj;  was  krjit  ii|>  all  ni^hi  ln*if  an*l  all  ah>n;;  tin-  liiu*. 
Tlu*  On*'  1IihuIi«mI  an<l  F«Mirth  ni«-i  with  im  .asiialtirs. 
Johnston's  lHvision  lM*hl  tin-  fXii«iin'  l«-ff  ai  iIm-  iinit». 
Tin*  -l»th  \\as  sptMit  in  skifmishiii;:  an»l  siTiiriii;^  |Misi- 
tions  n«*ar«T  tin*  cntMnv,  whilt'  SiD-niian  lai<l  linn  hoM 
liu  all  roads  in  tin*  tlini-tion  of  Arkworth  mikI  sent 
Htoiifinan  ami  <iarfanl  with  tin*  «avali-\  to  sii/,.-  Alla- 
ttxma.  Thns  y^radually  In*  was  ov«M-lap|iin<;  ami  rxtrml- 
in^  his  lint's  hrvond  .iohiision's  riuhl  ami  iMM-ami'  imlif- 
friiMit  as  to  .lohnston's  jtosition  at  Neu  I  |u|k*  ( 'lnii«h, 
ft»r  tlu»  stron;;  Allal«Mina  N\as  sun*  to  In-  lii>  Tin*  (>u«? 
Ilnndn^d  ami  I'oni-ih  was  uiih'tftl  <iii  iIh-  i'.iMli  to 
a«lvanr«*  its  skii-niislnM-s  to  tin*  to|»  ol  iIh-  hill.  This 
was  «|om*  ami  thr  hill  taken.  Iiiit  tin'  lines  on  the  left 
fulliii);  bark  coniijelletl  the  ( >ne  llnmlietl  ami  Fourth 
men  to  retife  als«i.  ( >m*  rasualty  ocnin  <•.!.  .jjinies  t ', 
Sehoonover,  of  ('onijtany  K.  hein;;  inoitallv  NNoinided. 
About  si.\  p.  m.  a  pail  of  llooil's  «  oips  attarked  in 
front  of  the  whole  Hfij^ath*,  but  ut-r*-  uhi  with  a  spii-- 
it«Ml  lin*  ami  fell  bark  with  a  heavy  loss,  leaviui:  the 
4l<*a(l  ami  woumled  in  our  fioni. 

June  1st  ami  LM  .M«I*herson  aiiived.  aii<l  the  Twen- 
tieth ('orjis  moved  to  tin*  left  of  .lohnsion's  division, 
whirh  had  Indd  the  e.xtreine  left.  tMher  divisions  also 
moved  in  that  direction,  ami  Hooker.  Srlndield  ami 
Itaird,  advam-iii;;,  dr(»ve  the  enemy's  lines  furt  her  away. 
The  One  Hundred  and  I'ourth  foiiufil  a  part  of  a  skir- 
mish   line    uhirh    ailxanred    al     two  p.  m.  to  take  the 

ridp*  or  hill  from   whirh  the  rebi-ls  had  I n  keeping; 

np  a  constant  tire  on  our  lines.  The  rhar;:e  was  ^mI- 
lantly  made  ami  the  hill  capturt'd;  ihr  Ke^iment  then 
drove  the  enemy  across  a  lield.  In  ihe  char;:!'  Jacob 
1*.  Hnrd,  of  rnmpany  H.  was  morially  wounded; 
Darius  U  Trask,  of  rompany  I.  woimdi-d.  The  fo«* 
hein;;  protected  b\    Works  oil   the  hill,  it    was  a   maii«'r 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  211 

-of  siirpris*'  that  the  (•asuMlri«'s  \v«M-e  not  ^nvitcr.  At 
six  p.  111.  the  Kei^iinciit  was  r('li(*v<Ml  by  oiic  tn»ni  Haird's 
Divisiou  aiid  took  position  on  Brown's  Mill  Creek.  On 
Jnne  3d  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  with  the  Eiglity- 
■eijj;hth  Indiana  were  sent  to  tln'  left  of  Baird  and  formed 
on  the  front  line  and  rcinaiiKMJ  there  eniiajned  in  skir- 
nii.shinj:;'  until  June  4:th,  when  thev  rejoined  the  Brij;ade. 

From  May  23d  the  movements  and  fighting  of  the 
Kegiment  had  been  within  the  line  of  operations  com- 
prehendiMl  by  the  territory  adjacent  to  Dallas,  Pump- 
kin Vine  Creek  and  New  lIo])e  Church,  and  was  nearly 
continuous  for  two  weeks,  the  men  lying  on  their  arms 
night  and  day,  being  frequently  aroused  to  repel  or 
make  a  charge.  They  suffered  greatly  from  cold,  wet 
and  hunger,  but  endured  all  without  murmuring  and 
were  in  the  best  of  spirits. 

On  the  night  of  June  4th  Johnston  evacuated  his 
position  and  retired  toward  Kenesaw  Mountain.  Gen- 
eral Sherman's  armies  immediately  advanced  to  Ack- 
worth,  thence  to  Big  Shanty  on  June  lOtli.  From  the 
latter  place  a  good  view  was  had  of  the  rebel  forces  on 
their  mountain  fortress.  McPherson's  army  was  shifted 
to  the  left;  Thomas  on  the  right  and  Schotield  to  his 
right.  The  railroad  was  repaired  to  the  skirmish  lines 
in  front  of  Kenesaw  and  supplies  brought  to  Big 
Shanty.  Allatoona  was  fortified  strongly  and  made  a 
base  of  supplies.  On  the  8th  General  Blair  arrived 
at  Ackworth  with  the  two  divisions  of  the  Seventeenth 
Corps,  about  nine  thousand  men. 

Thus  had  closed  practically  in  May  the  first  part 
of  the  campaign.  The  army  had  marched  and  fought 
over  a  rough  mountain  country  for  nearly  one  hun- 
dred miles,  with  an  aggregate  loss  in  the  three  com- 
mands and  the  cavalry  of  9,299  men  in  killed,  wounded 
and  missing.  Blair's  Corps  replaced  this  loss.  John- 
ston's loss,  as  given  by  him,  was  in  killed  and  wounded, 
5,392  men.  He  did  not  give  the  number  of  the  missing. 
Prior  to  reaching  Cassville,  Johnston  ha<l  been  rein- 
forced by  21,(500  men,  which  made  his  total  since  leav- 
ing Dalton  about  ()6,000  men.  Therefore,  in  round  num- 


m  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

ben*,  lit-  had  ai  N<'\\  ll<'i"-  «liuirli  tid.iMKt.  whirli  was 
not  diTiraMMl  w  Immi  Ii«-  f»ll  l»at  k  on  Kmcsaw.  If  tlu' 
KMUllirrii  |n-ii|»lr  who  \\ai«ln-<l  tin*  raini>ai;:ii  with  «'a;r«'r- 
in«K*i  \v»T«*  KiitistitMl  Willi  till'  sti-atfgy  of  .lohnstoii,  that 
«;avi*  UK  inn*  simii;;  |Misiti<iii  aft«T  ani>th«T.  whith  ha«l 
Imimi  ih-i'iiH'tl  iiii|in';:iial»lr.  aii*l  I  In*  loss  «if  itiic  huii<ti-tMl 
iiiiirs  nf  i»'rrll<n\v  in  tin*  Kiii|»ir«-  Staitt*  of  tin*  Stmtlu 
t«>;,'t*th»*r  with  tin*  i»i«*st i};«*  «»f  virtory,  (i»*iu*ral  SImt- 
niaii,  his  army  ami  tin*  North  ha<l  no  i'i;;ht  to  coniiilain. 
'riif  luavi-  ami  laimiiicil  Sfr;;<*ant  llfUiy  K.  I'lirt*, 
of  Company  I>  (afinwaitl  Uiijrd  at  IN-at  h  Tir**  ( 'n*cki. 
writing;  from  Hij.'  Shanty  on  .Fiim-  lUth,  sjiys  in  n*^ard 
to  this  (-am|>ai;:n:  "1  would  hav«*  written  soonci*.  hut 
had  no  |»a|M*r  or  t*n\t*|o|M*s  (nor  toluicco).  I  cnu  irivf 
vttu  no  init*lli;:i*nt  a<<ount  of  our  mo>«*unnts,  for  \\»* 
have  marrhrd  in  «-\t*r\  ima*;:inabh*  dirr<-i  ion,  and 
toward  «*v«*ry  poiMt  of  iln*  rompass.  W  <•  li;i\f  b«M'n 
most  fortunat**  as  a  llc^iimrnt  sim«*  wt*  left  K<*sara,  as 
ind«M*«l  w«*  w<*r»*  in  iIh*  hatth*,  for,  thou;j[h  w«*  liavt* 
iMi-n  und«*r  lire  a  ;;r«*at  dal,  our  loss«*s  \\«*r«*  rompara- 
tivtdy  small.  \\'<*  w«'r<*  on  the  tirst  and  skirmish  linrs 
in  tin*  Allatoona  Hills  for  iiiauv  rousreutiv**  days  ami 
iii;;lits.  Tin*  Third  l{ri;,Mdf  sulT«'r«*d  lM*a\ily  thrrr,  and 
w«*  w«*r«*  w«*ll  slicjlt'd.  Tin*  rfhcls  had  \«'ry  si  r<»u;;  \n  oiks 
around  New  llopt-,  liuili  l»\  ilit-  (l«'orjiia  Miliiia  and 
ni*;;ro»-rs.  hut  Slii*rman  woikrd  artuiud  till  tlu*y  had  to 
Ii;:ht  out  just  as  ili«*y  did  at  Ki*sa(-a.  A  woman  in  om* 
of  tin*  hous«*s  after  the  *.I<diiini<'*  h-fi,  said:  *It  was 
too  had.  aflt-r  their  \\\*-i\  had  worked  so  hard  al  the 
!)r«*aKt Works.  Hooker  and  auoijii-i-  re;;iuieut  ;::oi  to 
shootin;:  ri;:lit  in  the  end  of  ihfui  and  they  had  to 
|ea\e.'  W  hile  in  those  hills,  there  were  a  ;;real  many 
Kayin;;s  aiirihiited  to  the  reltels.  and  more  than  I  will 
voneh  for.  une  was  that  a  juisouer  taken  l»\  <»iir  men 
had  ai'i|nired  a  \er\  ronsideialde  icvpci  i  for  ihc  way 
our  !_'enerals  were  riowdin^  lhin;;s.  and  his  way  <»f 
manifesting:  it  was  hy  sayiiij:  that  <irant  and  Sherman 
on;;lit  to  ^ei  oh  a  hi;:li  hill  ami  ;:i\'e  iIh-  rniiiinniid : 
'Atleniion,  ereaiion.  l»y  kinjidoms  rij^hi  wiieell'  It 
HO  happeneil  that  our  wlioh-army  was  doiiij:  thai   very 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  213 

tiling  at  the  time,  making  a  right  wheel  on  a  fixed 
pivot,  and  the  story  took  well.  The  regular  Brigade 
lies  in  our  front  and  a  steady  skirmish  tire  is  going 
on.  We  have  something  more  than  twelve  pounders 
with  us,  for  guns  of  larger  calibre  are  pounding  away 
at  the  enemy  on  our  left.  We  have  nothing  at  all  with 
us  in  the  shape  of  baggage  and  officers  carry  theirs 
the  same  as  the  men.  The  cars  now  run  into  Big 
■Shanty." 


fllAl'TKiC   XI  \ 


Th*"  B«ill«-ii  Aroumi  K<'nt»HW  Mountain— Johnston's  Withdrawal 
lit-yond  the  t'httttahtK>ch«H>— Battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek— Bat- 
tle of  Atlanta. 


t  Hi  .hiiif  HMli  ShfriiKiii's  nniiirs  ;»j:;iiii  iii<»\i'«l  fi.r- 
\\ai«l.  S.  huIii'M  nil  I  he  ii;.'lil.  Tin  •mas  in  t  li«-  t«'iu«M',  and 
Mrl'lM-ismi  (111  I  In-  Irft.  .loliiistmrs  |M»siiiun  ttiviMMMl  a 
fnuit  of  Koiiic  tWflvr  milrs,  fnmi  Lost  .Mountiuii  on  his 
Ifft  to  KfiM'saw  Oil  his  lijrht.  H«'t\vr«Mi  thosf  was  IMue 
Mo<i:itaiii.  Th*-  ^mouimI  in  his  front  was  roii«:h,  tiin- 
lirrnl,  and  rovrnMl  with  all  nianinM*  of  ohsti  ii»i  i«»ns 
Hi-  h«dd  a  liiu-  of  j^rrat  natnial  sir«Mij:^th.  and  In*  had 
adth'd  to  I  his  hy  rxtrnsivt*  lines  of  w«nks,  a  matter  he 
n«-v«-r  in-«:hMird.  It  had  rained  most  of  tin*  time  since 
.Inne  1st.  and  what  roads  there  were  eoiild  mu  he 
used.  Itnt  the  army  consi  riii  le.l  lis  own  r<»ails 
and  ttiiled  sh»\\ly  aloni;  up  lo  ihc  Itase  of  Kem-saw. 
The  Uiic  llnndred  and  I'oiirih  iiiai<h.d  mi  iIh-  KMh 
to  a  point  beyond  W'l'^  Shanty  and  camped  in  the  mutl. 
The  llih  and  TJih  were  so  rainy  that  \er\  liiile  luuld 
he  doiH'.  Thf  lletiinieiit  was  nioxfij  nine  or  t  wice  a 
half  mile  in  the  left  and  nearer  ilie  cmniy.  (Mi  the 
14lh  the  rain  havin;:  slackened  up  the  lin.-s  were 
advam-ed  a  mile  and  a  half  and  works  thrown  u|i  for 
tell  miles.  Hn  this  day  the  rehel  (o-neral  Polk  was 
kille<l  by  a  shot  from  om*  <»f  our  halieries  which  was 
]dayiii;:  on  rim*  .Mountain,  nm*  of  our  si<;nal  olhters 
who  had  lejiriied  the  rebel  si;:iial  k«'V,  ascertained  the 
fact,  (ieiieral  Sherman  ordered  the  armies  !«•  advance 
on  the  ir»th.  whirh  beiii;;  doin-  it  was  discovered  that 
.Tohnsion  had  shoriene(l  his  lines  b\  evacuating;  IMne 
Mountain,  lie  thereby  aided  Thomas  and  Schoficld 
jireatly  in  i  he  line  nf  t  heir  ad\  am  »•.  nur  left  was  well 
exieiifletl  ;irouinl  K<iiesaw  .     1 1 « '  w  ;i  ]•  !'*>  <  "ofps  III  ad\;inc- 


REGIMENT  IT^LINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  215- 

ing-  the  lines  liad  a  brisk  fight  but  drove  the  enemy 
from  their  intrenched  skirmish  line  and  into  their 
works.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  not  long  before 
was  obliged  to  i>art  with  a  valuable  officer  in  the  per- 
son of  Captain  Leighton,  whose  wound,  received  at 
Chickamauga,  had  become  so  bad  as  to  compel  him 
to  leave  for  the  hosi>ital  at  Nashville.  On  the  16th 
the  Regiment  and  Brigade  were  ordered  to  relieve  the 
Second  Brigade,  having  done  which  it  advanced,  skir- 
mishing some  six  Imndrod  yards  and  threw  up  breast- 
works. On  the  17th  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth 
advanced  lialf  a  mile,  driving  the  en<MMy's  skirmish- 
ers with  Companies  A,  E  and  F,  Major  \\'idmer  in 
charge.  No  casualties  occurred.  It  then  lu'ld  the  posi- 
tion gained.  The  operations  on  other  parts  of  the  line 
resulted  in  driving  the  rebels  across  Miid  Creek.  Dur- 
ing the  niglit  the  enemy  attempted  to  regain  the  posi- 
tion, but  was  rejMilsed.  On  the  18th  the  Kegiment 
again  advanced  and  skirmishing  drove  the  rebels  into 
their  works.  In  this  charge  Corporal  James  Logan,  of 
Company  C,  was  killed.  Captain  O.  M.  Southwell  and 
Edwin  S.  ]\Ioore,  of  Com]>any  II,  were  severely  wounded. 
During  the  <iay  Cenerals  Wood  and  Xewton,  of  the 
Fourth  Cor])s,  suri)rise<l  the  enemy  and  secured  an 
important  part  of  his  main  line  and  intrenched.  In 
the  night  Johnston  withdrew  from  the  portion  still 
held,  thereby  preventing  an  intended  assault  by  our 
forces  on  the  19th.  At  seven  a.  m.  of  the  10th  the  One 
Hundred  and  Fourth  was  moved  to  the  front  of  and 
base  of  Kenesaw,  against  which  the  Fourteenth  Corps 
now  pressed  closely.  Johnston  had  further  contracted 
his  lines.  Kcnesavr  was  the  salient  of  his  army  with 
tlic  wings  drawn  back  so  as  to  cover  Marietta  and  the 
rear  toward  Atlanta.  The  line  was  of  immense 
strength  and  it  was  to  be  tested  whether  Johnston 
could  maintain  it  or  would  retreat  before  his  wily 
antagonist'.  Oeneral  Sherman  meantime  kept  pushing 
his  lines  clctser  to  those  of  the  enemy,  ready  to  assault 
and  tight  when  anything  could  be  gained,  and  he  also 
did  not  neglect  his  favorite  game  of  playing  around 


tl«  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

till*  tlaiiks  aii«l  Irving  !•>  rrarh  tht*  (-oiiiiiiiiniraiions  of 
hiH  ciiiMiiv.  Oil  the  L'Oih  ilic  (Mil*  lluiwInMi  aii<l  Fourth 
iiiovimI  Im  tlu*  ri<;lil  and  n*li»*viMl  soinr  tioops  of  (he 
Koiirih  t'orps.  I  hiring  lh«*  L'lsi  an. I  I'lM  th«'  K«*;iiiiu'nt 
was  i-hiKf  up  to  thi*  I't'lM'l  \vi»rks  aii<l  MiltjirttMl  to  a  ttT- 
ritic  lin»  of  arlilhTv  and  nnisk«'trv.  .I'llm  A.  <'«H)k,  of 
i'onipaiiv  <\  was  niortallv  \vouii(l«<| ;  Sit^^'jiim  (mmit^^c 
l^iiiiniiiis,  «>f  < 'onipaiiv  1^,  ami  W  illi;iiii  I'.  N«*wroiiih,  of 
(.Vuiipaiiv  I),  w»Tc  \\oiiiiil«'<l.  Thr  liiiii;^  \Nas  hravv  and 
eoniinnoiis  all  of  tin*  liLM  ou  ih«-  w  hoh-  jiur.  Tin*  ivhel 
left,  r»Miiforr«Ml  bv  Hood's  Torps.  w  !ii<  ji  had  toiin'  from 
tlu*  rl^dit,  assaiiltt'd  llook«T  li»'ir«*l v.  liiii  afi«'r  srv<Tul 
assaults  withdicw  with  ln-avv  loss.  <)ur  artilln-y,  as 
Johnston  adiniltcd,  inowfd  down  Hood's  rohimns  l»y 
huudi'<*ds.  ( i  •Ml*  Ma  I  Shcrniaii  now  d«M<'i-iniii«'d  t«i  attack 
the  rfb«d  rt-nit'i-  and  nainrd  tin*  'JTili  for  the  assault, 
whifli  was  lo  Im'  mad**  l>y  troo|»s  of  'riiomjis  and 
Mrl'lu'ison.  At  niin*  a.  in.,  tin*  tinn-  xi,  amidst  the 
roar  of  tanmm  ami  musket tv  alonu:  the  line  of  tea 
miles,  the  divisions  of  Davis  and  Nt'Wton  l»*apin^'  over 
tln'ir  w«»i'ks,  moved  forwaid.  Tin'  dislam**  to  the  i*ehel 
works  was  ahoiit  si.\  hundred  yards  ami  the  ;;ronml 
to  In*  travers»*d  lou^h,  stony  ami  st«'»*p.  I'mh-r  a  ter- 
rilif  tire  Djivis'  l»ri;;ades  advamtd  to  iIh-  \«ry  |»ara- 
p«'t.s,  hut  lu'ini;  unalde  to  tak**  llicm  lialifd  nndfi-  the 
relM'l  ;:uns,  and  <*<|ually  unaldr  to  retreat,  staid  tln-re 
uml  ilir«*w  up  intrrnchments  within  a  few  yards  of 
the  •*m*my.  N«'Wton  met  with  l«'ss  surr«*ss  owin;j;  to  t  he 
obstrm-iions.  .M<  I'luisou  ai  Liiil<'  Kcn«*saw  ctTected 
a  lod;;uit*ni  m-ar  the  memy's  wi»rks,  hut  mnld  m»t  take 
th»*m.  <hir  losses  were  hravy.  Tlionias  losing:  about 
two  thousand  ami  .Mcl'lM-rson  !i\t'  liundi<'<l.  <  rcnerjil 
Marker  was  moi*tally  w unndt'd.  also  many  oi  ht-i-  ofht-ers. 
Ifowevi'i-,  Scliofidd  bad  ini|»ro\cd  I  In*  <»ppoii  unity  |>re- 
K«Mit«*d  and  f(T«'»t«*d  I  In*  rrossiiij;  t»f  (  MIey's  ( 'r«'«'k.  when 
h«*  «*st ablisht'd  bis  roips  in  a  position  tliat  impi'rile«l 
•lohnKton'H  rear.  <liin-ral  Slu'iinan.  iir»'d  of  costly 
aMMaiultH,  prepar«'d   nioi-.-  flankin;:  movi-ments. 

Th«*  On»'   llnndr«*d   and    I'ourib   on   tlie  «'V«'nini:   of 
tin*  L'Tib.  i«-lii-\»'d    p;iit    of  ill.'  Scc.ind    Uriuadt*  on   tli<* 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  217 

front  line  and  was  about  three  hundred  yards  from 
tlie  rebel  works.  IMenty  of  dead  rebels  lay  in  their 
front.  Serj'c'aut  Sidney  ^^  Arnold,  of  Company  A,  was 
wounded  in  the  foot.  The  lie^iment  remained  here 
until  July  '2d,  when  Serj^cant  Henry  K.  Price  was 
wounded.  In  the  afternoon  it  moved  a  short  distance 
and  threw  up  works.  General  Carlin  receiving;-  a  hnive 
of  al)sence,  Colonel  A.  (i.  McCook  assumed  eommaud 
of  the  Brij^ade.  On  the  3d,  the  rc^bels  were  found  to  be 
gone  from  the  front  and  the  Regiment,  marching  at 
7:30  on  the  Marietta  road,  advanced  four  miles, 
beyond  Marietta  and  was  again  confronted  with  the 
enemy  behind  strong  works.  It  was  now  about  ten 
miles  to  the  Chattahoochee  Kiver.  On  the  2d 
McPherson  passed  his  army  and  cavalry  to  the  right 
to  tiauk  Johnston.  The  latter  very  promptly,  if  not 
courteously,  withdrew  from  all  his  huge  fortitications 
on  the  Kenesaw  line  on  the  3d,  going  to  the  river 
July  4th  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  engaged 
in  heavy  skirmishing  all  day  in  front  of  the  enemy's 
works.  Meantime  Sherman  had  pursued  rapidly,  but 
found  Johnston's  front  eyervwhere  fortitied  His 
object,  however,  was  to  hold  back  our  army  until  his 
own  was  sure  of  a  safe  passage  across  the  deep  Chat- 
tahoochee. Beyond  that  river  vast  fortiiications 
crowned  every  hill  top  to  Atlanta,  ten  miles  distant. 
When  the  astute  rebel  general  perceived  the  scope  of 
McPherson's  movement  he  knew  that  our  army  could 
get  below  him  at  Marietta,  or  even  cross  the  river.  He 
had  to  fight  in  assault  the  strongly  intrenched  army 
under  Thomas,  or  run  to  save  Atlanta.  He  chose  the 
latter. 

On  the  5th  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  and  Fif- 
teenth Kentucky  advanced  in  reconuoissance  toward 
the  rebel  works,  but  found  them  vacant ;  the  enemy  was 
again  retreating  and  the  regiments  following.  Captain 
Proctor,  with  Company  I,  captured  eleven  prisoners. 
The  pursuit  here  was  continued  for  two  and  a  half  miles 
when  the  Regiment  suddenly  found  the  enemy  in- 
trenched about  two  miles  from  the  river.     Skirmish- 


OS  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

iuj;  lli»M>  Ik'^jmi  ;iu«1  la>l»-<l  ln-avilv  \intil  cvriiiii;:,  \\\u-n 
tin*  <  Mif  lhiii*lr«Ml  aiitl  l'<»iirt  li,  lu'iny  irlii-vrtl.  iiiovi<l 
bmk  ii  kIhum  ilisiaiirt'.  <HMH'ral  .lolmstMH  having  fall«*u 
bark  to  hi«  liiu*  in  ihe  \all«\  of  \hv  ( "hattaho(K-li«*i', 
SlKTiiiaii  pnrsuiii;:  vi«;<»ioiislv.  plantctl  <;«Mi«Tal 
Thoiiiiis  ill  fiiiiit  with  liis  aiiii.\  of  ih.-  <  iiiiilMMlaiKl. 
SrhoIii'M  au<l  MrlMn-isoii  iiimv«m|  h»  tin-  li^lit  il«>\vii  llie 
rivrr  i«Mi  mill's.  whil«*  ili«*  ilashiii*::  <ii'iu*rai  SloiK*iiiau 
w««in  still  fiirtluT  liflou  to  S;iiulli»\vii.  <Jari-anrs  Cay- 
alr\  iiiitxiii;:  "ji  tin*  livi-r  «'i;;liif«'ii  !iiil«*s  caiiliirjMJ  Koss- 
w«'ll  aii«l  tin*  riossiiiiis  tlH'ir.  It  was  suppostMl  tliat 
.loliiistoii  \\tnil«l  t'St'Vi  liiins«'lf  to  tin*  utiiiosi  to  |u«*\«*tit 
tin*  National  Aniiv  fiom  nussiii^  t  li«'  < 'liattalio(nhef, 
hihI  it  woiiM  si-tMii  lliai  In-  oii^'lit  lo  Iki\<'  <lom»  so,  but 
it  a|»|K>ais  that  In*  ii';:ar<li-<l  his  imIht  lines  a  litth' 
fiifthiT  bark  oil  IN'ach  'l'v*'t-  ( 'irck.  and  the  ininirns«* 
fort  ilii-at  ions  of  Atlanta  it  sol  fas  iin|Hr^Mial»h'  to  assault 
in  fi'tiiit,  whilo  invostincnt  of  that  fa  moil  rity  ho  t  honHrlit 
impossilili*.  l'rolial»l\  hi-  iliM-iih-il  that  Shoinian 
woiihl  also  Im-  unabli'  to  ^o  aronml  Atlanta  ami 
stMi-r  all  of  his  rommnniralions  with  tin*  n-st  of  tho 
CoiifiMlcfaiy.  ll<-  iiiisralciilaiiMl  ihi*  stfoiijrth  of  Shor- 
ni  ail's  annios  also.  I  tut  it  was  iliMiMinini'il  that  At  la  lit  a, 
a  plari'  of  tho  most  \iial  importami-  to  tho  vim\v  oxisi- 
onri*  of  tin-  ( 'oiifiMlfi-aiN ,  mnst  In*  savi-tl  fi-om  tho  in- 
vailof.  Ihmh-.-  tin-  <russin^  of  the  ii\«T  \\;i^  «;ii<»'ly 
dispiitoil. 

( >n  I  III-  !»i  h  i  low  Mill's  ( 'orps  iiossnl  ai  raircs  I'tirv 
ami  fonml  ii  ih-fi-mli-il  by  only  a  small  i:nanl.  Now- 
toiTs  I>i\ision  ami  l)oi|;:i''s  ( 'oips  itossimI  ai  Kosswoll. 
Thomas  ilomonst raii*)l  in  front  mrantiim-.  Tho  <  Mio 
Ilnmlroil  ami  I'oniih  was  i'n;;a;ji'il  on  tin*  skirmish  lino 
ami  with  t  III-  nri;:aili-.  ailvami-il  to  tin-  lirst  liiii'  of  irbil 
ritio  pits,  whirh  tln-y  ra|itiiroil.  In  this  aiham-o  John 
a.  I  h*bo|t,  of  ( 'ompiiny  II.  was  nioi-ially  woinnlnl.  Not 
boin;:  siippoiiiMl  tin*  lii-^inifnt  hail  to  fall  bark.  l>nr- 
in;:  tho  ni^'hi  .Johnston  wiilnlirw  his  army  arross  tho 
< 'hatlaliourhiM'.  bnriiin;^  ihi-  britl;xos.  Thus  rlosi'«l 
aiiothiM-  i-ra  in  tin-  hisiorx  nf  ihi*  rampai;;!!  bi'^nm  two 
months  bi-foif  ami  it  inil«<l  in  snr«rss.  with  a  promise 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  219- 

of  final  triuiiipli  for  the  armies  of  the  Union  sometime 
in  the  future.  Sherman's  k)sses  in  killed,  wounded  and 
missing,  from  June  1st  to  July  3d,  aggregated  7,580 
men.  The  Army  of  the  Cumberland  lost  5,531.  The 
Army  of  the  Tennessee,  1,334.  The  Army  of  the  Ohio, 
665.  (reneral  Johnston  made  his  losses  in  killed  and 
wounded  3,048  men.  Ilis  missing,  prisoners  not  given, 
amounted  to  2,000.  The  June  campaign  had  been  car- 
ried on  un<ler  greater  difficult i<*s  than  the  one  in  May. 
It  had  rained  uearly  every  <lay,  rendering  movements 
slow  and  difficult.  From  the  10th  of  June  to  the  9th 
of  July  some  part  or  all  of  the  armies  had  been  under 
fire  constantly  by  day  and  frequently  all  night.  The 
month  had  been  one  of  severest  trial,  hardship  and 
danger,  yet  amidst  all  the  armies  of  the  Union  had 
pressed  forward  in  the  full  confidence  of  victory,  and 
when  at  last  they  beheld  in  the  distance  the  spires 
of  Atlanta,  there  Avas  a  greater  desire  than  ever  to 
press  forward  and  capture  the  prize,  and  destroy,  if 
possible,  the  last  and  only  great  rebel  army  south  of 
Richmond. 

General  Sherman,  having  forced  Johnston  back  to 
the  defenses  of  Atlanta,  began  at  once  to  prepare  for 
the  advance  on  that  city.  This  was  the  more  impor- 
tant, as  it  was  not  improbable  as  indicated  by  General 
Grant,  that  reinforcements  would  be  sent  from  Virginia 
and  from  other  points,  in  the  endeavor  to  hold  a  place 
of  so  great  value  to  the  Confederac}^  Therefore,  from 
the  l()tli  to  the  17th  of  July  new  bridges  were  prepared, 
McPherson's  army  was  transferred  up  the  river  to 
Rosswell,  and  Palmer's  and  Hooker's  Corps  were  ready 
to  cross  at  Paice's  Ferry.  Garrard's  Cavalry  Avas  sent 
to  the  left,  and  Stoneman's  and  McCook's  down  the 
river  to  the  right.  On  the  17th  of  July  the  movement 
was  begun.  McPherson,  crossing  at  Rosswell,  marched 
toward  Stone  Mountain,  Schofield  toAvard  Cross  Keys, 
and  Thomas  on  the  right  toAvard  Buckliead,  the  latter 
facing  Peach  Tree  Creek  and  camping  that  night  on 
Nancy's  Creek.  The  enemy's  skirmishers  retired  Avith 
little  opposition.    The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  occu- 


sal  THE  ONE  HL'NDRED  AND  FOURTH 

|>U*<i  ai  |Hisitiuii  aboiii   om-  iiiil<-  Ih-voikI  tin*  ri\«'i-.     Tin' 
liiuviMiiiMit    wais   a    ;;iaii.l    li^lii    w  Ihm-|    wiili    tin-    r<Mn- 
ttM-iiili  i  'oi|iN  as  a  pivMi.    (  Ml  «lu-  l>«li  <  itiuial  SInMiiian 
ItNiriiiHl    fnnii   mw  <»f   his   sjiirs.   wlm   lia«l   conn*   fnua 
Allaiilii.  thai   <i«*ij«Tal    II«».m|   was  i  hi'ii  ronmiaiHhM-  itt 
thf  n'hfl  aniiv  in  plarc  <»f  .lohiision,  having  siutiMMltHl 
him  Mil  th.-   ITih.     This  iiM-aiit   lliat   a   in-w  polirv  wjih 
tit  \tv  iiiau;:mjilr(|   hv   lh«-  n-ln-l   h-ath-rs.  uin-  in   which 
olTfUsivf  *i|M*rali*tiis  t»f  ihr    int»si     vi^onuis    rharat»«*r 
ini;;hl  hr  ••ximmIimI  fiMin  what  was  kii<»wiM>f  lloml.  who. 
thi»n;,'h  of  small  aWiliix   <  ..iii|.ai«Ml  wiili  .I<>hiisi..ii,  was 
u  lij^hti'i-  of  It 'I  Ml  t  at  io  II.     t  iciMMal  Sln-niiaii  so  roiisi  iiumI 
it    ami   wanif«l  all  of  his  siil»oi<liiiatcs  to  he  on   ih«'ir 
;:iiaril.     MrlMnTson  on   ihi-   isHi   irath«'<|   ihi-  faiifoa*! 
Ufar  Stoiu'  Mountain,  ton-  it   \\\t  ami  marrhnl  lowanl 
Atlanta,  at    ni;:ht   j«»ini!i;;  SrhoiicM   ai    |)<Tatwi'.     Th»' 
Ainix  of  1  hf  t 'iimlM'ilamI  apitioarlM-il   I'rarh  Ti«*»*.    Tlif 
t  Mn-  iinmli'rd  ami   I'oiiiih  rpossnl    Namv's  rn-i-k  ami 
maiiitaiiniii;;  a  hot  skirmish  tir«'  w  iih  tin*  tiM-mv.  di-ovt* 
tlifiii  ii  inih'  into  ihoir  wtuks.     (  Mio  man  was  wonmhMl. 
Tims  faf  sim-f  nossin^   tin*  t 'hat  lahooilu-c  things 
iiad  ;;onr  so  smoothly  that  tlir  hoys  ln-uan  to  s|MMiilat»' 
oil  t  he  |ii'os|MM-t  *if  soon  haviiit;  a  «<^oo<1  1  inn-  in  Atlanta, 
loit    it    was   tin-  talm    that    |H'«MMMh's   tin-  storm.      Many 
loH'j;  w«'«'ks  of  maifhini:  ami  tij^htini;  w«'it'  <lrstim'ij  to 
pass  away  iH-foii-  thf  fall  of  th»'  "^'lalr  t'iiy;*'  maii\    a 
hravr  heart    wonhl   Immohh'  sih-ni    in   tl<Mili    ln-ron-  tin- 
liapprniii;:  of  t  hat  rvt-nt.     Tin-  shadow  >  i  hat   w<i«'soon 
to  fall  n  I  toll  this  iiii;:hiy  aiiny  of  on<'  huniii'*-i|  t  hoiisaml 
nnMi.  wi'if  ;:al  hriin;:  ami    h-n;^!  hcnin;:.   pir^nant    with 
the   Ihiimh-ii  hiMtls   of   hatth*   ami    iMMiin;:   <h-st  iini  ion 
for  ihf  (Mm-  1 1  iimlt-i'il  ami  l-'oiii-i  h.     nn  i  ho  T.M  h  all  t  In- 
arml"*s  w«-rr  rhtst-ly   iiiiiiod  a;;ain   ln-foi-c  Atlanta,  hni 
)H»rtions  (if  ilu-  Army   of  tin-  t'nmhorlaml    in   ffoitt   of 
l'«*arh  Tfoi*  foiij^ht  thrir  way  into  |iosition  across  that 
«r»i*k  iimh-r  a  spiriti-tl  tir«-  fioni  tin*  omMnv.      Tin-  Hue 
lliimlr<*«|    ami    l-'oiiith    lti\onackt-il    mi    I'l-ach    Tr<'»'   at 
nii:hi.     Thr  LMMh    was  a   <la\    of  hattio  on   this   part    of 
the  lim*.     I'airly  in  tljo  mornin;:  tho  <  Mn-  llnmlroil  ami 
I'ioirth.  cioNsiii;;    Ti-at  h   Ticc  (  ii-.-k   at    llowdTs   Mills 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  22L 

aiul  inarching  about  one  iiiil<',  was  foiiiuMl  in  line  of 
battle  on  the  tirst  line  and  on  the  left  (►f  the  I{ri<ia<le, 
with  the  Fifteenth  Kentucky,  Forty-seeond  and  Ei<ihty- 
ei^lith  Indiana  on  its  rij-ht.  Williams'  Division  of  the 
Twentieth  Corps  was  on  the  left.  The  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth  was  in  a<lvance  of  th<-  left  <>f  the  Fifteenth 
Kentucky  about  one  hundred  and  twenty-tive  yards, 
and  separated  from  it  by  a  deep  ravine  which  ran  by 
the  rijiht  of  the  Ke<j;iment  and  to  the  rear.  The  men 
bewail  to  throw  up  works,  but  !iad  not  made  much 
jtroiiTess  when  an  order  came  to  desist,  it  bein<;  stated 
that  the  lines  would  soon  advance.  The  day  was 
intensely  lH>t  and  all  sought  the  shade  of  the  trees 
and  buslies  awaitinii  further  orders.  Abotit  four  p.  in. 
the  enemy  advance<l  ami  attacked  the  Twentieth  Corps 
and  in  a  few  mcunents  rushed  upon  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth  in  two  lines.  The  Regiment  tired  a  volley 
that  sent  them  back  to  a  ravine,  where,  forming  again, 
they  adA'anced  up  the  ravine  on  the  rigiit  and  attacked 
the  right  Hank  of  the  Kegiment,  jtouring  in  a  volley 
that  killed  or  wounded  half  of  the  men  in  the  five  right 
companies.  One  of  the  rebel  regiments,  ])assing  by 
the  right,  attacked  the  rear  of  the  half-tinished  works 
on  the  right  and  a  hand  to  hand  contest  ensued  in  which 
every  man  Avas  a  hero.  Colonel  Hapeman  ordered 
Companies  A,  B  and  C,  or  M'hat  was  left  of  them,  to 
withdraw  a  little.  The  other  companies,  meantime, 
maintained  their  position,  while  the  Fifteenth  Ken- 
tucky and  Forty-second  and  Eighty-eighth  Indiana 
formed  in  vchcJou  in  the  rear,  opened  a  volley  that 
made  the  enemy  pause.  Colonel  Hapeman  had  sent 
for  aid  and  the  Tenth  Wisconsin  came  to  the  rescue 
on  the  left,  while  the  Twenty-first  Wisconsin  formed 
on  the  right.  But  before  the  latter  arrived  the  rebels 
had  been  driven  back  and  their  colors,  which  they  had 
planted  on  the  works  of  the  Regiment,  captured.  The 
first  (niset,  which  had  proved  so  destructive,  was  the 
work  of  a  few  moments.  The  enemy  in  trying  to  escape 
through  the  ravine  were  nearly  all  either  killed, 
wounded  ^r  captured  by  our  men.    The  enemy  had  the 


SB  TMi;   I'M:    HI    .M>JC».i'    .\.Ni>    j<'1    KTH 

iiiipr«*ssioii  (lull  iIm-n  IwuI  sinirk  iln*  ri;:lil  think  of  ilu» 
Army  of  ihc  < 'iiiulM*rhtiiil.  In  I  In*  ifti«*;ii  ili»'\  iciiit»\r«l 
iiniKt  of  tliiMi- (li'iid  ami  womihIimI,  Imi  ilu'Oin-  lluii<lnHl 
aii«l  F«»iirili  liuriiil  rivf  wlm  luul  fallen  in  <ni«'  s|»ui.  Tin* 
li^lil  lasirtl  alMiiit  an  hour,  hni  was  ln'^iin  \\\  a  sur- 
|>riK<*.  Tlif  Um*  lhin*li-f*l  ami  l-^Ml^lh  foljowftl  n|*  tin* 
I'flK'ls  willi  lli«'  ifst  of  I  In*  Hri^ath'  ami  its  skiiniish- 
vrti  «MTUi>i«M|  thfir  positions  of  tin*  morning.  Tin*  i«*port 
of  tlw  c  ItiMiai  of  tin*  Hii-iath*  says,  vi<h*  Kt*l>.  K«*r.,  \ol. 
'A\  I'l.  I,  p.  .'»:>:,':  ••Tin*  ln*avi»*si  of  tin*  ti;;hl  f«*ll  on  tin* 
One  llnmli-<*«l  ami  l;oni-th  lllimns,  ami  that  K«*;;inn*nt, 
with  tin*  i«-si  of  I  In-  ronimand  arinl  sph*n«li<ll.\  t  hioii^ih- 
ont  of  t  In*  w  hoh*  t*n;:a;;»*nn*iit.*'  <  'olon«*|  1  lapt-nian  says: 
"Tin*  oMicfr;?  ami  iin-n  lu-haNctl  ^alianiiv  an<l  irniaiin'd 
lirnj  in  iln-ir  position. "  Tin*  icltcl  ;nia»k  <li<l  not  rxtt'inl 
fiirtln-i-  to  ill.-  ri;:Jii  ilcui  the  lioni  ol  tin*  I'iist  Itri- 
jia«l«*.  h  woiihi  sciMM  that  siiMirirni  raic  had  not  Imm'H 
lakrn  l»\  t'ojunrl  .Mct'ook,  who,  in  tin*  ahscmr  of  <  irn- 
»*ral  <":ulin.  t-oinmami«*il  tin*  Uii^iath-  in  jiosiinu  th<* 
Hc<;iim*nt  wln*i«*  it  was  f«)nml  by  tin'  «-n«niy.  Tin* 
l(»HS(*s  w«'i'<*  ap])allin;;  for  so  Nuiall  a  ronimaml  ami  cast 
a  shallow  of  ;:looiii  ovn-  tin*  K«*j:inn*nt.  Tln'\  \\«*r«'  as 
follows:  Kiih-d  r;ipt;iin  l>a\iil  < '.  Kym-aison,  ( 'oni- 
paiiy  <';  Taptain  dtdiii  S.  11.  holy,  (  oinpaiiy  K:  Scr- 
p*aiit  nlivfi-  I'.  Ilai-din;:.  ("oMi|tiin\  .\  ;  .\lon/.o  11.  I, Mr- 
kin,  < 'onipan\  .\  ;  <  oi  |M>i-;il  I'Mward  \\  ottlsontroti,  t 'niii- 
pany  U:  Sir^^t-ani  dtdin  Thorson,  <  'onii»any  <  i  ;  t  orporal 
Kdward  Mnnson.  <'onipan.\  <":  Washington  <i.  Taik^r, 
Ounpany  ( ';  Srr;j«*ant  llmry  I'..  Tilt  «*.  < 'umpany  I ) ;  ( 'or- 
poral  Tlnnnas  Hnrnhain,  t'onijtany  1>;  Mnsician  <Mho 
liolijiri.  <  ■.iiiip;in\  I  >:  Noiinan  t  iiani.  (  ompany  I  > ;  Wil- 
liam r».  «'oyli-,  ("ompany  \>:  .lohn  S.  Poucis,  ('onipany 
I);  Trtcr  Ihinn.  ("ompany  I';  dohn  .Mri'nilon^h,  ('oni- 
pany K;  dohn  W.  Aldiott,  ('onijiany  |].  .Mortally 
wotindrd  llir;im  .\  mh'ison,  (  ompany  I>:  William  W. 
rilkin;:ton.  (ompany  1).  Woimdrd  ha\id  N'arntT, 
CompanN  .\  ;  I'atiirk  ( >'!  >onn«*l|,  ( 'umi>an\  A.  woumlrd 
and  taken  prisom-i-:  S«'rj,'«'ani  William  .M.  (hamlMTs, 
C'4ini|»any  15:  Scr^'rant  .Mlnri  ( '.  hassctt.  ( 'oinpanv  II; 
Ilfiirx    I'    Kohi'^oii.  ( '.iiiijKinx    I':   lliiir\    \\  iiiffrsrin-idt, 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  223 

Coinpaiiy  B;  Siduey  W.  liurj^ews,  Company  1>;  (lustavus 
Petei-HOii,  Coniptuiy  B;  Moiis  Olson,  Company  B;  Ste- 
phen II.  Patterson,  Company  B;  Lient«Miant  Thomas 
Clark,  Company  I),  severely;  Ser^vant  -lohn  T.  Post, 
Company  D,  in  the  head;  Corporal  Lewis  K.  lliUton, 
Com])any  D,  severely  in  the  head  and  ri<»ht  lej>;  John 
Shai)land,  Company  1);  John  Kinker,  Company  D;  Rich- 
ard J.  Gai^e,  severely,  three  wounds;  Serjeant  William 
J.  Anderson,  Company  E;  8er«>eant  K(d)ert  A.  Brattou, 
Company  E;  Corporal  William  H.  Conard,  Company  E, 
severely  in  right  shoulder;  Corjioral  Iliion  Jj.  Mead, 
Company  E,  in  the  head;  William  M.  \\ilson,  Conii)an3'^ 
E,  severely  in  left  shoulder  joint. 

Captain  William  Htrawn,  of  (,'oni])any  F,  says  in 
regard  to  Peach  Tree  Creek:  "We  had  crossed  the 
Creek  and  had  come  to  a  halt  near  some  thick  woods 
and  brush;  stacked  arms  and  began  some  temporary 
works  when  we  were  ordered  to  stop.  We  were  out 
of  sight  and  at  some  distance  from  the  Brigade,  what 
for  we  never  knew.  It  was  very  hot.  About  four  p.  m. 
our  pickets  came  rushing  headlong  over  our  slight 
works,  and  a  rebel  force  following  closely,  fired  and 
charged  on  the  right  of  the  Regiment,  which  had 
scarcely  time  to  get  into  line  when  they  were  upon  us. 
The  whole  right  was  doubled  back  on  the  left,  when 
order  was  restored  and  the  rebels  eventually  driven 
back,  leaving  part  of  their  dead  and  wounded  in  our 
hands.  The  rest  of  the  Brigade  came  to  the  rescue. 
The  left  of  the  Regiment,  of  which  my  company  was 
the  right,  owing  to  the  fact  that  it  was  on  the  shel- 
tered side  of  a  ridge,  escaped  unharmed  and  took  part 
in  the  fight  with  spirit.  But  what  a  terrible  loss  had 
fallen  on  the  right.  Half  of  Companies  A,  B,  C,  D  and 
E,  were  either  killed,  wounded,  or  cnptured,  to  be 
dragged  to  the  rebel  hells  called  prisons.  Company 
E,  next  on  my  right,  lost  half  its  men.  Captain  Doty, 
my  warm  personal  friend,  lay  dying  with  five  bullet 
wounds  in  his  body.  He  was  lying  with  his  head  down 
hill.     Realizing-  his  condition  he  called  to  me  to  pray 


rr«  THK   'Ni      m    .Si'Kil*   ANI>  FOURTH 

for  him.  Takiii;:  iiiin  in  iii>  jiniis  aiul  |>l:iriii^  him  in  a 
ImMIi*!' |Hihi(iMii  1  atlminisiciiMl  what  « itiisiWaiion  1  i-onhl. 
IliH  I»I«hkI  Miiiiralin^  niv  (loihin^.  1  h«*hl  him  nntil  he 
wiih  iiirrii*«l  lo  th«'  rear  «»n  ai  stpfirhtT.  l>iiiv  callin*; 
im*  I'lww  h«T«'  I  saw  n<i  nnMr  of  mv  ImMovimI  friiMul  ami 
u  hoh*  soiihMl.  nolih*  stihlici-.  lii*  (lic^l  soon  af(«'i-  in  th<* 
full  roiihtiouHnt'ss  that  his  life  had  Immmi  ;;iv«Mi  to  a  jnsr. 
CIIIIH4*,  and  wiih  ih«-  hojH-  of  th«-  <hiistian.  A  iinly 
iiolili*  Honl,  iisin^  no  rani,  making  no  louil  professions, 
linl  with  fall  fail  h  in  his  lv«'<h-fiM<'r  ami  ihf  ;:oo(lm'Ss  of 
<io«l.  'rh«-  rcnhT  of  ihi*  itltcl  line  slrmk  the  ri;:ht  and 
rt'ur  whrrc  it  had  an  rntihidin^  tin*  and  noihin;;  but 
the  t'l«*vali«in  spokrn  of  sav«*d  ihf  l<fi.  \\  »•  have  a 
ri;:hl  to  |M«li«'V<'  that  th«*  phirin;:  of  thi-  lJe;iiment  so 
far  awav  from  tlw  r«*st  of  ih<-  |{ii;:ad«*  was  dm*  to  the 
iiuildlitv  or  rareh'ssness  of  our  Hrii^ade  ('ommamh'i'. 
1  have  for;:otien  his  mime  and  am  ^dad  of  it  ;  my  indi^^- 
nation  oxfi*  the  affair  was  not  ai  while  heal  until  a 
ropN  of  a  <  'iminnat  i  pa|»er  tame  into  camp  with  a  com- 
niuiii<'at  ioii  from  'onr  rorrespondeni  at  the  front,'  in 
which  the  'hravery.  ahilitv  and  <<>nsniiimat(*  general- 
ship' with  whieh  the  rommander  handled  the  Hri;;a<1e, 
et«-.,  was  heralded  to  the  world.  Ilandle»l  the  Uii;^adel 
Hahl  The  Kri;:ade  lia\ini:  heeii  placed  in  an  awkward 
|H»Hili<Mi  and  made  to  JicIieN  e  I  here  was  no  ciiemy  w  it  hin 
Hirikin;:  distance,  u  li«-ii  ilie  lime  came,  liaiidled  itself! 
llie  other  rei^inieiits  coming  to  our  aid  as  soon  as  we 
were  attacked.  However,  We  lost  maiiv  l>ra\e  men 
owin;:  entirelx  io  the  fact  that  the  Ke;;iment  had  been 
placed  in  an  improper  position  before  a  viuilant  f(»e, 
ever  on  the  lookout  for  just  such  an  opport  unity  as  was 
presented.  When  burying:  'he  dead  on  the  next  day 
ipiile  a  number  were  found  on  both  sides.  pi<'rc«*d  with 
the  bayonet.  Notwithstanding;  the  suddenness  of  the 
aflark  and  the  fierceness  i»f  the  stru<;;j:le,  there  was  no 
panie  in  our  ranks.     This  was  owini:  to  the  fact    that 

we    hail    become   so    arcUStollied    to    the    coolness    of   our 

rt*^iinenlal  oHicers  that  one  ami  all  took  it  for  granted 
that  to  simply  obey  <»rders  was  the  surest  way  to  come 


REGIMENT  ILLIXOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  225 

out  all  right.  Tlio  next  iiioriiini;  was  sjKMit  in  burying 
the  dead,  iu  which  sad  duty  the  dead  i'«'bcls  received 
the  same  attention  as  our  own." 

John  G.  Newell,  of  Company  E,  says  in  regard  to 
Captain  Doty:  "I  was  among  the  first  to  reach  the 
side  of  our  beloved  and  lamented  Captain  Doty  when 
he  fell  at  Peach  Tree  Creek,  and  shall  never  forget  his 
last  words,  which  were  these:  ^Drive  back  those  rebels 
first,  then  take  care  of  me.'  He  was  the  idol  of  his 
men,  noble,  generous,  brave." 

While  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  engaged 
as  described  on  the  right,  the  tide  of  battle  had  been 
borne  strongly  against  the  divisions  of  Newton,  Wil- 
liams and  Geary,  on  the  left.  The  enemy  about  three 
o'clock  swarmed  in  dense  masses  out  of  their  intrench- 
ments  and  rushed  from  the  woods,  taking  Newton  on 
both  flanks  and  front,  and  were  coming  in  between  wm 
and  Geary  when  Ward's  Division  confrtmted  them  and 
threw  the  rebels  into  confusion  and  retreat  with  heavy 
losses.  Williams  and  Geary,  with  Newton,  were  equally 
successful  in  repulsing  every  attack  and  the  rebels  with- 
drew, but  later  attempted  to  turn  Newton's  left  in  heavy 
columns,  when  General  Thomas  assuming  personal 
direction,  massed  all  the  artillery  of  Ward  and  Newton 
and  mowed  down  the  enemy  by  thousands.  The  battle 
raged  with  fury  until  six,  when  the  rebel  hosts  again 
withdrew.  On  the  right,  opposite  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth,  their  second  attack  was  easily  repulsed, 
and  in  this  the  decimated  Regiment  took  part. 
Hooker's  Corps  lost  about  fifteen  hundred  men.  Hood's 
losses  w^ere  heavy,  being  from  three  to  five  thousand. 
Ward's  Division  captured  seven  battle  flags,  and  two 
hundred  and  forty-six  prisoners.  The  rebel  repulses 
had  been  signal  ones  and  the  new  policy  of  Hood  and 
his  master  was  fully  shown.  Its  success  or  failure  was 
of  more  importance  to  the  rebels  than  to  Sherman, 
whose  large  and  compact  army  scarceh^  felt  the  blow 
and  thereafter  knew  well  what  to  expect. 

On  the  21st  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  occupied 


Z»  THK  t>XK   Hr.NDRKD  AND  FOURTH 

tilt*  iiioriiiii;;  ill  tli<*  Haul  task  of  liurviu<;  tlit*  (lt*a«l.  The 
woiiihlcil  w «•!•»•  iak«Mi  ill  rliarp*  l>y  Snr^«'«Mi  Dv^r.  This 
iliiiy  cMiiiiili'ictl,  ilif  ( iiH*  IhiiitlnMl  aii«l  I'oiinli.  wiili 
lilt*  nri;:a<lf,  uas  aihaiutMl  half  a  iiiilr  initial-  a  Itrisk 
tin*.  Tlif  iiiov«'iii«'iit  was  in  ruiif«)riuii,\  with  liiai  of 
ll«M»k«T'K  < 'orps  on  I  In-  left,  ("apiaiii  Sirawii  sa\s:  "A 
loiij;  skiniiisii  liiir  was  foinnM|  wiili  that  of  thr  'rwrii 
tii*th  ('oi-|is,  aii«l  oiMlfis  ^i\«'ii  to  push  th«-  fiiciiiv  into 
thi'ir  main  works.  Coinpanv  T  was  s«Mit  from  «mii' 
|{i*;:imciit  ami  or<li'i'<Ml  to  or(-n]»y  a  (cnti'al  |>osiiion  in 
lh«"  lim-.  whirh,  ju«I^Mn;r  from  thr  shouting  an<l  n-ports 
of  mnskoiry.  was  sc\«Mal  niih's  h>n^.  \N  «*  »'\|n*rirmf(l 
a  stniihttrn  rcsisiaiic-c  a<l\aiirin;:  amitlsl  ntnt  iniioiiv; 
tiriii;;,  so  that  as  a  whoh-  iln-  |no<;frss  «>!  iln-  lim-  was 
Vffv  sh>w.  DiiiMiij;  thr  tiiiif  <"om|>any  l\  with  tiioMuh 
to  i|o  in  its  fitint,  snthh'iily  tlisfovci«M|  that  tin-  sUir 
mWifis  of  tin*  'i'w  <'nt  iot  li  roi|»s  on  out-  h-ft  had  haltol 
for  some  rrasitn  unknown  to  us.  This  uavo  th«'  rchrU 
an  oppurl  unity  to  |M)iir  in  a  u:allin':  tii)*  on  i  h*-  h'ft  of 
my  lim-.  The  liionnd  wo  wtM-o  niaichin;:  oxer  was  «o\- 
rr«*«l  with  a  thirk  ^r«»wlh  of  tirrs  ami  lniish  in  full 
h-af.  Tin*  ioIm-Is  had  mad«*  (h'fonst's  l»y  di^^in^  ]>its 
ami  throwing:  tho  dirt  on  tin-  side  toward  iis.  thcr 
thrso  tln'V  had  tiinnin^ly  ananucd  hramhos  si>  as  to 
(om-cal  thoir  lorality  and  ocrnpants  from  unr  \  i<-w  as 
w«'  a|iproarlM-d.  Sumotim«'s  w«'  ran  riuht  into  those 
iM'fopc  disrtivrrinji  I  hem.  William  .lolTorstMi  was  killed 
iit  till*  hasr  of  MiH*  of  ihcsi',  to  all  apitoaramo  hofore  In* 
disr(»vor«'d  its  rharartor.  Samuel  Mct'ashlaml  was 
mortally  wiinnded  li\  a  musk<-t  hall  from  the  unro\- 
ered  left  before  mentioned,  and  died  on  the  2!»th,  fully 
<-oiiKrioiis,  K4'ndiii;:  farewell  and  lo\f  in  all  his  rum- 
rjid«"i.  .lames  M.  tiatchell  was  hailly  wounded  in  the 
hip,  hut  iiMMxered.  ( leur;;e  M  ushlier;;»'r  was  wounded. 
These  rasnalties  hajipeiied  m-arly  at  the  saino  time,  and 
tile  lire  from  our  left  lierumiii;:  every  monu'iit  more 
Kpiteful.   I  or«lered   the  uM-n   to  lie  di»wii  ami  oidv  tire 

when    Ihev    rollld    see     i    feliel    to    life   at.       1 '  nh>oket|-foi- 

tnoilde   had   ormrn'd   all    alon^   t),,.   Ijn,.,   ;is   we  snon 
rereived    or<|ers    tu   desist    and    withdraw.       To    Md\;une 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  227 

had  been  almost  iin]M>ssil)le  and  to  withdraw  was 
e(j[nally  hazardous.  \Ve  were  so  ehjse  to  the  rebel  rille 
pits  that  if  the  boys  should  rise  to  their  feet  they 
would  be  almost  certain  to  be  shot.  It  was  my  busi- 
ness to  notify  each  one  and  1  mana<j,ed  to  <:,('t  all  out 
of  the  i)osition,  excei)t  two  or  three  who,  taken  with 
a  panic,  had  broken  for  the  rear.  On  arriving  at  our 
camp  I  sent  a  Sergeant  to  bring  up  those  who  had  left 
us,  knowing  they  would  be  ashame<l.  Then  I  said  to 
one  of  them,  'I  am  ashanie«l  of  you;  what  was  the  mat- 
ter?' As  honest  as  honesty  itself,  he  rej)lied,  'Well, 
Ca]>,  I  was  skeert.'  This  young  soldier  was  naturally 
as  brave  as  the  bravest;  he  had  never  flinched  before 
and  his  record  thereafter  was  (Mjually  good." 

General  Hood,  having  failed  in  his  attacks  on  the 
Peach  Tree  Creek  line,  a  plan  devised  by  General  John- 
ston himself,  withdrew  his  arm}'  that  night  to  the 
defenses  immediately  near  Atlanta.  These  consisted 
of  long  lines  of  intrenchments,  forts,  ditcljes  in  front, 
abatis,  and  chevaux  de  frise,  all  of  which  had  been 
elabt)rately  prepared  long  ago  in  anticipation  of  attack. 
During  the  day  our  armies  had  steadily  driven  back 
the  enemy  and  night  found  them  approaching  the  walls 
of  the  city,  only  three  miles  distant,  so  near  and  yet 
so  far.  Of  the  movement  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  on  the  22d  Captain  Strawn  says:  "The  enemy 
having  withdrawn  in  the  night  we  formed  lin(^  of  bat- 
tle, C(uni»any  E  as  skirmishers,  and  marched  thrcuigh 
the  woods  with  slight  opposition,  which  soon  disap- 
])eared,  and  we  deluded  ourselves  into  the  belief  that 
the  enemy  had  really  evacuated  Atlanta.  This  idea 
caused  us  to  abandon  the  line  of  battle  formation  and 
we  took  the  rout  step,  marching  at  will  without  regard 
to  time,  and  we  were  proceeding  gaily  along  right  into 
— ^no,  not  the  city,  but  plain  sight  of  the  rebel  fcu'titica- 
tions.  The  time  occupied  in  grasping  the  situation 
and  wheeling  into  line  right  and  left  was  not  long." 
Kut  the  22d  was  not  to  close  without  a  battle  of  severe 
I)roportions  on  the  left.  McPherson's  Army  of  the  Ten- 
nessee was  fiercely  attacked  by  a  ]>art  of  Hood's  army 


138  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

in  aKsauIl,  iu  whirli,  piiuin^'  at  lirst  s«nne  a»lvanta«rf, 
it  was  lu'ftm*  tlu*  rli»s<'  <»f  ilu'  <lay  l»a<ily  ilcft^airil  ami 
Kou^ht  slu'ltrr  within  tin*  w«»rks.  Tin-  liravo  and  «;ift«Ml 
.M<l'liiTson  ffll  fjiilv  in  ili«*  aition,  virMin^'  up  his  lif«* 
at  thf  early  a;:f  of  thiriyfonr.  H«*  was  su«»«MMh*(l  on 
tliv  lield  by  (Jt'mTal  John  A.  Loj;an.  The  cntMny  h»st, 
as  t-oni|inl(M|  by  <u'n<'i-al  l.o;xan,  'A,'24i)  men  kilh'il,  LM.M)0 
of  these  were  from  a<tnal  ronni;  1,(MM>  jtrisctneis  were 
taken  lu-sides  those  wonnded,  'i'heir  ent  ire  htss  was 
estiniatinl  at  S,(KM).  Onr  army  h>st  in  kille*!,  wounded 
and  inissin;:,  'A,l'2'2  men.  Thus  elosfnl  the  battle  of 
Atlanta,  and  liuth  armies  sat  down  behiml  their  in- 
trenrhmeiits.  Hood  at  hay,  and  Sh«*rman  to  solve  the 
problem  of  how  to  compass  the  defeat  of  his  antaj;- 
onist  and  seize  Atlanta.  Writing:  of  the  '2'M\  Sherman 
Leland  says:  **1  t«»ok  the  team  np  to  the  Ke^Mnieni 
and  staid  there  until  the  shells  from  the  enemy's  bat- 
teries made  it  necessary  for  the  safety  of  the  mules  to 
move  to  a  hcdlow  near  by,  from  whirh  we  were  soon 
shelbnl  out.  Then  moved  back  and  halted  near  the  rail- 
road." It  oc<urs  to  the  writer  that  th<»se  mules  must 
have  Ix-en  vabiable.  <  >n  the  L* It h,  about  eleven  at  ni^dit, 
the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  took  jtart  in  a  feint  attack 
(»n  the  enemy's  works  for  tin*  purjxjse  of  drawinj;  their 
tire  ami  learning'  the  juisition  of  their  batteries.  The 
bu;;;les  sounded  the  charp*  and  yellinj^  bej;an  all  alonj^ 
the  lim*.  when  the  rebels  opened  fire  and  the  object 
was  aci-omplislu'd.  After  that  our  boys  amused  them- 
selves in  lau'diiu'^  at  the  rebels. 


CHAPTER  XV. 


The    Siege    and    Fall    of    Atlanta. 


On  the  2Gth  of  July  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth 
was  again  called  upon  to  mourn  the  loss  of  one  of  its 
bravest  and  most  faithful  soldiers,  Charles  B.  Ruger, 
of  Company-  E,  being  mortall}'  wounded  b}'  a  musket 
ball  from  the  enemy's  works  whilst  the  Regiment  was 
resting  quietly  behind  the  defenses.  His  father,  Gabriel 
Ruger,  was  well  known  to  the  Regiment  as  a  great 
patriot  and  the  lirm  friend  of  the  soldiers  of  La  Salle 
County,  which  fact  had  been  shown  on  many  occa- 
sions, and  by  his  public  acts  as  a  member  of  the  Board 
of  Supervisors  of  the  County.  Charley  was  loved  by  all 
and  there  was  a  feeling  of  sadness  when  his  young  life 
was  so  suddenly  and  cruelly  ended  by  a  rebel  bullet. 

Colonel  McCook  having  gone  home,  was  succeeded 
temporarily  by  Colonel  Taylor  in  the  command  of  the 
Brigade,  Colonel  Hapeman  taking  command  of  the  left 
wing  of  the  Brigade.  Other  changes  occurred  on  the 
27th,  in  accordance  with  the  desires  of  General  Sher- 
man. General  Howard  was  appointed  to  command 
the  Army  of  the  Tennessee,  succeeding  General  Logan. 
General  Stanley  then  took  command  of  the  Fourth 
Corps.  General  Joseph  Hooker  resigned,  being  in  the 
sulks  because  not  preferred  by  Sherman  as  Commander 
of  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee.  Though  General  Sher- 
man had  an  undoubted  leaning  toward  regular  army 
officers,  West  Point  men,  we  did  not  see  John  A.  Logan 
resigning  when  Howard  succeeded  him.  He  had  always 
been  identified  with  the'  Army  of  the  Tennessee  and 
was  fully  capable  to  command  it,  but  Avith  him  patriot- 
ism and  duty  were  paramount. 

On  the  2.5th  the  armies  were  distributed  as  follows: 
The  Army  of  the  Tennessee  on  the  left,  the  Army  of 


230 


THK   m.NJ:    HrXUHKl)  AM>   KolltTH 


thf  nhin  lU'Xi  on  ihr  ii;ilit  :  iIhmi  «ainr  tin*  Anii.v  of 
(lu*  riilillMTlilllil,  IMlliilM'lili;^  fl'oiii  left  (o  I-i;:li1.  tli<' 
Ftnirtli,  Twi'iilirt h  aii«l  l'«Miit«M'nili  Aniiv  ('ttips.  Tlif 
iiiin'iirliiMl  liin's  «'\tt'ii<li'«l  for  a  ilisiaiuf  of  live  iiiiN's. 
Tin*  raxalrv  was  «li\i»lr(l  into  two  stioii;^  «li\isioiis 
iiiiili'i'  McCook  and  Sitmrnian.  Tin*  i-cIm'I  works  in  anti 
alioul  Atlanta  lnMn;:  t<»o  siron;;  to  assault  siu«M*ssfnllv 
aiixl  the  o|M  rations  of  a  i-rjxnlar  si«'}i«*  too  slow  to  suit 
tilt'  iin|iaii«Mii  inin<l  of  (icnciai  Slifinian:  also  t«i  aNojd 
tin*  l>ni«  Iniv  of  his  luavr  soMicis,  In*  proposed  to  foirc 
Hood  ont  of  Atlanta  l>v  «'X»*cutinj;  atmtluM'  ^Mand  Hank 
inoMMnciit  on  tin*  li^rlit  dcsi^in-d  to  smiir  |M»ss«*ssion 
of  tin*  .Macon  ami  Al  lanta  ivailiond,  w  hidi  was  tin*  oidv 
on«*  l«'ft  to  tin*  im*Im*Is  and  l»v  which  thcv  ic««*i\«*d  tlicii* 
supplies  and  kept  coniiuMiiicat ion  op«*n  with  the  icar. 
This  drstfovcd,  lloiMJ  nnisi  of  necessity  come  mil  and 
fi^ht  oiahandon  the  city.  Therefoi-t*  <  Jeneial  Sherman 
issued  oideis  for  jiciu'ial  movements  on  the  L'Tih.  The 
cavalfv  staft<*d  hy  two  dilVei-eiil  loules  to  <lestfoy  the 
laili-oad,  hut  oidy  ]iai-liall\  succeeded,  ami  Stoneinan 
essay  in;r  '••  liheiate  the  l'e<le!ai  |Uisonels  at  Macon 
ami  A  mieisonv  ille,  was  himself  caju  uicd,  toilet  hei-  with 
seven  hiindietl  of  his  men,  at  the  foinief  place.  The 
wfiief,  I  hell  M  prisoner  of  war  ai  .Macon.  lememlteis 
well    the  ad\e|||    of  (!e||e|;il    Stoiieliiail    aild    his  ollicels, 

into  the  prison  pen.  .\s  his  command  a|)proache<l 
Macon  the  pri.som*i-s  heaf<l  the  liriii;:  ami  expected  lo 
he  liberated,  liut  their  astonishmeni  and  disap|ioiiit- 
ineiii  was  ;ireai,  w  hen  soon  after  our  would  he  resett- 
ers came  in  as  |uisom*rs.  This  ejiistHle  did  not  add 
ill  any  ;iieat  de^^ree  to  (Jeneral  Sttuieman's  «:entle  dis- 
position as  e\imed  hy  his  Ni;;oroiis  lau;iua;:e.  Tin' 
Aiiny  of  the  Tennessee  nio\ed  to  the  ritiht.  joinin;;; 
Thomas,  and  was  severely  eii^af^ed  on  tin-  listli  with 
Hardee's  and  Lee's  ('or|ts  sent  hy  Hood,  who  rii^hlly 
understood     the    meanin;::    of    the    nioxeinent.      These 

ti |is  made  six  desperali*  assaults  ami  were  six  liims 

re|)nls«M|  with  very  heavy  losses.  Many  prisoners  and 
fi\e  haith'  lla;j:s  w«*re  taken.  The  hat  lie  was  foii<^ht 
iiejir  Iv/.ra  <'hurch.     Our  lrou|is  iiad   no  iiii  remhmeiiis. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  2:n 

but  only  slij^lit  barricades  of  rails  and  lojis.  (Iciicral 
John  A.  Loiian,  ('oniiiiaiidcr  (^f  the  Fitt<M'ntli  Corps,  was 
award(Ml  jurcat  credit  by  (Icncral  Howard  for  his  con- 
duct in  this  battl(\  (Jcncral  Hood  liavin^  aj^ain  faiiccl 
to  acconi])lish  anything  by  repeated  assaults,  rested 
behind  his  works,  an<l  diirinm'  the  next  three  days  (leu- 
eral  Sherman  gradually  extended  his  lines  (o  the  ri^^lit 
toward  the  Macon  road,  fully  satisfied  by  this  time 
that  his  cavalry  could  not  break  u]>  that  line.  l»y 
reaching'  it  with  his  infantry  and  artillery  the  object 
iniiiht  be  iiaiiu'd.  Hood,  however,  ma<le  correspon<linin- 
ino\"em(^nts,  which,  liaxiui^  the  inner  and  shorter  line, 
it  was  easy  to  do.  The  losses  to  Sherman  duriiii;'  .July 
in  killed,  wounded  and  missinii",  a,ii\i;r<'mated  1),711)  men. 
The  rebel  losses  for  the  same  ])eriod  in  killed  and 
Avound<Ml  were  8,841,  but  the  ])risoners,  numberiiiu- 
2,<I0(I,  were  not  {j;iYen  in  the  rebel  reiM)rts. 

On  August  1st  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth,  whilst 
eniiaii'ed  in  skirmishiuii,  had  one  man  wounded.  Major 
^\'idmer,  as  usual,  had  chariic  of  the  lin(\  On  the  Hd 
(ienei-al  Oarlin  returned  and  assumed  command  of  tlu^ 
Brij^ade,  wlii*-h  moved  about  four  miles  to  the  riiiht 
in  close  i)roxiinity  to  the  enemy.  On  the  4th  the  lieiii- 
nient  uiovcmI  to  the  line  of  Utoy  ( Veek,  on  the  extreme 
riiilit,  relievinji,  trooi>s  of  the  Twenty-third  (\)ri>s.  On 
the  5th  the  Bri<»ade  advanced  to  develop  the  enemy, 
and  char}j;iu<>-,  drove  them  from  the  first  line  of  ritle 
pits.  The  One  Iltmdred  and  Fourth  moved  in  the  even- 
inji'  two  miles  to  the  rinlit  and  tocdv  position  on  the 
riju'ht  of  the  Fifteenth  Corps.  It  remained  lun'e  durinc; 
the  6th,  but  on  the  7th  was  actively  en*;a<;ed  in  an 
advance  made  toward  the  main  rebel  works,  losinii' 
duriuii  the  day  fourteen  men  killed  and  woumh'd.  The 
first  and  second  lines  of  rebel  rifie  ])its  were  ca])tured 
under  a  furious  fire  from  the  rebel  Avorks.  Captain 
Strawn  writes  thus  of  the  eiioa«eiuent :  "Being  ])laced 
in  command  of  the  i>icket  line  of  our  Kc^iiinu^nt  Ave  soon 
found  ourselves  in  close  proximity  to  the  r<4)(d  skir- 
mishers. The  whole  line  of  the  Brijiade's  skirmishers 
joined  us  on  our  right  and  left.     About  twelv(^  m.  (xeu- 


»•  THE  ONE  HLNDRK1»  AM»  FOLHTH 

tTiiI  rarliii  fjiiiH*  alim;;  lln*  lint*  in  tin*  thick  ln-nsli  and 
jjuvf  118  M-rlial  «»nlri*s  t«>  liavf  our  mm  iva«lv  on  llu* 
liiii*  of  iialilr  witlioiK  any  n«>isf,  and  at  ti  •:;ivi'n  si^iuil, 
rliafp*  atnd  driv«'  tin*  rtdnds  out  of  tlit-ii-  dff«MiS('s  and 
HH  far  as  imissIMi*  toward  their  main  lini*.  We  did  not 
bavo  l»»n;:  !«»  wait.  The  «liarj;«*  was  niad»*  an<l  so  )iiu*x- 
|MHt<*<lly  to  the  rebels  that  most  of  theui  forsook  their 
rilfe  pits  without  lirin;:  a  ;:uii.  We  pursued  them  with 
;;reat  eeh-rity  on  the  keen  run.  until  an  open  lield  was 
rearhed  when  lire  uas  opened  on  us  fi-oui  the  rebel 
works  on  t  he  itt  her  side.  Meauiiuie  we  had  inilie.!  down 
a  hi;;h  worm  fern**  in  oui-  front  and  erected  lemporarv 
tlefenses.  tJeneral  Carlin  then  roniin^  up  wiMi  the 
whole  hri«;ade,  a  stron;;  line  was  established  within 
tw«»  hundred  yar<ls  of  the  rebel  breastworks.  The  One 
llumlreil  and  I'ourth  was  moved  a  few  rods  lo  the  left 
of  the  rail  bnrrirade  :ind  established  a  line  in  the  ed^e 
of  the  brush  alon^r  the  side  of  an  open  tield  frontin;: 
the  enemy,  t  hie  of  my  men  suddenly  fotind  himself 
alone  in  the  field  ami  in  \iew  of  the  rebels,  ('uriin;; 
down  behind  a  stump  he  rem:iined  until  dark,  when 
he  joined  I  he  runi|tany.  <'a|tiain  l-Mt /.simnions.  of  ( 'um- 
pany  K,  who  was  on  lop  df  the  iid;:e  in  the  npen  li<'ld, 
was  almost  instantly  killed,     lie  was  a  vtiy  brave  and 

capable  onirel-,  mucll  respected  by  the  winde  Ke^iment 
and  was  missed  ;:rea!ly."  The  follow  ini;  casualties 
occurred  on  the  Tth  :ii  I  i.>y  ( "n«k:  Killed  Captain 
dames  r.  l'it/,simmon>.  (oiiipnny  K  :  Sei-^eant  Albert 
< '.  Itassett,  ('oinpaiiy  15;  Sii-^eiini  \\illi;ini  II.  ('rai;:. 
<'onipany  Jv;<'harles  I].  ( iia\  es.  < '(tuip;niy  II.  Muiially 
woundetl  dolin  .M.  W  inslow.  t'onipjiny  A.  Wounded 
Kobert  W  exi,  <  oMipMiiv  r.;do|in  W.  h:i\  is.  « 'ouipany 
<':  Samuel  .1.  |>o;in«-.  ('oni|»any  (";  AleMimler  II.  L:ine. 
<'ompany  l>:Ser;:eant  I'rancis  .M.  I  hui^lierly.  < 'oiupany 
!•';  Corporal  dames  Mooney,  ('onipany  I';  <Hivei-  Law- 
rence, ( 'om|>any  tJ;  Ivoswfll  .birobs.  ( '<unp:i  iiy  II;('iU'- 
neiiuH  Snider.  <  'ompany  I. 

♦  oMieral  didin  .M.  Palun  r  li;i\in;i  resi;:ned  the  com- 
m.'iiid  of  th«>  I-'ourteeiiih  .\rmy  t 'oips  on  the  tith,  tlen- 

er;i|     IJ      \\  .    .Io|in«.on.    b\     \illue    of    seuioiilN.    silcceeded 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  _:~ 

him,  but  gave  yjlace  a  few  days  later  to  <  reneral  Jeffer- 
son C.  I>avis,  who  became  permanent  Commandt.-r. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  remaine<l  <^»n  the  new 
advanced  lines  close  t<>  the  enemy's  works  until  August 
20th,  exposed  most  of  the  time  to  a  severe  fire  from 
artillery  and  sharpshooters.  This  conipelle<l  the  men 
to  keep  closely  under  cover,  but  several  losses  occurred 
to  the  Regiment  while  in  its  works  or  on  the  skirmish 
lines.  On  the  Sth,  John  P.  Johnson,  of  Company  F,  was 
ba«ily  wounded.  <Jn  the  9th,  P.  A.  Hawk,  of  Company  G. 
was  wounde<l  in  the  face,  and  on  the  11th,  John  Everitt, 
of  Company  H.  in  the  head.  On  the  L2th  <  Vtrporal 
John  Ruble,  of  Company  G,  color  bearer,  was  severely 
wounded.  Captain  Strawn.  S7>eaking  of  this,  says:  "A 
stray  buUet  coming  from  the  right  made  four  holes  in 
the  hat  of  Sergeant  John  Shay,  of  my  company,  and 
then  plunged  into  the  ne<:k  of  the  color  bearer.  The 
bkK)d  spurted  out  in  a  stream  as  large  as  a  man's  little 
finger.  I  was  standing  close  by  and  thought  an  artery 
had  been  severe!.  Our  Surgeon,  fortunately,  was  near, 
and  being  summoned,  came  quickly  and  applying  his 
thumb  to  the  wound,  bandaged  it  and  sent  the  man  to 
the  hospital.  Few  of  us  expected  to  see  him  alive 
again,  but  in  a  short  time  he  recovere<i  and  resume<i  his 
place  as  <olor  bearer."  Captain  Proctor  menti^ms  the 
same  event  and  says  that  about  that  time  several  men 
werv  kille«l  or  severely  wounde<l,  always  in  or  about 
the  head,  and  he  attributes  the  killing  of  Fitzsimmons, 
Craig  and  Graves,  as  well  as  the  wounding  of  the  others 
to  the  same  rebel  sharpshooter,  who  was  probably  con- 
cealed in  the  thick  foliage  of  a  tree.  The  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth  took  part  in  an  advance  on  the  13th, 
to  capture  the  rebel  rifle  pits  in  front.  These  were 
carried  for  the  whole  length  of  two  brigades,  the  Regi- 
ment losing  in  killed  George  Schweigart,  of  Company 
K:  Joseph  Burkart  and  Xathan  Rham,  of  Company  K, 
were  wounded:  also  Alexander  Bramble  and  William 
H.  Jones,  of  Company  D. 

Edgar  T^  Stevens,  of  Company  D,  thus  describes  the 


wm*  oil  IIU'  soiiiii  siur  «•!  :i  imir  rnM-u.  i  nr  itnci 
pirkrt  lilH'S  \Vrr«*  nil  I  In*  oIImT  siilr,  ill  tin*  tMl;;r  of  soiiif 
\voo«|s,  !  Iioir  iM'iii;:  :i  rloaroil  tifltl  iliior  lminln*<l  \iiiils 
\vi«lr  Im'I\\o««ii  llioiii  :iii*l  iln'  «iti'U.  <i»'iicial  ("arliii 
cailiii*  out  to  our  pitUri  liii*-  ami  asUfil  ili«*  Li«>iit<*iiaiit 
if  In*  roiihl  rliar^ii*  ami  iak«*  tin-  irlnl  line  of  ritlo  pits 
ill  fr«iiit.  Tlir  Lirutciiaii!  said  In*  «oiil(|  uv.  Tin-  mcii 
\vt»n*  tlnMi  assciiililiMl  ill  si!i;;lr  liiir  two  «»r  tlii«M*  vanis 
a|»art  ami  at  tin*  \\**vt\  of  rommainl  wo  rlaiiilM-rod 
lliroii;:li  ilir  Itnisli  <it)\\ii  till-  liaitk,  mix!  wailiri;:  hmt 
nislio«l  ii|i  llio  opjiosiir  sido,  u  lu'ii  wo  «aiiu'  iiiio  full 
viow  of  tlio  oiu'iuN,  who  JH'^iaii  to  tiro  on  us  at  oiiro. 
liiKtcai!  «>f  I'ot iiriiiii;;  the  tiio,  wo  advaiirtMJ  on  tlioni  at 
tli«*  lion  I  tic  i|  nick  without  halt  in<x,  until  wo  i-oachod  ihoir 
pits  :ind  nnMintin;:  I  ho  works  w  ith  niijskois  itM-kod  and 
imvoiiots  lixod,  doniandod  ihoii-  sniioiidor.  Tho  lolu-ls 
iniiiiodiaiolN  dfoppoil  jhoii-  «;nns  and  Itoin;:  rolhMti- 
\v«*n*  <*K<-o It od  lo  tlic  icMi-  liv  a  part  <d"  our  i>o\s.  Tin 
twoiilv-two  nioii,  imlMtlin;:  oni*  roniniandoi'.  «-aptnr< 
fort\f«inr  ioImIs  without  our  having  tiled  a  shot." 

Tin*  oaso  with   which  tho  rohol   lino  was  lakon  ai 
iho  roadv  sni!<-nd«'r  of  iho  ichcls  was  dno  lo  tho  fa 


of  our  iiion  w  hon  tln-v  chaf^od.  This  a;:ioonioin,  it 
sooins,  was  faiihfnily  raniod  oni,  and  tho  (-asnallio!> 
onniiii;;  to  uni*  sido  woro  inlliriod  fiom  otlnr  sonrros. 
<Mi  the  l.'tih  and  11th  sonio  ihroo  hundiod  inon  man 
Hp*«l  In  bo  rapt  mod  Itv  oiir  foicos.  Moaniiino,  how- 
ovor,  tho  tire  from  iho  lohol  shaipshouiiMs  and  ihoii 
main  works  roni  in  nod.  (Mi  I  ho  o\  onin^i  of  the  1  It  h  iIk 
om-inv  mado  a  dash  on  tho  skirmish  lino  of  tho  ( )m 
ilniidrod  and  l'«»nrih,  wonndin;:  two  inoii.  Thoir  ''•• 
lorv   mado   iho   h«*ad    lo;;s  of  <Mir   works   llv    wiih   s^ 


REGIMENT  Il^LIXOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  235 

shot  and  slicll,  but  iiieetinu  witli  a  linn  rcsistanci*  from 
Cai>tain  l^roclor  and  his  men,  tlio  cniMiiy  fell  hack  to 
their  works. 

General  Sherman  sent   Kilpatrick  on  the  18lh  to 
break  up  the  railroad.     That  (leneral  destroyed  some 
three  mih's  and  made  the  circuit  of  Atlanta,  but  faihMl 
to  intlict  lasting;  damay;e  and  Sherman  then  determined 
to  raise  the  siege  of  the  city  and  throw  the  muin  part 
of  his  army  further  sontli  toward  Jonesboro,  directly 
on  Hood's  communications.     In    i)reparation    for    the 
movement,  the  Twentieth   (\>r])s   was  sent  to  the  in- 
trenchmeuts  beyond  the  Chattahoochee  to  guard  the 
bridge,  the  ferries,  material,  supplies,  etc.,  there  accu- 
mulated. The  Fourth  Corj^s  covered  the  transfer.  Begin- 
ning on  the  night  of  the  25th,  the  Fourth  Cor])s  moved 
to  the  right  and  closed  tip  on  the  Fourteenth  Corps 
near  Utoy  Creek.     In  the  night  of  the  2(>th  the  Army 
of  the  Tennessee  went  to  the  extreme  right  of  the  other 
two  corps.     The  One  Hundred  and  Fotirth,  leaving  the 
works  where  it  had  remained  so  long,  and  marching 
to  the  right  until  one  a.  m.  of   the   27th,    went    into 
bivouac  ff>r  the  rest  of  the  day.     As  afterward  learned, 
the  rebels  in  Atlanta,  on  finding  that  Sherman's  armies 
had  disap]>eared,  rejoiced  greatly  and  telegrai)hed  the 
news  all  over  the  soitth,  thinking  that  they  had  got 
rid  of  the  hated  Yankees,  but  they  soon  after  found 
that  they  had   crowed   to  soon,  for  on  the  28th  the 
meaiung  of  tliis  sudden  departttre  began  to  dawn  upon 
their  minds.     Hood,  to  meet  the  new  movement  of  his 
adversary,  had  thrown  Hardee's  and  Lee's  Corps  into 
Jonesboro.     The  28th  was  occupied  by  the  armies  in 
execttting  a  grand  left  wheel  on  Schofield  as  a  pivot, 
which  Avas  closed  at  night  by  the  arrival  of  Thcunas 
and  Howard  at  the  railroad.     The  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  camped  near  Red  Oak,  jyid  on  the  29th  was 
detailed  to  guard  troops  engaged  in  tearing  up  the 
track  and  destroying  the  material. 

On   the   30th   the   Twenty-third   Corps  faced   East 
Point.     Thomas  was  near  on  the  right  and  Howard 


tH  ..:         NK   MIN1>RKI)  AN'"   '"'HTM 

ap|»n»inliiii;;  .Ioui-nImmo,  TIh'<Mu-  lluiKliril  ainl  i-ounli 
uiovimI  nix  iiiilt'S  ami  tainiMMl.  Howard  <li<l  soim*  sUir- 
miHhiiif;  with  tlu*  fiuMuv  ami  reacli«*il  a  poiiii  wit  inn 
two  inih'H  of  .ItuifRboro.  Tlu*  inoveineiits  (»f  all  lln* 
arinit's  mi  th«*  'Msi  w«*n-  ilinH-U'«l  towanl  lh«*  new 
ohjtM-tivf  and  tin-  railroad,  wlii«h  was  destnniM]  as 
tlifv  advaiKfd.  In  tin*  afiermum  llanlr*'  madi*  an 
altark  on  u  part  of  Howard's  line,  hnt  was  repnlsed. 
It  iMM-anu'  evident  to  every  soldier  on  tlw  eveiiin;^'  of 
the  'Mtii  that  the  Ion;;  caiiipai'^n  for  the  possession  of 
Atlanta  wouhl  soon  end.  All  felt  thai  some  ^Mrat 
event  was  aboni  to  happtii.  ll  was  an  iniuilive  fetd- 
iujr,  ihon^h  the  exact  sit  nation  was  not  yet  fnlly  known. 
l)n  Sept«*inl»er  Ist  the  armies  were  early  in  motion  and 
lati'  in  tin*  afternoon  the  F«Mirteenth  ('orj»s  fminrd  a 
jnnetion  with  Howard's  left  reaehin;^  t«>  the  railroad. 
Stanley  and  Seholield  fidlowed.  (Jeneral  Davis  form- 
in;;  his  divisions  in  line  in  front  of  Hardee's  works, 
rhar;;»'d  and  raptured  a  r«'l>el  l>ri;;ade  :ind  t  \n  o  l»at- 
leries.  Tin*  (hie  Hundred  and  I'ourtli  was  present. 
Uwiuj;  to  nijiht  eomin;:  <»n  and  the  failure  ^i{  Stanley 
to  arrive  in  time,  HaiMlcc  was  enabled  to  escajK'  and 
reiirat  to  LoNj'joy's  Siaiion.  Hurin;;  tin*  ni;;lM  ln'avy 
e\|t|osions  were  heard  in  the  dire(ti(tn  of  Atlanta, 
twenty  miles  distant,  tlif  meaning;  of  wliitli  was  a 
eanse  of  eonje<-t  ui<\  Tlit'  mornin;^  of  iIh-  iM  dawned 
n|M»n  the  deserted  w«»rks  of  the  rebels  at  .lomsbom, 
and  Sherman  was  not  a  litt  le  ihaizrined  that  Hardee 
had  es<aped,  but  at  on<e  onleied  a  \  i;;ori)Us  pursuit. 
The  FtMirteenth  Corps  remained  ai  .lunesboro.  Dnrin;; 
the  day  rnm<»rs  of  the  evaeualiou  of  Ailania  reaehed 
our  army  and  raused  ;;reat  rejoicin;;.  lOven  (len«*ral 
Thomas,  it  is  said,  threw  up  his  hat  and  imlnl;:ed  in 
e.vtraordinary  antics  «»f  ha|»|»im*ss.  (Jeneral  Slocuiu. 
who,  from  his  works  at  t  he  <  "hatlahoochee,  had  heard 
tlie  explosion  in  the  ni;;ht,  sent  Colonel  (olturn  early 
in  the  mornin;;  with  a  bri;;ade  toward  the  eily,  and 
followed  himself  soon  after.  Hn  the  way  these  tr<iops 
w«*i'e  met  b\  t  he  .Ma\  iM'  of  A I  la  III  a,  w  lio  made  a  foiiiial 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  237 

surrender.  The  city  was  then  occupied  by  General 
Slociim's  command  in  force.  It  was  found  that 
Hood,  before  leaving,  had  destroyed  nearly  all  the 
material  he  could  not  remove.  However,  SJocum 
secured  tAvent}'  cannon  and  some  small  arms.  Vast 
numbers  of  cars  aud  locomotives,  machinery  and  army 
supplies,  together  with  buildings,  had  been  blown  up. 
Fair  Atlanta  had  become  a  wreck  in  part.  Later  in 
the  day  Shernmn  received  a  note  from  General  Sh)cum 
that  Atlanta  was  really  ours.  General  Sherman, 
though  with  his  army  before  the  eneni}^  at  Lovejpy's, 
soon  decided  to  bring  the  present  campaign  to  a  close, 
return  to  Atlanta,  and  give  his  armies  a  much  needed 
rest  after  their  four  months  of  marcliings  and  battles, 
during  which  time  there  had  been  scarceh'  a  day  when 
some  part  of  the  lines  was  not  under  fire.  There  were, 
besides,  other  reasons  for  a  halt.  A  most  vital  part  of 
the  rebel  Confederacy  had  been  wrested  from  the  grasp 
of  Jeff.  Davis,  but  his  army  still  remained,  though  in 
retreat  and  no  doubt  disheartened.  New  plans  must 
be  studied  for  future  movements  against  the  still  defi- 
ant foe.  Therefore  on  the  5th  Sherman's  armies  were 
ordered  to  march  to  Atlanta,  arriving  in  and  around 
the  city  ou  the  8th,  where  they  were  disposed  in  com- 
manding positions  and  went  into  camp  for  a  brief 
period  to  enjoy  the  fruits  of  victory  obtained  after  one 
of  the  longest,  most  renuirkable  and  brilliant  cam- 
paigns ou  record. 

On  the  3d  of  September  the  following  dispatch  was 
received  and  promulgated  to  the  armies: 

"Executive  Mansion, 
"Washington,  D.  C,  Sept.  3d,  1864. 
"The  National  thanks  are  tendered  by  the  President 
to  Major-General  W.  T.  Sherman  and  the  gallant  offi- 
cers and  soldiers  of  his  command  before  Atlanta,  for 
the  distinguished  ability  and  perseverance  displayed 
in  the  campaign  in  Georgia,  which,  under  Divine  favor, 
has  resulted  in  the  capture  of  Atlanta.  The  marches, 
battles,  sieges,  and  otfier  military  operations  that  have 


3U 


THK  ONK   HlM'KKl'  A.M>   1  - 'I   in  H 


si;;n;ili/.»Ml  tin*  caiiipai;:!!,  imisi  ninli-r  it  faiiiuus  in  tlu* 
annals  of  war,  anti  liavt*  rniiilrtl  tlmsf  wlm  have  par- 
tiri|>at<*4l  tluMfin  l<»  tin*  ap|»laiis«*  aii«l  iliaiiks  of  iIm- 
Nation. 

•AI'.KAIIAM   I.1N«(H.N. 

•*l*i»'si<lriii  oT  ill.-  I  Hi  I.-.  I  Stall's." 


This  an«l  ain'l  In-r  f!<»iM  r,riiiMal  ( i  i  aiii  iicai<-i|  ^icai 
♦•niliusiasiii  aiiioiiH;  i\n>  soltlicis  aiKl  each  roiiM  jiisilv 
ftM'l  proml  that  lu-  had  honic  a  pari.  ho\\c\«'i-  hiiinhh', 
in  th(*  Atlanta  <anipai;!;n. 

To  no  on**,  pfi'hajis,  was  iht-  mm  <  (•>>  of  Sln-iiiian's 
armies  more  j^raiifviiiu  tliaii  lo  Aluahaiii  Liiiroln. 
Alhinla  f»*II  al  an  op|»oil  iiin'  liiiir  in  iIm-  liistoi-y  of 
ih«-  Nation  in  its  stru;;;;h*  for  r.\ist<'ii»  <•.  A  national 
rh'rtion  was  thrn  ap|>roarhin^  ami  this  \irtoiy  inailr 
tin-  r«*-«*hMtion  of  IMt'sith-nt  Liinoln  ccriain.  It  ^avc 
ni*w  «-oiira^«*  ami  moi-ai  force  to  the  fri«*mls  of  tin* 
I'nion  ill  tlif  North,  who  wisely  ami  naturally  «l<'sir<M| 
to  have  Mr.  lamoln  ic  i-h-rtcd,  wiiile  it  «'<|nally  <lis- 
ronra;:»M|  t  In*  adhrmits  of  ( itini  al  .Mr(  'Irllan.  tin-  ran- 
tli<lat«'  of  iho  hoiiiociat  i<-  party  ami  of  the  S»»nth.  who 
ha<l  Immmi  iioiiiinatt'il  on  a  platform  that  iliM-lartMl  th*- 
wai'  a  failiiff  ami  that  it  should  he  stopped  at  ome. 
It  appears  that  oiir  Democratic  soldiers  thought  dif- 
ferent ly.  <  'aptain  .lames  M.  Lei;;liloii.  a  war  I  ►eiiiocrat. 
wiitiii;:  from  NasliNille  on  Sepiemher  Sth,  says:  "In 
ailditioii  toronrt  .Martial  duties  I  wasassi^imd  to  the 
eoiiimand  of  a  halt  alio  n  of  con\  alestents  for  the  def  ease 
of  Nashville  a;:aiiist  Wheeler.  The  Slate  ( 'onveiit  ion. 
composed  t>f  all  I'nion  men.  has  been  held  here  four 
day.s,  elicitin;;  ;^ieat   interest.     ( 'opiterheads  hav«'  kept 

out     of    siy:ht.        I|o\\e\er,    tilie    of    the    dele;.^ates    to    the 

<'liira;:o  National  hemocialie  ( 'oii\  cut  ion  arri\ed  here 
in  time,  as  he  thoip^hi.  to  enliuhieii  this  con\«'ntion. 
He  ;;ot  into  the  hall  and  commenced  his  ('hi(-a;:o  secesh 
haraii;;ne,  when  he  was  hisseil  down  and  re<piested  to 
leaive  the  room,  with  the  assiirame  that  on  his  refusal 
lie  would  he  put  out.  |  ihillk  it  Wouhl  he  Well  for 
nianv  of  our  northern   men     iM*i-ead     the    res<dutioiis 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  239 

])ass(Ml  lici'o,  one  of  which  is  an  un(|ualirK'(l  ('(HKlciinia- 
tioii  of  tlie  Chicaj^o  ( 'oiivcntion  and  'phitf(tnii.'  "  A^aiii 
he  writes:  "It  does  seem  as  thonj^h  i)e()ple  at  the 
Noitli  ai"<'  niakinj»-  every  effort  to  ('ri])])h'  the  pn^seiit 
Adiiiinistrat  ion.  We  think  since  hcarinjj;  of  McChd- 
hm's  nomination,  tliat  Fncle  Abe's  chances  are  j^ood. 
I  wish  they  wonhl  leave  it  to  tiie  sohliers;  we  wouhl 
settle  the  question  at  once."  That  Captain  Leij^hton 
voiced  the  convictions  of  ninety-tive  per  cent  or  more 
of  the  soldiers  who  wero  Democrats,  is  no  doubt  true. 
To  show  the  feeling  amoni»  soldiers  the  writer,  Hkmi 
a  prisoner  of  war,  was  ])resent  at  a  test  election  held 
in  our  prison  camp  at  Columbia,  S.  C,  about  October 
12th.  ()n<»  thousand  and  twenty-seven  votes  were  <-ast, 
nearly  all  in  the  prison  voting'.  Of  these,  eight  iiun- 
dred  and  eighty-four  were  cast  for  Abraham  Lincoln, 
one  hundred  and  forty-three  for  McClellan.  The  Illi- 
nois men  voted  seventy-nine  for  the  former,  eight  for 
the  latter.  The  figures  are  taken  from  the  diary  of 
the  writer.  The  votes  for  McClellau  were  mostly  given 
by  soldiers  who  were  from  the  eastern  armies.  While 
the  ])atriotic  people  of  the  North  were  rejoicing  with 
bontires,  illuminati(Uis  ami  speech-making  in  honor  of 
the  signal  trium])hs  of  Sherman's  armies,  and  gather- 
ing new  moral  strength  and  determination  that  the 
rebellion  should  not  succeed,  the  effect  on  our  erring 
brethren  of  the  South  was  quite  the  opposite.  They 
had  lost  faith  in  the  success  of  their  cause,  but  pride 
on  the  part  of  many  and  hatred  on  the  part  of  the 
leaders,  held  them  to  their  allegiance.  The  great 
majority,  however,  it  is  safe  to  say,  were  utterly  tired 
of  the  losing  contest.  Nowheri*  was  this  more  a])]>ar- 
ent  than  among  the  soldiers,  who  frequently  met  our 
own  on  the  picket  lines  in  the  intervals  of  fighting, 
when  the  subject  was  fully  and  freely  discussed  in  the 
most  friendly  manner  and  with  marked  effect  on  the 
enemy,  which  was  sure  to  bear  fruit.  These  stolen 
interviews  generally  ended  with  promises  on  the  part 
of  all  to  spare  each  other  if  they  met  in  battle.  Well 
miiiht  angels  ween  over  the  stern  necessitv  that  com- 


MO  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

jH'Iktl  ihfiii  to  stfk  earh  other's  livt^s.  On  the  Athmla 
(■ain|iai;;ii  tlesertions  hail  been  numerous,  th«Te  beiuj; 
l.',4ii>  rejKirte«|  ill  four  laoiiths.  Hut  whil"  the  rebel 
sohliers  well'  h«*ariil,\  lin-d  «tf  li^hiiu^  they  were  hrM 
bai'k  b\  a  i»artb>u:ibk*  prhte,  by  notions  of  honor  an*l 
other  considerationK.  Said  an  ohl  Confederate  sohlier 
to  the  writer:  "1  went  in  on  the  wave  of  ex«itenient 
that  swept  the  South,  and  a;;;ainst  my  jud^^ineiit:  my 
neij;hboi*s  did  the  same.  1  was  at  honelsttn.  Sliihdi, 
and  all  thn»U};h,  but  soon  saw  that  we  wouhl  l«»s<'  in 
the  eud.  Hut  I  was  in,  so  were  all  my  relatives  and 
friends,  who  had  either  eiilistiMl  vtduntarily  or  had 
been  draftt^l.  S«H*inj;  no  way  to  i^-i  out  and  exiM-ri 
to  ever  have  a^ain  the  n'speit  «>f  my  ohl  neighbors,  1 
stayed."  This  man  relleeteil  the  feeJin«;s  of  thousands 
and  showed  that  he  was  honorable.  Ilis  education,  cir- 
eiimstami's  and  surroundings  rompelled  him  to  be  a 
rebid  sohlier.  Hut  the  worm  tif  discontent  had  not  only 
worke«l  anion;;  the  masses  of  nn  will  in;;  viitims  before 
and  after  the  fall  of  Atlanta.  Many  vv\h'\  lea<lers 
be;;an  i«»  Weaken.  rntVfiMHtr  Hiuun,  of  <ieor;:ia,  was 
one  of  these,  and  when  Hood  fell  back  b«*fo|*e  silt  r 
man,  withdrew  the  Stale  Militia,  uunibeiin;;  ir>,()(»() 
men,  undei-  ( ieiieral  i  i.  \\  .  Smii  h.  1  le  made  t  he  ]daus- 
ible  pretext  of  its  beiu;:  necessary  in  onler  that  the 
sor;;hMm  clop  miiilit  be  harvested,  but  it  was  known 
that  he  was  only  seekin*;  an  op|M»rt unity  to  save  (omu*- 
;ria  from  further  dama<;e.  However,  h«*  dared  not  take 
the  final  step  severin;;  further  relations  with  the  Con- 
federacy. de(Tei*son  Ha  vis,  \it  telly  dismayed  by  th<' 
fall  of  Atlanta  ami  rendered  desperate  by  the  condi- 
tion of  alTairs,  made  a  visit  «lurin;j  Septembei-  i.i  ( ;e<ii-- 
;:ia  and  Hood's  army.  On  his  way  throu;:li  the  Ton- 
federacy.  he  foolishly,  as  usual,  indul;;ed  in  sp«*<Mh- 
makin;;  and  dropjied  remarks  as  to  his  future  policy, 
that  wen*  soon  re|»oried  to  our  Oovernmeiii  and  to 
Oeneral  Sherman.  Il<-  bitieijy  assailed  <iov«Tnor 
Hrowii  iind  |»romised  e\eiybody  in  (ieor«;ia  that  the 
steps  altout  to  Im*  undertaken  would  result  in  the 
invader  bein;;  driven  from  her  sacied  soil,  cvcii  i<>  iIh- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  241 

Ohio  River.  His  insane  boasts  quickly  reached  our 
lines  and  put  General  Sherman  on  guard. 

Meantime,  Sherman's  armies  spent  the  mouth  of 
September  in  pleasant  camps  on  the  hills  around 
Atlanta,  engaged  in  recuperating  and  preparing  for 
another  campaign,  though  no  one  had  an  idea  as  to 
what  its  nature  would  be.  Sherman  Leland,  writing 
a  little  later  as  to  the  movements  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth,  says:  "We  reached  our  new  camp  at 
Whitehall,  four  miles  from  Atlanta,  on  the  8th,  when 
all  became  busily  engaged  in  fixing  up  our  quarters 
after  the  long  and  arduous  campaign.  We  had  a  fine 
location  and  cabins  were  built  and  everything  in  good 
shape  in  a  week.  We  remained  here  until  October 
3d,  enjoying  the  rest  immensely.  During  this  time 
Captain  Leighton  and  Lieutenant  F.  M,  Sapp  resigned 
on  account  of  wounds  received  at  Chickamauga,  Cap- 
tain Porter,  of  Company  B,  was  transferred  to  become 
Colonel  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-third  U.  S.  C. 
troops."  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  had  begun  the 
campaign  in  May,  with  a  total  effective  strength  of 
two  hundred  and  ninety-six  officers  and  men.  The 
ranks  had  become  thinner  and  thinner  from  day  to  day. 
The  Regiment  had  lost  in  four  months  three  officers 
and  twenty-two  men  killed,  two  officers  and  seventy- 
one  men  wounded,  and  five  missing,  also  probably 
killed;  a  total  of  one  hundred  and  three,  or  thirty-five 
per  cent  of  the  whole  number.  It  had  been  under  fire 
one  hundred  days  during  the  campaign,  and  on  every 
occasion  had  acquitted  itself  with  honor.  On  the  5th 
of  September  the  Regiment  mustered  one  hundred  and 
seventy  men  and  thirteen  officers,  less  than  two  full 
companies,  but  equal  in  experience  and  discipline 
obtained  by  continual  service,  by  battles,  sieges, 
marches  and  hardships,  to  a  full  regiment  of  new 
troops. 

Colonel  Hapeman,  in  making  his  report  of  the 
Atlanta  campaign,  says:  "I  cannot  close  this  report 
without  giving  credit  to  the  brave  officers  and  men  of 
the  command.     For  four  months  thev  have  endured 


142  THE  «^NE  HrM-i.i.i-  AND  FonUTH 

tilt*  raiini»ai^Mi,  ami  liavr  alwavs  iM'haviMl  ilnMiisrlvrs  in 
a  luauiHT  wttriliv  ilu-  lumu*  «»f  Aii»«'ri»aii  so  It  I  iris.  ( JiM*at 
<r«ilit  is  thu*  Major  WiilimM-  fni-  iln-  ln-avtM-y  ami  skill 
hf  has  always  tlisplayiMl  in  liis  iiiaiia;;«Min'in  of  tin* 
Hkiriiiish  liiir.  'riw  loss  of  rjipiaiii  l>oi\.  rapiaiii 
K\  iicarson  ainl  ("aitiaiii  Fii/siiiiiiions  is  <l»M'|ily  Irll  l»y 
tin*  Ivr^iiiH'iit.  TIm'V  wri*-  ;:allani  otViffis.  and  iov.-d 
an*i  n'SjMTtiMl  by  their  nuii." 

Tin*  total  loss«'s  in  Shninan's  aiinics  ilmin^  An 
jjust  ami  St'idfinhtT  in  kill«Ml.  woninltMl  an<l  niissin;; 
nniouiitt'*!  lo  .'(.Lil*  nnMi.  litMHl's  lossrs  for  I  In*  saun* 
p«*rio«l  wrn-  7.44:i  nn*n,  wliirli  iinhnh'd  'A,~'.iS  iak«*ii 
I»rist>n»*rs.  'I'ln*  a^^rrj^atr  1  iiion  loss«*s  in  i  In*  tain- 
I»ai;:n  N\t'r«'  in,<»sT  nn'ii.  Thosr  of  .lolmston  an<l  IIo.mI 
31.'.»T!>  nn-n.  as  ilctnininnl  Wv  tin*  rfbrl  r»*ror«ls. 


ciiArTioi:  x\'i, 


Pursuit  of  Hood  and  Return  to  Atlanta. 


Wliih'  at  Athmtn  Colonel  Donj^las  I  laitrmaii  was 
ordered  to  assume  coiimiand  of  the  PMrst  Hrijiade. 
<Teiiei-al  Carlin  coimiianded  the  Division.  ('ojonei 
Hapenian  continued  in  command  until  November  Sth, 
when  ('olonel  Ilobart,  Twenty-lirst  Wisconsin,  his 
senior,  succeeded  him.  The  term  of  s<'ivice  of  s<'veral 
regiments  had  exjured,  and  the  First  l>rigade,  under 
(Jidonel  JIapeman,  l)e<j;an  the  next  campaiy,!!  with  the 
following  oi'ganizations,  commanded  as  follows:  One 
Hundred  and  Fourth  Illinois,  Major  John  II.  Widnu'r; 
Forty-second  Indiana,  Captain  (J.  R.  Kellams;  Fighty- 
eighth  Indiana,  M;ijor  L.  .1.  Hlair;  'Piiirty-l  hird  Ohio, 
Captain  Jos.  Hinson;  Ninety-fourth  Ohio,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  R.  P.  llutchins;  Twenty-tirst  Wisconsin,  Cap- 
tain C.  H.  Walker.  The  entire  strength  of  Carlin's 
Division  on  September  20th  was  4,1!)1  men,  all  veteran 
soldiers. 

Up  to  the  20th  of  Sei)teniber  Mood's  army  had 
remained  (piietly  at  Lovejoy's,  about  twenty-tive  miles 
from  Atlanta,  gla<l  enough  to  have  a  ]>erio(l  of  rest, 
while  its  leader  was  with  the  rebel  President  endeavor- 
ing to  solve  the  difficult  problem  of  how  to  begin  a 
new  campaign,  intended  to  regain  what  had  been  lost. 
It  was  an  exc<'edingiy  knotty  (piestion,  but  ])robably 
the  plan  agreed  ujxmi  and  adopted  was  as  wise  as  any, 
in  view  of  the  desperate  condition  of  ( 'onfederate  affairs 
at  that  time.  How(nw,  on  the  21st  the  rebel  army 
began  to  show  sym])toms  of  b<Mng  much  alive,  as  it 
move«l  on  that  dat<'  toward  SluM-uian's  rear,  the 
infantry  reaching  Palmetto  Station  and  the  cavalry 
crossing  the  Chattahoochee.  This  gave  an  intimation 
as  to  Hood's  ])lans,  which  evidently  were  to  strike  first 


M4  THE  ONE  Hl'NDREE»  AND  FOURTH 

SluTiiiiinV  liiH*  of  roiuiuuiiiraiions  with  ('hattaiio»»^M. 
lliK  plaiiN  WW*'  fiirilHT  (I«'V«'I«»|mmI  w  Iumi  ttii  tin*  L'lth 
(MMU'ial  Ftirntil  suil«l«'iil\  a|»in'artMl  with  t-i^^ht  oi-  \vu 
thuiiKaiitl  ravalrv  iM-fnic  Ath«Mis,  Alaltaiiia,  ami  rap- 
tuitil  iIm*  Miiall  ;:ariis«»ii  thrn*.     Th«'  iii!riiii«»ii  to  iai«l 

in  III**  rt'iir  wai*  phiiii  aii»l  11 1's  inoxomont  rtHTiMtly 

HiiriiilMMl.  PrrsiMoiit  .IrlT.  Davis  ap|)cai-iii^  in  Macon 
oil  thf  L'Mh.  math-  a  tiaiiiiii;:  sjmmmIi  still  fiirth«'r  irvcal- 
ill;:  what  iiii.v  man  of  st-nsr  in  his  |»osition  woiiM  havr 
toiHi'ahMJ.  Within  t  went  vfoiir  hoiii-s  toMU'ia!  SIhm-- 
tiiaiii,  !»y  !iM*aiis  of  his  spit's,  ]m(ss«*ks<mI  a  «o|i\  df  ihat 
M|HMM-h.  aiHJ  kiH'W  that  lioo<l  pio|»os<Ml  to  niartli  for 
the  north.  ho|iinH;  thus  to  <li-a\\  him  an<l  his  armirs 
away  from  (u'or^fia  in  a  \ain  |iursuit  ami  disastrous 
r«*in*at,  Davis  havin;:  Im-oii  rash  <*non^h  to  jiromisc  that 
only  iIh'  rrtrcai  of  tin*  ^rrai  Nap«ih'oii  fidin  .M«»s«ow 
woiihl  JM-ar  any  comparison  to  it.  Itrin;;  fully  satistic«l 
by  t  iciiiJMi-  1st  that  llotMrsarmv  was  across  the  (  Miat- 
talnMulM-*'.  Slici-man,  Icavin*;  ili<*  rwcnticiii  (  orps  to 
hohl  Atlanta,  put  tin*  rest  of  his  armies  in  moiiou  for 
lln*  rear  at  Marietta,  conjciturin^  that  Hood  was  aim- 
in;:  for  his  railroad,  uhich  pro^ed  to  he  trin*.  There 
Were  numerous  ;:arrisons  alou^   this  road   and   hi'fore 

this  date   Newton's    Division    liad    I n    sent    lo  ("liat- 

tano«i;:a  and  Ctuse's  to  Kome.  while  all  the  command- 
ers at  important  p<dnts  had  heeii  |iut  on  ^uard.  Mor- 
gan's Division  and  (Jeneral  Thomas  lefi  for  rhatia- 
noo;:a  on  l  he  l.'!tt  h  as  a  furt  her  precaui  i»ui  auaiiist  what 
was  anlici|tated.  Ilapeman's  Uri^jade  and  ilie  <  hie 
Hundred  and  l^•urlh  struck  tents  on  (iciohcr  '.Ul,  and 
mart  hi n;:  in  a  hea\y  rain  reached  ami  crossed  the<'hal- 
talitMirliei'.  hivouaickiii;:  at  midniulii  near  \inin;:'s  Sta- 
tion. The  Imys  will  never  for;:et  liiat  hrsi  nii;ht  spent 
without  tires  lieca use  t  he\  would  not  hurn.  The  ctun- 
fortalde  tpijirters  left  neai-  Atlanta  in  iln-  mornin;: 
H4'<'med  like  palaces.  This  was  only  ilie  iniiiaiixf  in 
many  Ion;:  months  of  almost  c«uitintious  marcliiii«^  for 
mope  than  a  lIuMisaml  miles,  hut  it  was  the  first  step  in 
the  limil  ;:rand  march  that  swcjit   to  the  sea.  the  irre 

MiHtilde     waves    of     whiih     it      reseUllded.     ;iMd     like     llimi 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  215 

was  not  stave<l  until  havinj;-  swept  northward  through 
wide  states  lik«-  an  avalanche,  there  were  no  longer  any 
rebel  armies  t<>  oj»j»ose,  no  i-ebellion  to  ('on<niei-. 

(ieneral  w^h(M-nian  had  for  active  operations  about 
sixty-live  thousand  men,  Hood  about  forty  thousan«l 
as  estimated.  Many  changes  had  occurred  of  late 
among  the  otticers.  General  J.  D.  ('ox  comnumded 
the  Army  of  tiie  Ohio,  (w-neral  Thomas  having  gone 
to  Chattanooga,  (Ieneral  D.  S.  Stanley  was  the  senior 
Major-General  of  the  Fourth  and  Fourteenth  Orps. 
Logan  an<l  Blair  being  north,  their  (Jorps  were  com- 
manded by  GcMKM-als  Osterhaus  and  T.  E.  G.  Ransom, 
the  latter  a  La  Salle  County  man,  who  had  gone  out 
as  Major  of  the  famous  old  Eleventh,  and  had  acquired 
distinction  as  a  leader  and  fighter,  but  alas!  in  a  few 
days  more  he  was  obliged  to  yield  to  the  conqueror 
of  all,  the  only  foe  he  ever  feared,  which  in  the  guise 
of  insidious  disease,  ended  his  life  on  this  march.  The 
march  was  resumed  on  the  4th  toward  Kenesaw,  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  making  some  ten  miles  that 
day.  Sherman  had  signaled  via  Kenesaw  to  (general 
Corse  at  Rome  to  march  at  once  to  the  relief  of  AUa- 
toona  which  was  held  at  the  time  by  a  small  command 
and  was  believed  by  Sherman  to  be  one  objectiv^e  of 
the  enemy,  (general  Corse  fortunately  arrive<l  in  time 
on  the  4th  and  on  the  5th  made  the  defense  of  that 
place  forever  memorable.  On  the  latter  date  AUatoona 
was  attacked  by  French's  Division,  but  unsuccessfully 
and  with  heavy  loss  to  the  rebels.  General  Sherman, 
who  was  on  the  heights  of  Kenesaw,  eighteen  miles 
distant,  signaled  assistance  and  to  hold  on.  There 
was  great  anxiety  as  to  the  result,  but  in  the  afternoon 
the  smoke  and  signs  of  battle  had  died  away,  and  Sher- 
man received  a  signal  message  that  the  enemy  had  been 
repulsed.  Later  (Ieneral  ('orse  dispatched  as  follows: 
"I  am  short  a  cheekbone  and  an  ear,  but  am  able  to 
whip  all  h — 11  yet.  My  losses  are  very  heavy,  etc." 
With  nineteen  hundred  men  Corse  had  repulsed  and 
severely  handled  a  whole  rebel  division,  live  thousand 
strong.     The  LTnion  loss  was  707  men  killed,  wounded 


:*<  THE  ONE  Hl'NDRED  AND  FOl'RTH 

aii«l  iiiissiii;;.  <fcii«*ral  <'<»!>«•  n-|M.iit(l  l';;i  i.hrl  dt'ud 
aiinl  ftuir  IhiihIimmI  ami  »'1»*v«mi  piisitiifis.  Tlif  nuiiilMT 
of  woiiimNmI  was  ii«n  known.  Tint**'  batth'  lla;;s  w«  iv 
ni|iinr«M|.  .M«'iintini«'  IIimmI  nuir(-li(*<l  on  and  investiHl 
H«*s4ira  on  tin*  llMli,  rn-nrirs  division  artiiip:  as  r«*ar 
;^uainl.  (MluT  points  wrrr  atla»  k«M|.  Imi  only  a  f«w 
minor  »»ntn<  «'ii|»tnr»ML  Slicniiiin  f<»ll<»w<'«l  ia|ti«lly.  hut 
was  una!»l«'  lo  ovrri.ikr  II«hmI,  w  Iio.  in  fan.  hatl  ^i*«airr 
o|iJ«M'ts  in  vifw  than  wrakcnin;;  his  aniiv  in  fruit  h'ss 
aiini  rostiv  attacks  on  ouf  well  f<iii  itiiil  ami  hia\fl.v 
«h*f«'iMhM|  positions.  On  thr  .'ili  ih<-  *  Mh-  liinnlrfil  an<i 
Konrth  hivona«-k«'<l  on*-  inih-  ftoni  Maiii'tta,  and  march- 
in;:  n«*arlv  to  I^i;:  Shaiiiy  on  the  tlth,  huilt  soiu«*  li^ht 
hi-t-ast  Works  on  a  hi;:h  hill  near  a  pass  whi«h  it  was 
di'taih'd  to  ;:uai-d.  Il<  r«-  it  iiMuaincd  until  tho  stii  at 
iMMMi.  w  ht'ii  tin-  Miai<  ii  was  icsunicd  and  coniinucd 
until  within  two  uiih-s  of  .\ckwoitli.  w  lni-c  a  halt  was 
inad«'.     The  !M  h  was  s|M-iit  in  camp. 

<icii<'ial  Shci'iuan,  who  had  hccn  ciiMi<iiiplai  iiiu  ili** 
situation  and  knew  that  all  (Icoi-^ia  now  lay  open  to 
invasion,  tch'^ii-aphcd  on  the  IMh  to  tlcncral  Thomas, 
thtMi  at  Nashville,  of  ins  iiiii-m  ion  lo  mardi  for  the 
K4*a  c«>ast,  leavin;:  him  to  take  taie  of  Mood  and  his 
army.  At  the  sam«'  time  he  dis|»at<  lied  <Ieneial  <Iiant 
to  the  same  effect.  While  awaitiuii  an  aiiswi-i'  an<l 
permission,  he  heard  on  the  Hlih  of  llood's  apjiearance 
lielow  IJoiue.  and  turned  his  ow  n  armi<'s  towards  Kin^^s- 
ton.  nil  the  evening'  of  that  date  the  ( Mie  Ihimlred 
and  l-'ourth  left  camp  and  marching  all  ni;:ht  camped 
Im'VoihI  the  ICtow  ah  KiNeifoia  few  hours.  The  weather 
had  turned  cold  and  hardly  wttod  enough  could  he 
ohtaiiied  to  make  cotTe«'.  The  men  were  without  blank- 
ets and  sulTeied  ;:reat  ly.  lloWe\er.  at  seven  of  the  lllll 
the  Ke;:iment  Started  and  mo\iii^  on  all  da\.  reached 
Kin;:stoii  at  ni<^ht.  where  it  weni  jnio  Mvoiiac  iuk-  mile 
Went  of  iIm*  town  ill  a  pine  ;:rove.  Here  rations  w«'re 
iKKiied  and  a  lar;:e  mail  fr<tm  the  north  received,  which 
reKiored  the  spirits  of  the  hoys  to  their  usual  standard. 
<Jeneral  Sherman  a;;ain  repeated  his  re<|m'sts  to  he 
aMowed   to  make  the  iiiar<  h   t<«  tin-  >-ea.      llond   failing: 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  247 

to  obtain  tlio  siirronder  of  Rosaca  moved  off  west  and 
disapjieared.  Sherman  eontiniied  to  follow,  eominji,'  up 
with  i\  portion  of  the  rebel  army  at  Ship's  Gap  on  the 
16th,  when  rjeneral  O.  R.  Wood's  Division  charged  and 
carried  the  gap,  taking  as  prisoners  the  Twenty-fourth 
South  Carolina  Regiment.  Howard  was  pushed 
through  Snake  Creek  Gap.  Thomas  meantime  had 
learned  tlmt  Hood  was  near  La  Fayette.  This  news 
caused  great  excitement  in  tlie  North,  and  even  General 
Grant  seemed  to  be  disturlxMl,  but  it  had  the  good 
effect  of  hastening  forward  all  the  new  recruits  and 
detached  regiments  to  Thomas  for  use  against  ITood's 
invasion.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth,  leaving  camp 
on  the  evening  of  the  13th,  arrived  within  a  few  miles 
of  Rome  at  midnight  and  bivouacked.  On  the  14th 
Calhoun  was  reached  at  noon  and  Resaca  in  the  even- 
ing. The  next  day,  the  15th,  the  Regiment  crossed 
the  Oostenaula  and  bivouacked  at  night  near  the  Chat- 
tooga Mountains.  The  march  of  the  17th  was  a  weary 
one  by  a  mere  bridle  path  wliich  was  very  steep,  over 
the  mountain.  About  noon  the  Regiment  came  into 
Snake  Creek  Gaj)  as  the  Twenty-third  Corps  was  pass- 
ing through.  Moving  on,  a  halt  was  made  at  Taylor's 
Ri<lge.  Some  of  the  boys  were  revisiting  the  scenes 
of  their  exploits  five  months  before,  but  a  large  num- 
ber ha<l  gone  to  the  camping  grounds  beyond  the  vale! 
There  was  a  scarcity  of  rations  on  the  17th,  and  parched 
corn  was  in  demand.  However,  being  sent  on  picket  at 
Dick's  Mountain,  Company  H  levied  on  some  sorghum 
and  beans  and  the  supper  was  enjoyed. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  took  up  the  march 
again  on  the  18th,  crossing  Tavl(U''s  Ridge  and  advanc- 
ing toward  La  Fayette.  A  distant  view  was  had  of 
Lookout  Point  at  Chattanooga,  thirty-five  miles  away. 
This  sight  caused  cheers  and  brought  back  many  thrill- 
ing memories.  At  night  the  Regiment  bivouacked 
by  the  road.  Sherman  Leland  relates  the  following 
good,  true  and  reliable  story  as  to  an  occurrence  here: 
"A  ceitain  Quartermaster  in  the  Brigade,  well  known 
to  all  the  boys,  lay  down  some  time  after  dark  to  sleep. 


MS  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

Ilnviii^  preKumably  taken  oiif  •;i>oil  snuitzc  he  HUiMeiily 
awakeiHMl,  ami  f»*<'lin«;  roM,  also  observiii}:  the  iiumu 
jiisi  rising,'  above  the  easteiii  hills,  he  calleil  out  lo  his 
iie^ro  servant:  'Ah'e,  Alee!  move  that  lire  up  nearer 
uiy  f»-et  I'  The  shout  of  lauj;hter  that  greeted  hiui 
brought  back  his  KeuKes,  but  fair  Luna  eontinutMl  to 
move  on  in  her  armstomed  «-oui-se.'* 

Cieneral  Sherman  ha«l  a  few  ila.vs  pri'vious  seeure«l 
a  half  eoiisent  from  the  aulhoritie>;  al  \\'ashin;:ton  lo 
his  projtnt  of  a  «-:impai;;n  throu;;:h  <i«'or;;ia,  it  being 
unilerstood  that  (ieiieral  Thomas  was  to  be  left  iu 
rharp*  of  Sherman's  vast  department  to  th«*  north. 
Hood's  army  had  moved  lo  ihc  vicinity  of  (Jatlsden, 
Alabama,  in  the  meant inie.  and  oin-  aniTh's  followed. 
Of  the  movement  of  the  (  Mie  Hundred  and  l-'ourth  on 
the  L'Oth  Leland  says:  "Drew  threi-  days'  rations  anti 
passin;;  through  ( "hat too;;:i\  ille,  a  misciabh*  jihue  of 
a  few  Innises,  near  a  bridj^e,  we  crossed  the  line  into 
Alabama,  and  camped  near  (Jayh*svilh'.  Ilcr«\  r«*«t- 
in;;  from  our  rec«*nt  toilsome  marches,  we  lived  on  the 
fat  of  the  land,  enjoying  l^featly  the  chaui^e  fiom  army 
rations  to  the  food  of  <ivil  life.  lloj;s,  shecji  and  sweet 
I)otatoes  Were  abniidaiit  in  this  valley.  Tin'  Tiiird 
Division  ran  two  mills  and  all  were  supjiiicd  uiili  an 
abiindaiico  of  coin  meal,  haitltack  takinj^  a  back  scat 
for  a  time."  <U-tobei-  lilMh  it  was  Icarm-d  thai  IIihmI 
had  appeared  before  Decatur,  .\l;il»aina.  and  cndejiv- 
onnl  to  ca|»lnre  the  post.  Not  succt'cdin;^  and  being 
hhort  of  su|>plies,  he  withdrew  and  nearly  a  month 
hiter  crossed  the  Tenness«*e  at  Fhu'eiice.  Sherman  hav- 
ing fully  determined  to  carry  out  his  |»lan,  the  armies 
were  put  in  motion  on  the  2Sth  for  Atlanta.  That 
(Jeneral  Thomas  mi;:ht  be  fully  juepared  to  cope  with 
Hood,  the  I'ouiMli  < 'orps,  umler  Staidt-y,  was  sent  to 
him  at  once,  and  a  few  days  later  General  Schofiehl, 
with  the  Twenty-third  Corps.  These,  with  the  raw 
troops  in  Nashville  and  sevei-al  divisions  at  other  ])ointH, 
together  with  many  garrisons  withdiaw  ij  from  the  rail- 
road between  < 'hat  t  a  iioo^^a  ami  .\tlanta.  satisfied  <i«'n- 
eral  ThonwiH  that  he  wouhl  have  suflicieni  forces  to  m<»et 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  249 

Hood.  The  One  Iliiiidrcd  and  Fonrth,  breaking  camp 
on  the  2.stli,  and  erossiuj;-  the  (Jhattoo^a,  marched  three 
miles  on  the  Rome  road  and  bivonackerl  for  the  night. 
On  tlie  29th  the  Rejiiment  marclied  twenty  miU^s  nnd 
reached  Rome.  Diirin<>-  the  <hiy  tlie  honse  was  passed 
where  General  Ransom  lay  dyino",  j^uarded  by  a  detail 
of  the  Fifty-third  (LaSalle  Connty)  Regiment.  The  One 
Hundred  and  Fonrth  remained  in  Rome  three  days  and 
was  made' glad  by  the  recei])t  of  thre(^  months'  pay. 

It  was  now  known  among  the  boys  that  they  were 
to  go  south  instead  of  north,  a  plan  that  met  with 
their  hearty  approbation.  On  November  2nd  Hherman's 
headquarters  were  at  Kingston,  and  his  four  army 
corps,  with  a  division  of  cavalry,  were  strung  along 
the  road  from  Rome  to  Atlanta.  On  this  date  he 
received  a  dispatch  from  General  Grant  "to  go,"  and 
from  this  hour  every  energy  was  bent  to  the  object  in 
view.  The  railroad  torn  up  by  Hood  was  put  in  run- 
ning order  and  taxed  to  its  utmost  to  remove  surplus 
stores  of  all  kinds  from  Atlanta  to  the  rear.  The  sick 
and  wounded  were  sent  back  to  Chattanooga,  which 
was  to  be  held.  The  army  was  put  in  shape  for  rapid 
marching.  The  wagon  trains  repaired  and  their  num- 
l)er  reduced  to  the  minimum.  Sherman  proposed  to 
live  on  the  country  after  leaving  Atlanta,  which  city 
was  to  be  made  untenable  and  left  to  mourn  its  deso- 
lation. The  railroads  were  to  be  destroyed  north  for 
fifty  miles  and  the  countiw  laid  waste.  The  idea  of 
the  "March  to  the  sea"  was  Sherman's  own  and  may 
be  called  an  inspiration.  He  first  conceived  it  when 
Hood  began  his  movement  over  the  Chattahoochee,  and 
while  General  Grant,  President  Lincoln  and  others,  to 
whom  he  broached  the  subject,  doubted,  he  never 
receded,  but  clnng  to  it  persistently  from  day  to  day, 
until  Grant,  his  superior,  acquiesced.  General  Sher- 
man knew  the  uselessness  of  his  following  Hood  after 
he  had  reached  Gaylesville.  Previously  he  had  cher- 
ished some  hopes  of  overtaking  Hood  in  such  a  posi- 
tion that  he  would  be  obliged  to  stand  and  fight. 
Leland  says:    "There  is  a  report  in  camp  that  General 


ISO  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

SIhtiikiii  s«-iiI  tin-  Inlldwin^  <  liaiiu  (ciisi  it  nM'ssaj^t*  to 
<M'iHT;il  lI'Mitl  |i\  <i«'iMM:il  \'uiiii;^.  :t  l«*l»»'l  otVlciT  «;l|»- 
nii«i|  ;ii  Alhmta:  •Till  lloml  thai  1  am  liitMl  «tf  ful- 
Itiuiii;:  liiiti  ii|»  aiitl  want  liiiii  to  kIo|»  aihl  ti^ilit.  I.i-i 
hiiif  llin»\v  awav  his  )iirks  ami  sjunh'S  ami  Wf  w  ill  do 
tlicsaiiH'.  I.ct  him  choose  his  <i:i-oiiii(l  ami  1  will  ihi-ash 
him.  hilt  if  h«-  will  not  <|o  that  I  will  iikmM  him  alone 
aii<l  whi|»  him.  l»Mt  tell  jiim  also,  if  he  peisists  in  iMiii- 
iiin;;  awav  1*11  make  a  i»eff«Mi  hell  ..f  this  roiiin  i-\ .' *' 
The  late  rietleiicU  <  J.  MrLaiii.  of  Company  K,  ihu8 
wrote  in  ie«:ai<l  to  Sheinian's  plan,  lie  says:  "The 
first  intimation  we  ha<l  of  the  intemleil  mov(>meni  came 
to  us  in  the  ('hatloo;:a  \'all<-y.  Imt  nothin;;  <h-linite 
was  known  until  ahoul  the  lime  we  left  Kin;:st<ni  to 
romeiitiate  at  Atlanta.  I'loni  ihetlay  weeniei«'tl  that 
<ity  until  we  staitetl.  the  ipiestion  was  disiussed  liy 
the  boys.  Keauie;:ati<|  away  down  in  Alahama  was 
pi'ohaldy  ehurkliiij:  ovet-  iIm-  ;;ame  he  had  pui  u|i  on 
Sherman  hy  sending  I  loud  noiih  to  transfei-  the  seat 
of  war  a;:ain  to  Tennessee  and  J\entut  k\.  I*.ui  Sher- 
man was  e(pially  lia|>|iy,  no  douitt,  when  he  turned 
from  the  pursuit  of  Ijoutl  to  luareli  in  ilie  sen.  .lust 
think  of  it!  The  ;:allant  Hood  and  his  army  ignored 
l»y  Sherm:iii  ami  left  to  lie  taken  care  nf  h\  uld  'Pap' 
Thomas  w  iih  one  small  corps  aided  hy  some  sipiads  i>f 
;;reen  recruits  and  ne;:ro  soldieisl  No  doiihi  Thomas 
will  ;;ivethein  jdeasani  enieitaininent.'' 

Hu  No\eml»er  2nd  tin-  <  hie  lliind'ed  and  I'oiirth 
marched  for  and  arrived  ai  l\in;:ston,  leinainini:  ther«* 
until  the  iL'th.  Adjutani  \L  *'.  Stevens,  who  Imd  heeii 
h«»ine  on  leave  of  ahseiice.  returned  on  the  4th,  Itrin;;- 
in;:  letters  for  the  hoys.  Captain  Koss,  »»f  < 'ompanv  H. 
returned  with  him.  Iiaxiii;:  recovered  from  his  woiiml 
received  at  Mission  Kid;:e.  The  Ke;;iment  received 
orders  to  prepare  for  acti\«'  campaigning'  ami  all  sur- 
plus articles  or  any  re;iard«d  as  sinh  were  to  he  taken 
to  the  rear.  < 'olonel  II.  ( '.  Iloitart.  Tweiityfirsi  Wis- 
consin, assumed  coiumand  of  the  IMrst  |{rii:ade  on  the 
!Mh  l>y  \  ill  lie  of  seniority.  The  ( 'olonel  was  well  km»wn 
to  the   writer,   hot  h   having  heeii   (apMireil   at   I'hicka- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  251 

manga,  and  pnt  in  Libby  Prison  at  the  same  time.  The 
former  escaped  tlironoh  the  famous  "lude"  and  re- 
turned to  Ills  ((niinunid.  The  Latter  escaping;  hiter,  was 
quite  surprised  to  auain  meet  ("ohuiel  Ilohart  an<l  in 
command  (»f  the  First  Brigade.  The  meeting,  which 
occurred  in  North  Carolina  while  the  army  lay  in  front 
of  Johnston,  was  ]>l('asant.  The  writer  remembers 
being  offered  a  jxtsition  on  his  Staff,  but  declin(Ml,  He 
also  wishes  that  he  had  declined  some  "(dd  commis- 
sary,'' which  he  believes  was  surer  to  kill  than  bullets. 
The  movement  to  Atlanta  began  on  the  10th  from 
Kingston.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  left  on  the 
12th  and  marched  to  Cartersville  and  camped  along 
the  railroad  on  the  edge  of  the  town.  The  depot  here 
being  filled  with  rations,  the  wagons  were  loaded  to 
their  full  capacity,  also  the  haversacks  and  knajjsacks 
of  the  men.  The  de[>ot  and  town  were  then  burned. 
There  was  such  a  sui)eiabundance  of  hard  tack  that 
the  First  Brigade  and  another,  forming  in  line  on 
opposite  sides  of  the  railroad-cut  had  a  battle 
which  caused  much  merriment.  At  Cartersville 
communication  with  the  north  was  severed.  Gen- 
eral Sherman  received  here  his  last  dispatch,  and 
from  General  Thomas,  who  bade  him  God-speed.  The 
wires  were  cut  as  he  was  replying.  The  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth,  marching  again  on  the  13th,  crossed  the 
Etowah,  as  the  bridge  and  railroad  were  being 
destroyed,  and  passing  Allatoona,  began  tearing  up  and 
destroying  the  track  by  burning.  The  whole  of  Car- 
lin's  Division  was  engaged  in  this  work  until  late  at 
night,  when  sixteen  miles  had  been  ruined  beyond 
repair.  The  Regiment  bivouacked  some  time  in  the 
night  at  Big  Shanty,  and  resuming  the  march  early 
on  the  14th,  soon  reached  Marietta,  once  a  beautiful 
village,  now  a  mass  of  ruins,  having  been  biirned  by 
troops  in  the  advance.  At  night  tho  Chattahoochee 
was  reached. 

Sherman  Leland  says  in  regard  to  the  l.jth:  "Cross- 
ing the  river  we  arrived  in  Atlanta  soon  after  noon,  and 
passing  on  through  streets    already    warm    with    the 


3&2  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

tleslniviii;;  llaiiifs,  «aiii|MMl  a  milr  tint  side  tin*  rity.  The 
wa^«»ii  of  tin*  Ivt'^iiiiciit  was  smi  l»a«k  in  liastr  Inr  ilu* 
l)a;4;;ii;ir  iiml  xaliiaith*  |»a|MMs  of  tli«'  Kt';;iiM<*ni,  and 
urriviMJ  just  in  tinn*  lo  irnioM-  ilnni  from  tin*  hark  «ii<i 
of  th«'  Iniililin;:  while  ili«*  fioni  uas  Imrnin^'.  All  iliat 
day  thr  aii'  was  r«MH  \n  ith  fxplosiiuis  of  siont*  Imiidinns 
used  as  slorrhonscs  by  I  In*  iflirls  for  ainniiinii  ion  and 
supplies,  liy  e\enin;i  I  he  eniiie  Imsiiiess  pail  of  the 
city  was  oil  tire,  the  tiaines  li^^hiin;::  np  I  he  sky  in  awful 
^raiidenr,  w  Idle  ••\|»iodinu  shells  added  lo  i  he  <oiifusi<tn 
and  rhaos  of  ruin." 

S«T«,'eanl  Mel.ain  sa\s:  "The  Tweiitieih  Corps 
hejian  ihe  desirnrlion  of  Ailania  and  was  relieved  hy 
the  I'ifteeiith  Corps  whieh  was  hurnin;::  ihe  plare  when 
w«'  arrived  there.  Itnt  soiye  of  the  Twentieih,  with  a 
(h'sire  t<»  destroy  everythiii;;  and  fearfnl  that  stun**  old 
ndnd's  property  woidd  be  sa\ed.  attini:  on  ihe  iin|)ulse 
of  the  inoineiii,  letiii'ned  to  Ailania  and  sei  tiii*  in 
many  plares.  t)nr  own  ainnniiution  was  saved  with 
ditheiiliy  by  t  he  exert  ions  of  our  soldiers.  Several  ;i«*n- 
eral  ollireis  were  there,  but  they  stood  batk  ami  said 
iiothin;;,  allowin;:  ilie  soldiers  to  pursue  iheii-  own 
course." 

Captain  Snawii  wiiies.  jn  i-.-^aid  i.i  ih,-  |.iii>iiii  of 
IIoihI  and  return  to  .Mlaiiia:  "llavin;;:  followed  Hood 
on  his  way  to  the  total  annihilation  of  his  army  at  the 
hands  of  'Pap'  Thomas,  and  havinj;  j^iveu  him  a  good 
Keml  ofT  as  far  as  .\Iabama.  Sherman  halted  his  army 
and   the  ( hie   Ihindretl   and    I^miiiIi   boys  found   ihem- 

KtdveS   in   elo\e|-,   so   I.I   s|»eaU.    when    I  lie  (    liilMiMi::;!    \'al- 

lev  was  rea»lied.  .\«*iiher  army  had  apjiareiiilv  b«'en 
here  befoi-e  and  t  here  was  ail  abundame  of  all  kinds  of 
forap*  for  man  and  beasi.  The  men  uel<(»nied  liie 
rhange  from  salt  jtoik  and  liaiij  lark  io  sin  h  iiixiiries 
UH  rorn  meal,  fou  |>,  nniiion.  sucei  pt>i;iiiies.  di-.     .Many 

jror;;«Ml  I  lieiuselves  |o  |  he  eXlelll  I  hat  I  hey  subseijljent  ly 
regretted  it.  .\  lid  stUlle,  in  e(inse(|ueme,  beeiuuiug  sick 
Were  a  few  days  later  seni  i.*  Nashville,  then'by  iniss- 
iiig  t  he  mareh  to  the  sea.  .\fier  remaining  msir  <  Jayh's- 
ville  a   wei'k  the  aiiuv    was  suddenlv  ordered  to  move 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  253 

back  toward  Atlanta,  jjjoiiij;;  first  t<»  Rome.  We  soon 
began  the  work  of  destroying  the  railroads  and  bridges, 
which  proceeding  astonished  tlie  i»e(»]»le  of  the  country 
greatly.  Marietta  was  a  mass  «»f  iiiins.  Entering  At- 
lanta on  the  15th  we  found  the  city  burning,  the  flames* 
illuminating  the  whole  heaA^ens  in  the  evening.  Amidst 
the  ]>andem(>nium  caused  by  the  flames,  the  yells  of  the 
soldiery,  the  explosion  (d"  shells  an<l  ammunition,  we 
moved  on  to  our  camp  in  the  subtirbs,  to  prepare  for 
what  all  believed  was  to  be  a  campaign  to  the  sea,  but 
no  one  with  certainty  could  name  the  point  toward 
AVhicli  we  were  to  march." 

Thus  within  three  days  after  communication  had 
been  severed  with  the  north,  Sherman's  army  began 
another  remarkable  campaign  that  was  to  become 
Avorld  famous;  a  topic  of  study  and  discussion  among 
military  men;  the  theme  of  the  historian  and  poet,  and 
the  wonder  of  our  own  people,  north  and  south.  As 
events  proved,  it  was  the  final  one  undertaken  by  any 
great  armv  on  either  side  in  the  war  of  the  rebellion. 
As  a  crowning  glory  it  was  to  culminate  in  the  sur- 
render of  the  last  Confederate  army  of  any  size,  com- 
manded by  the  very  general  whom  Davis  in  his  rage 
had  dismissed  and  denounced  a  few  months  before 
because  he  could  not  accomplish  the  impossible,  yet 
in  the  hour  of  sorest  distress  was  obliged  to  call  again 
to  his  aid.  Joseph  E.  Johnston  was,  after  Lee,  the 
ablest  of  the  Confederate  generals.  In  this  long  cam- 
paign the  major  part  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth 
was  so  fortunate  as  to  be  a  X)articipant.  The  numbers 
were  small,  less  than  two  companies  when  filled  to  the 
limit.  There  were,  hoAvever,  numy  of  the  boys  who  from 
sickness  or  wounds  had  been  sent  to  the  rear  at  Nash- 
ville, and  there  did  good  service  in  helping  to  repel 
Hood's  invasion,  and.  for  these  who  again  fought  under 
their  old  and  loved  commander,  General  Thomas,  there 
was  equal  satisfaction  in  the  thought  that  they  were 
in  the  battle  of  Nashville,  Avhich  utterly  ruined  Hood 
and  his  army,  while  adding  new  laurels  to  the  fame  of 
their  commander.    Some  of  our  boys  were  also  at  this 


2S4  THK  «»NK   HrNHHKn  AND  F«H'HTH 

tiiiH*  prisuiH'is  of  WAV  ami  «*mluriii;:  nil  tin*  tontHMits 
of  llu*  irlirl  prisoii  lirlls.      A  ffW   ilit'tj,  (•!  luM's  i*S(;i|M*il  or 

Wfn*  tiiially  «*x»liaii;itMl.  Tin-  wiiti-r,  \\hil«*  follouiiij; 
tin*  •;l«»rious  cantT  of  tin*  Om*  IhiiKlri'il  ami  Fourth  in 
ii«'\\  ti«*l<ls  of  honor  aii«l  uatt-hiii;;  its  hatth'loni  tla;^ 
waviii;;  ovrr  Sa\  aiiiiah  aii*l  It*  iiiotivilh*  in  t  h«'  final  arts 
of  th«'  ;;ran«l  «liaina  of  war,  will  cntlfavor  not  to  |os«* 
si;;lit  «»f  any  of  oiir  UM-n,  who.  wln'i»'\«*r  tln-y  w»'r<', 
h«*l|»'«|  to  ;;ain  tin*  ultiniato  r«*siih,  \ittory  ami  |M'ar«*; 
tin*  ^raiiin*h-  of  iho  Nation,  honor  iiniMM'ishalih*:  ami 
ahovr  all,  t  In*  <|niot,  |M'rf«'tt  sat  isfart  ion  of  havin;:  fait  h 
fully  rontrihntotl  in  sonn*  »h*j;r«*<*  to  |(r«*s«*r\<*  tln*ir 
Nation  ami  tiovrrnin«*nt  in  all  its  intr^^rity  for  millions 
v**t  unborn. 


CHAPTER  XVir. 


The   March    from   Atlanta  to  the  Sea— Siege  and  Fall  of  Savannah. 


The  army  sclcctiMl  by  (Jeneral  Shei'iiiaii  tor  the  fur- 
ther invasion  and  e()n(iuest  of  Geori^ia  and  other  states, 
was  roiii])os(Ml  of  th<^  Fourteenth,  Fifteenth,  Seven- 
teenth and  T\veiiti(>th  Anuy  <'or])s,  and  one  division 
of  cavalry,  of  two  hriiiades,  <oninian<hMl  by  (leneral 
Kilpatrick.  The  army  divided  into  two  win^s,the  ri<>iit 
and  left,  was  eommanded  respectively  by  Generals 
Howard  and  Slocum.  There  were  thirteen  divisions. 
Generals  ( )sterhaus  and  Blair  commanded  the  Fifteenth 
and  Seventeenth  Corps,  (renerals  Davis  and  Williams 
commanded  the  Fourteenth  and  Twentieth  Corps.  The 
generals  commanding  divisions  were:  C.  R.  Woods, 
W.  B.  Ilazen,  John  E.  Smith,  J<din  M.  Corse,  J.  A. 
Mower,  M.  D.  Leggett,  Giles  A.  Smith,  W.  P.  Carlin, 
James  D.  Morgan,  A.  Baird,  N.  J.  Jackson,  John  W. 
Geary  and  W.  T.  Ward.  The  artillery  had  been  reduced 
to  sixtv-tive  guns.  The  total  strength  amounted  to 
55,329  infantry,  5,063  cavalry,  1,812  artillery,  all  equal 
to  62,204  men.  The  wagon  train  had  been  rednced  to 
about  twenty-five  hundred  wagons,  divided  equally 
between  the  four  corps,  and  these  were  drawn  by  fif- 
teen thousand  mules.  There  were  also  six  hundred 
ambulances  draw^n  by  twelve  hundred  horses.  The 
total  number  of  animals  to  be  fed  in  the  country 
inarched  through  was,  including  cavalry  and  mounted 
oflficers'  and  orderlies'  horses,  about  twenty-four 
thousand,  and  as  there  was  only  forage  on  hand 
for  three  days,  the  enemy's  corn  cribs  and  fodder 
stacks  were  likely  to  suffer  at  once.  The  army 
was  to  subsist  on  the  supplies  found  in  the  coun- 
try. General  Sherman  issued  a  special  order  on  the 
9th  of  November  designed  to  regulate   the    order   of 


iuar<  li.  tlif  luaiiiuT  of  foia«:iu-,  aii<l  tin-  kiiuls  i>f  \tvo\\- 
♦Ttv  whirh  uiij:hi  hv  lakt-ii.  lit-  also  ;:avr  powtT  to  ilu" 
it>r|»H  r(>iiiiiiaii<tri>  jik  to  tlir  <lrstnnti«»ii  of  ihoiktiv, 
hihIi  as  mills,  fattorirs,  «•(«-.,  liki'lv  ti»  In*  usrtl  Itv  tin* 
fiifiiiv.  1111(1  onU-nMl  ihai  tluMf  sliouhl  Im*  no  w  anion 
ilft*tni«iioii  of  anvlhiii;:.  and  a  prtHMT  tlisciiininalioii 
madr  bflwtfU  llitTirli  an<l  ilio  poor,  as  tli«'  foinn-r  wt-r** 
IfiMUTiillv  luiKiih*,  whilf  iln-  laltiT  wen-  fiifinlly,  at 
ItMiH!  luMitial.  Tin-  ir;:ulai-  roia;;:in'r  was  to  Im*  «loii(» 
viivU  «lav  hv  (Iflails  from  rarli  lui^adr  un<l«*i-  projMT 
(►nict-rs.  Wliih-  in  raiiij»  tin*  soldins  \v«mv  lo  be  iHTiiiit- 
Itnl  to  jiatlnT  vt'j;t'tal»l«'s.  «'ir.,  within  icarli,  hni  not  to 
jH»  anv  tlistaiHf  away.  They  ucio  forhiddrn  to  eiiter 
dwrllin;;s  or  to  coniinii  any  tn-spass.  Tin*  it*j,nilar 
di'tails  Wfir  to  pro\  id*'  the  pi«»visions  and  fora;:;**.  As 
an  inlinx  of  slavt-s  was  likidy  t«>  f«dlow,  tln*y  were  not 
to  l»«'  t'inouraj;«*d.  'rinif  \\fi<*  also  provisions  made 
ft»r  piontM-r  l»attalioii>  in  niaU*-  roads  and  hrid;;es,  a 
most  important  matter  as  soon  as  the  flat  eonntry  of 
(MM»r^ia  shonld  Im*  ira«lMM|.  (icneral  SJM'rman  provided 
iu  sliort  for  t-very  possible  citnt in;;enry.  and  adopted 
eviM'v  pr«Mantion  to  insnie  sntcess  in  his  n<»vel  and 
Ixdd  eain|iai;:n  thronM),  tl,,.  In-art  i)f  the  reh-l  ('.iiiftMl- 
t*ra»y. 

(Ml  Novemlter  ir»iii,  liic  I'lrieentli,  Scvenleenlh  and 
Twentieth  (Virps  hejxan  tlie  march  southeast  and  east 
h\  dilTereiit  rontes  for  the  purpose  of  misleading;  the 
enemy  as  to  tin-  real  destination,  which  was  lirst  Mil- 
I«Mlj;eville,  the  capital  of  t  leor^^ia.  These  movements 
pive  the  appearance  of  threatening  both  Augusta  ami 
Miiron.  and  it  was  an  idiject  to  kee])  t he  enemy  in  donht 
nnlil  the  on*-  hnndred  miles  to  the  reltel  capital  was 
j-ovi'ied.  <Jeneral  Sht'inian  remained  with  the  I'mir- 
teiMith  < 'nrpK  in  Ailania  uniil  iId'  Hiih.  On  thai  date 
at  ei^jii  o'clock  a.  m.  ilic  lasi  of  ilie  army  left  the 
iloonied  city.  All  four  corjts  weic  then  inovinj;  south- 
ward on  as  many  roads  to  a  common  olijcct ive.  The 
()n<*  Hundred  and  Fourth  marched  to  a  place  calle<t 
Lithonia,  east  from  Atlanta,  and  Idvouacked  ilnre  in 
sijjlit    of    Stone    Mountain.      'Pin-    lJe;;imeni     had    the 


REGIMENT  IL  LINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  257 

julvance  and  Geueral  Hheriiiau  rode  along  b^'  its  .side 
or  in  the  rear,  most  of  the  day,  thus  giving  the  boys 
a  fine  opportunity  to  study  "Uncle  Billy,"  as  he  was 
now  calhMl.  Sherman  Leland  says  in  regard  to  this: 
"We  had  three  views  of  him,  as  all  will  recollect,  first, 
sitting  on  the  porch  of  a  log  cabin,  the  humble  abode  of 
a  Georgia  'cracker,'  where  we  had  halted  to  rest,  a  cigar 
in  his  month,  while  beside  him  sat  one  of  the  female 
'poor  white  trash,'  puffing  away  at  her  corn-cob  pipe. 
AVe  soon  after  passed  by  with  as  straight  faces  as  pos- 
sible and  about  noon  halted  for  dinner.  The  General 
and  Staff  i)assed  us,  and  as  we  moved  on  after  dinner 
we  saw  him  sitting  on  the  door  steeps  of  another  cabin 
eating  his  crackers  and  meat  from  his  fingers.  The 
third  time  we  saw  him  sitting  in  the  passageway  be- 
tween the  two  ends  of  a  cabin,  a  dozen  or  two  negroes 
standing  around  and  staring  at  him  in  wonder  and 
awe."  These  plain,  familiar  ways  of  General  Sherman 
were  well  calculated  to  gain  for  him  the  couhdeuce 
and  respect  of  his  soldiers,  who  knew  that  he  had 
always  studied  their  interests  and  comfort  so  far  as 
lie  could  and  had  been  careful  not  to  have  their  lives 
needlessly  sacrificed  in  battle.  This  first  day's  march 
was  entered  into  with  great  spirit  bj'  all  the  army. 
The  majority  believed  they  ,were  going  to  Richmond 
to  help  out  Grant,  who  did  not  seem  to  be  making 
much  progress.  The  weather  was  clear  and  perfect 
and  the  wrought-up  expectations  of  the  men  found 
expression  in  mirth  and  song,  "Old  John  Brown"  and 
other  popular  pieces  being  sung  with  a  vim  that  must 
have  had  an  effect,  pleasant  or  otherwise,  on  the  natives 
of  the  country,  white  and  black. 

On  the  17th  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  reached 
Conver's  Station  in  time  for  dinner.  Leland  says  that 
an  old  lady  was  seen  here  who  allowed  that  she  had 
done  running  away  from  the  Yankees,  for  this  Avas  the 
sixth  time,  the  first  being  from  Kentucky,  and  now 
she  reckoned  she  would  let  them  go  first.  In  the  after- 
noon the  Division  was  employed  in  tearing  up  and 
destroving  the  railroad  for  five  miles.    This  work  was 


»8 


•rii*-*  <i\i     iiivniti   |i    A  N  I  •   KiiriiTH 


thoron;:lil\  <l"in-,  in<-  rails  Immii-  ImmIiU  aii«l  ilu-ii 
twiNitMl  ai-«*iiii<l  irtfs  willi  («»ii;;s  iii;i«l«*  f»»r  ilu*  puriMist'. 
Al  iiii«|iii;:lit  tin*  Kr<:iiiuMit  r;mi|..M|  on  V«llo\\  liiviT. 
No  f(irap«  was  to  In-  IwkI  on  tlu*  KUli,  Imi  xUv  foia^^crs 
taim*  ill  oil  ilu*  ITlli,  with  an  alMiinlaiicr  t»f  swjtI  pota 
tiM's  ami  sonu*  fn-sli  poik.  Sonir  nr^rors  now  ln-^an 
lo  llork  in.  <  'a  pi  a  in  Siiawn  ;:iv«'s  liis  ol»sri\  al  ions  and 
fXiMTifiuu'  jis  follows  ill  n'«;ai<l  !•»  iIkim:  "Tin  srcoinl 
ilav  srvi-ral  in';,M-ors  <ann*  m|i,  a  f<\\  oM  intinn  mm, 
lM*si«l«'s  wonn-n  ami  rliilMnii.  I  was  on  picket  ami  •lur- 
ing tlif  ni;;lil  a  party  tttnsist  in;;:  «>f  a  man  ami  liis  fam- 
ily arrivrtl.  I  tii«-»l  to  irason  wiili  liim.  It'llin;;  him 
that  w«*  Would  lia\«*  all  iliai  wf  ronhl  do  lo  take  ran* 
of  oni-sflvfs.  hr  had  ln'iici-  stay  ai  lunar  and  laisr 
somnhin;:  to  livt*  on.  Unt  all  lo  no  pnipos*'.  Ih* 
s«M'nnMl  to  rrali/«*  that  in  staitin;^'  to  f<dlow  us  his  mas- 
t«'r  would  lU'Vrr  pardon  him.  <Io  he  must,  and  did. 
Wlu'tlu-r  In*  and  his  family  li\<d  lo  follow  us  to  Savan- 
nah and  w<*r«*  «ari*d  f<M-  hy  the  <  Jon  crnmcnt,  I  »lo  not 
know.  It  is  a  fa«t  that  w  ln*n  w«*  rracln-d  Savannah 
thrn*  w<*r«*  lu'twrt'ii  nim*  and  tiii  iluMisaml  who  ha<l 
followed  in  our  wakr  and  wm-  tart'tl  for  hy  ilu-  <io\- 
«*rnm«'nt.  My  attfiition  was  ain;n  it-d  lai<T  to  aiioiiiri- 
;;rou|t.  It  was  made  u|)  of  a  woman  «>f  stuur  thirty  odd 
vt-ars.  who  had  a  humllc  as  lai-j^*'  as  a  wash  tul»  on  lu'f 
hrad  and  a  pirkaninny  in  lirr  arms  a  U-w  uionihs  old; 
another  pt-rhaps  a  yi-ar  n\i\  was  stra|>p«*d  on  lirr  Itark. 

and   thr« tlirrs  were  trotting  alonjx  hrsidf   liti.   iIm- 

•  •hh'st  a  hoy  sonu*  trn  years  (dd.  .\s  they  passed  l»y 
where  .Kdjutant  Stevens  sat  on  his  horse,  he  asked  tin* 
hoy  where  they  wer«*  j;<»in;:.  lie  replied.  'To  Savan- 
nah, sail!'  What  spirit  h*d  him  and  other  negroes  t«» 
jjiU'ss  thus  eoirerily  our  «lest  inat  ion?  This  was  a  <|n<*s- 
tion  thai  pu/zl<*d  all  of  ns  at  that  liim*.  In  lookin;;:  at 
that  ^i*on|i  and  others,  ap|iarrntly  stt  un|u-epared  for 
siirh  a  journey,  we  could  not  but  think  of  the  old  rhest- 
lint  in  the  month  of  every  pro-slavery  man  in  tin* 
North:  'What  do  you  want  to  free  tin*  niji^crs  for? 
you  ronld  not  hire  tln*in  to  leavi*  tln*ir  inast«'rs.'  Mere 
wi-n-  wonuMi  and  children,  from  infamv  to  extreme  idd 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  25» 

age,  startiiig-  on  a  journey  of  months'  duration,  hoping 
for  freedom  at  the  end.  Orders  were  issued  that  Ihey 
were  not  to  be  alh)wed  to  eiuumbcr  our  march,  but 
if  they  kept  in  the  rear  and  did  their  own  foraging, 
they  were  not  to  be  molested.  Their  numbers  con- 
tinuously increased  day  by  day  and  night  by  night 
during  our  march.  In  the  north,  with  few  rivers  to 
cross  and  no  interminable  swamps  to  wade  through, 
a  journey  might  be  made  in  a  pleasant  season  of  the 
year,  camping  out  and  with  comparative  comfort,  but 
here  was  a  motley  crew  of  old  and  infirm  and  little 
children,  setting  out  in  the  midst  of  winter,  not  ccdd,. 
of  course,  but  very  chilly  at  night,  so  much  so  that 
our  own  soldiers  frequently  took  turns  in  keeping  uj) 
fires.  These  helpless  creatures  had  full  faith  that  to 
follow  us  uu'ant  for  them  freedom!  While  to  return, 
or  be  captured,  meant  death!  That  this  was  their 
thought  was  evidenced  on  a  certain  occasion  when  I 
was  lu-esent.  The  incident  occurred  at  the  crossing  of 
the  Ebeneezer  River,  a  deep  but  narrow  stream.  For 
some  reason  the  pontoons  were  ordered  to  be  taken 
up  when  the  army  had  crossed.  The  X)i'actice  had  been 
to  leave  then  down  until  our  black  followers  were  safely 
over.  The  negroes  began  to  arrive  and  seized  with  dis- 
may, plunged  into  the  stream,  alleging  that  the  rebel 
cavalry  were  not  far  behind  and  that  they  would  all 
be  killed.  Their  pitiable  condition  and  the  certainty 
that  large  numbers  would  be  drowned,  induced  our 
soldiers  to  fell  trees  across  the  stream  for  them  to  cross 
on.  However,  some  were  drowned.  It  is  also  certain 
that  many  of  the  old  and  infirm  perished  by  the  way. 
Certain  large  parties  of  them  would  attach  themselves 
to  certain  brigades.  They  would  learn  the  names  and 
numbers  of  the  regiments  and  generally  manage  to 
reach  the  commands  during  the  night.  In  this  way 
we  learned  to  distinguish  them  from  other  parties  and 
noted  the  fact  that  many  old  and  feeble  ones  had 
dropped  out.  The  uninitiated  may  wonder  how  this 
great  mass  of  people  managed  to  subsist  on  the  long^ 
march  of  three  hundred  miles    when    the    armv    was 


?6o  THK  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

iih\a\.s  iM  :i.l\;iu« »'.  It  is  true  that  w«*  always  siM_Mired 
tin*  hrst  of  fViTvlhiiiji  and  somrt  iiin-s  all  i  ln*n*  was,  but 
tlifv  WW*'  t'lHtmvii'H'tl  to  fora^«*  foi-  ilicins»*lvrs,  ami 
not  only  l«»  foraj^e  provisions,  but  to  pit-ss  inuli-s,  horses, 
cartH,  wajfons,  etc.,  for  their  use.  IJesiiles,  when  we 
found  tin*  rounti-y  full  of  pidvisions,  w«'  «;ave  them 
nnuh  that  was  h-ft  ov«m-.  ( "oni|M'll«'d  to  niaivh  in  the 
rear  they  wrre  fretjuently  all  ni«;ht  in  tatihinjj;  up,  not 
darinj;  to  sh'fp  <Milsid«>  of  our  pirkels.  IJcsidrs,  we 
fretpiently  niarth»*d  all  nij:;ht  ourselves,  which  was 
extremely  wearisonir  lo  all.  KnM|ii«'nt ly,  in  tlu'sc  ni;;ht 
mar«hfs  wr  had  to  hah  every  few  rods,  not  even  at- 
(emptin;;  to  lie  iloun.  foi-  we  never  knew  how  lonjj;  the 
halt  woiild  last.  It  all  «lepeii»led  on  the  widtli  of  the 
swamp  an<l  the  ener;;:y  ami  iiuuiImms  id  the  jtioneer 
corps.  With  all  these  delays  the  ne^^roes  had  to  he 
content  as  well  as  iMii'selves." 

The  march  of  the  (  Mie  lliiinlied  ami  I'mii-ili  oil  ihe 
iSth  was  toward  < '<»vin;;ton.  (Mi  crossing;  i  lie  Veijow 
Kiver  it  was  found  that  the  other  two  divisions  of  the 
Fourteenth  ('or|»s  had  loin  ii|)  the  railntatl  for  a  «lis- 
tance  of  ten  miles.  In  the  afternoon  tin*  K«'^duu'nt 
arrive<l  at  rovin^Mon.  which  was  found  to  be  a  ju'etty 
town  of  some  lifieeii  hundred  people.  Sei^eaut  McLaiii 
says:  "What  aiiiacied  m\  eye  most  was  the  pretty 
jjirls  of  w'liich  the  town  was  full.  P.ui  I  must  say 
that,  with  one  ex<eptioii,  1  did  not  see  a  person  whoso 
position  and  worldly  circumstances  entitled  them  to 
]>romincnce  aim»n;r  the  rebels,  who  \\as  friendly  to  our 
cause,  ami  I  was  not  surjtrised  at  all  when  I  heard  a 
few  <lays  afterwanl  that  several  of  our  imn  w  ho  were 
tinw<dl  and  had  s1ra;;^ded  in  the  rear,  were  capliiied 
l»y  the  citizen  enemy,  taken  to  ('oNin^'tou  and  haiii:ed. 
In  passing;  throu;;h  the  town  our  ranks  were  closed  ui>, 
the  tia^K  unfurled  and  the  bamls  treated  the  citi/<'ns 
with  some  ])atriotic  music  that,  however  inu<-h  they 
haled,  they  had  to  listen  to."  At  ni^dil  ilie  Keiximent 
cam|MMl  be\ond  the  ]Vi'^  11  ay  lie's  <  'reek,  nine  miles  from 
CV)vinjjton.  Meantime  the  Twentieth  Corps  had  been 
busy  in  destroying  tlic  railroad  a  few  miles  ahead  at 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  261 

Social  Circle,  which  was  fifty  miles  from  Atlanta. 
Howard  had  demonstrated  with  the  Army  (tf  the  Ten- 
nessee and  Kili)atrick's  cavalry  on  Macon.  The  latter 
actually  got  inside  the  rebel  defenses,  but  could  not 
hold  them  and  fell  back  on  the  infantry,  a  brioade  of 
which  (Walcntt's)  was  attacked  by  G.  W.  Smith's  rebel 
force  from  Macon.  However,  this  bri<iade,  wliich  was 
armed  with  Spencer's  repeaters,  made  havoc  among  the 
rebels,  who  retreated  to  their  works. 

The  Fourteenth  Corps  was  marching  on  the  IDth 
direct  for  Milledgeville.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth 
made  twelve  miles  and  camped  beyond  Sandtown,  a 
place  of  three  or  four  houses.  Some  extensive  foraging 
was  done  in  the  evening.  The  army  was  now  in  the 
midst  of  a  rich  country  and  did  not  fail  to  live  on  the 
fat  of  the  land.  Bacon,  fowls,  meal,  sweet  potatoes 
and  molasses  were  appropriated  in  liberal  quantities. 
No  hostile  foe  had  before  trodden  this  part  of  the  sacred 
soil  of  Georgia  and  the  South,  and  the  people  had  an 
opportunity  to  realize  what  war  meant  when  brought 
to  their  own  doors.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth 
marched  twenty  miles  on  the  20th,  camping  late  on 
Whitfield's  Plantation,  the  owner  of  which  owned  two 
hundred  and  fifty  negroes  and,  of  course,  was  a  rebel. 
The  march  of  the  21st  was  rendered  unpleasant  by  a 
hard,  cold  rain  storm.  The  Regiment  made  only  nine 
miles  and  camped.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth 
started  early  on  the  22d;  the  storm  had  cleared  aAvay 
and  it  Avas  cold.  In  the  distance  could  be  seen  the 
flames  of  burning  buildings  in  Eatonton,  where  the 
Twentieth  Corps  had  preceded  us.  A  halt  was  made 
four  miles  beyond  in  a  pine  grove.  Large  fires  were 
kept  up  all  night.  The  28d  opened  up  bright  and  clear 
and  the  Regiment,  marching  early,  halted  for  dinner  on 
Howell  Cobb's  Plantation,  which  was  AerA-  large  and 
splendid.  When  it  was  knoAvn  that  the  arch  traitor, 
Howell  Cobb,  OAvned  this  princely  domain,  the  army 
proceeded  to  strip  it  of  all  things  that  Avould  be  of  use, 
and  left  it  in  a  state  of  ruin.  The  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  was  approaching  the  environs  of  the  capital 


2e  THE  ONE  Hr.NDKED  AND  FOURTH 

tlil'oiii^li  oil*'  of  (1m*  rirhrsi  :iii<l  tiiirsi  stTiioiis  iif  iln» 
8tal<S  whifh  it  was  cviiiciil  lM'l«nj;r«Ml  i«i  th«'  wraliliy 
rlassi'H.  TIh'si*  wfn*  now  to  i-oiitribuic  lo  tin*  siip|>(»i't 
of  tin*  anii>  aii«l  iiia«l«*  t«»  f«M'l  tin*  ri;;ors  of  war.  TIn» 
«'in*iiiv  hail  iioi  matl»*  aii\  jnfparations  foi-  thr  dcftMisc 
of  .Mill«M|;i«-vill«u  iH'ili;^  l«'i|  to  hrlicvr  iliai  Maroii  wouM 
Im»  uttarktHl  (111  arcoiiiit  «if  ili<*  lai-;:t'  miiiilMi-  of  far- 
ttU'iesainl  war  siipplii-s  tlnn-,  wliirh  tli«*\  w«m«*  anxious 
to  prrscrvr.  all  tin*  tiiiir  for;;«'Hin^^  thai  SluMinan's 
army.  l»v  «l«'stro\  iii<^  lh«'  railiojnls  to  .M;n«ni,  »(tnl(l  r«ii- 
^h'r  tlirir  material   iisflrss. 

So  roin|il<*t<'l,\  hail  llirv  luiii  i|iiii\  iil.  ihal  tlu»V 
miiovi'ij  all  tlif  militia  from  iIh-  rapital  rity,  ami 
liln-rat  in;;  tin*  convicts  in  1  hr  pcnitiMit  iary.  arnnil  them 
ami  sent  them  lo  Mjhimi.  Kilpat rick's  cavalry  sml- 
<lriily  cntcieil  I  III-  ci(\  (in  I  hi-  L'lsl  ami  tin-  ilismay 
ami  confusion  jinioii;:  iIh-  pi'o|i|i-  ami  in  iIh-  Lc^^isla- 
tur«*,  then  in  session,  was  heaulifiil  to  Itehohl.  The 
exit  of  tloverimr  Hiow  ii  ami  his  hrother  rebels  in 
frei;;ht  cars,  in  caiiiai^es  ami  on  foot  In-fore  Kiljtat- 
rick's  troopers,  is  saiil  to  have  heen  lomical.  Their 
archives  were  left  Itehiml.  The  Twentieth  Corps 
reacheil  the  ihy'  mi  iln-  -IM.  Sii^i-ant  McLain, 
<lescril»int:  the  march  of  the  L';'.il,  sass:  *•(  >iir  route 
lay  llirou;;li  heautiful  scenery  enlianceij  l»\  ihe  spjeii- 
<li(l  weather.  The  lamlsca|ie  is  neither  a  hroail  le\el 
]ilain  nor  ru^'^eil  mountain,  hut  the  country  is  umlu- 
lalin^^  stmhleil  with  limber,  with  a  creek  runnin;; 
throu;;h  it,  ^i\in;;  a  lieauly  such  as  the  e\e  loNes  to 
dwell  ujion.  .\ll  nalure  was  in  her  Sunday  hesi.  win- 
ter hail  not  set  in  here  ami  the  meadows  were  as  i;ieen 
as  in  .May.  I  Miring'  the  march  we  passed  the  planta- 
tion of  Lci-  (lordoii.  a  Lii'Ui"'ii;ini  in  i  he  nliel  army. 
This  is  said  lo  hi*  the  iiiiesi  :iml  Inst  kept  |ilaniaiioii 
in  all  <ieor;:ia.  The  ;:arileiis  niiij  lawns  are  elegant. 
Over  all  presides  .Mrs.  Lee  ( Jordoii,  surroumieil  wiih 
He;;ro  ser\ants  and  e\er\  accessory  of  wealth."  The 
i)ne  lliimlred  ;ind  I'ouiih,  mai'chini:  aiiiidsi  such 
Kcenes  as  these,  at  last  reached  the  suhurhs  of  Mil- 
liMl^eville  and   under  strict   ordeis  remaiiu'd  in  camp. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  263 

But  it  is  to  be  presuiiKMl  that  some  of  the  hovs  iiiaii- 
a|i(Ml  to  see  the  rebel  cajtital  tliat  eveiiinii.  The  troo]>s 
that  had  jn-ecech'd  them  fared  better  in  th<'  matter  of 
sij>htseeiiiji'.  Tlie  state  arsenal  was  tilled  with  arms* 
of  all  kinds,  s]>ears,  lances  and  murderous  bowie-knives 
amonn'  them.  Thes<'  were  i-ai'ried  off  as  (•uri(>sities,  but 
soon  destroyed.  The  state  ])aper,  or  scrip,  was  found 
ill  abundance  in  the  capittd  and  some  of  this  taken 
alon«>-  with  the  other  thinjj;s.  The  evening  of  the  23(1 
closed  with  all  of  the  left  wing  in  an<l  around  Mil- 
ledgeville  and  the  right  at  Gordon,  twelve  miles  dis- 
tant. Our  men  found  here  news]»a])<M's  of  late  date 
from  all  over  the  South.  Sonn^  of  these  re])reseuted 
that  Sherman  and  his  soldiers  were  fleeing  for  their 
lives  to  the  sea  coast,  and  called  on  the  people  to  rise 
in  their  might  and  destroy  tlu^n.  Jt  seems  strange 
that  ])eo])le  could  be  so  imposed  upon  by  such  stuff, 
but  m>  doubt  many  were.  However,  the  people  of 
Georgia  did  not  "rise  in  their  might"  to  any  great 
(^xtent.  (Jeiieral  Beauregard,  from  the  safe  distance 
of  Gorinth,  Miss.,  issue<l  the  following  bombastic  aj)- 
peal :  "To  the  people  of  Georgia !  Arise  for  the  defense 
of  your  native  soil!  Kally  around  your  patriotic  Gov- 
ernor and  gallant  scddiei-s!  Obstruct  ami  destroy  all  the 
roads  in  Sherman's  front,  flank  and  rear,  and  his  army 
will  soon  starve  in  your  midst.  Be  confident.  Be  reso- 
lute. Trust  in  an  overruling  Providence,  and  success 
will  crown  your  eff'orts.  1  hasten  to  join  yon  in  the 
defense  of  your  homes  and  firesides,  (i,  T,  Beaure- 
gard," "Uncle  Billy"  and  his  boys  only  smiled  on  pe- 
rusing such  crazy  appeals  as  the  above.  They  could  well 
afford  to.  One  hundred  miles  had  been  successfully 
travers'ed  ami  without  any  fighting  worth  mentiouiug. 
The  army  had  lived  high  on  the  products  of  Georgia 
and  were  growing  fatter  and  stronger  every  day.  They 
had  come  to  look  on  the  trip  as  a  grand  picnic  and 
were  not  getting  tired,  but  more  anxious  to  prolong  it, 
if  anything.  In  this  s])ii'it  the  army  again  set  out  on 
the  24th,  first,  however,  burning  the  arsenal,  peniten- 
tiary and  a  few  other  buildings.    There  was  undoubt- 


THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOl'RTH 


(•M\  aiKI  riMSSIli;;  I  In*  «  M-oiHM'  lil\ci'o||  ;i  roVflril  hrnl«;(' 
wliirli  tin*  riHMiiv  had  failrM  to  Imiiii.  stum  riitt-rtMl  tlie 
JMIM'V  wihmIs  i«'i,'iuii  and  caiiiiK'd  at  two  |».  in.  at  Town 
CnM'k  Mills.  TIk-  r.ii^adf,  \\lii<-li  had  lakrii  a  (•i«»ss 
road,  raiiif  to  ;i  h.nisc  tilh*d  with  ;;<mm|s  w  hirh  iIm- 
«»wn«M'  had  riiiiccMJfd.  The  st»>fk  was  <*stiniai»'d  lo  he 
w<»rth     sixtv    thousand    dollais.       Tliosr    j^uods    were 


«»wn«M'  had  riiiiccMJfd.  The  st»>fk  was  <*stiniai»'d  lo  he 
w<»rth  sixtv  thonsand  dollais.  Tliosr  j^uods  were 
qiiitklv  sampled  and' some  <tf  them  dist  lilnited,  e\eiv 
sohlier  takin;;  what  lie  wanted,  Imi  a  |tailialiiv  was 
shown  for  |iaper  collars.  The  Ke;:^iment  peifunurd 
picket  dniv  at  this  |da<e,  called  \\<md's  IManiaiioii, 
until  the  afteniocin  of  the  L*r»th. 

The  left  win;::  l»ein^  well  chtsed  ll|i  mi  I  lie  'J.-itli  the 
mai'ch  was  res  nnn-d  on  t  he  l!(>t  h,  t  in-  <  Mk-  II  mid  red  and 
I'onrih  reachin;:  the  hiij  l?iillalo  swainji  at  imon,  w  hich 
was  crossed  with  mnch  ironlde,  the  men  jtickinu:  their 
way  fiMM|ncntly  on  fallen  trunks  of  trees.  The  last 
re;:iiueuts  «»f  the  command  did  not  ^^et  tlirou;:h  until 
inidni;rlit  and  were  li^hieil  on  iheir  wav  liy  torches. 
The  Ke^inieiit  Iiivouai  ked  on  a  sandy  rid;:('.  At  daw  n 
ofthe'JTth  it  started  a^ain  and  waded  aiioi  her  swamp, 
tluMi  procee«|ed  and  reacheil  SandersN  ille  ai  noun.  The 
rouri  house,  jail  ami  other  hiiildin^^s  had  Iteeu  hurm'd 
!»v  our  advance  forces,  the  reh«*ls  havin;:  made  some 
resistance  here.  There  was  a  delay  of  several  Inuirs 
on  a<-couiit  of  ha\in;:  to  wait  for  the  jiassap*  of  the 
ravalry  train  and  droves  of  catih  that  were  taken 
ahui;:,  so  that  the  lke;.:inient  did  not  lea\e  town  until 
(lark  and  then  marched  until  midni;:ht.     (Mi  the  L'St  h 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  26S 

the  march  was  resumed  toward  Louisville.  On  the 
way  the  First  Division  of  the  Tw(Mitieth  Corps  was 
found  to  be  enj.ia«;('d  in  (h'stroyinj;  the  Cieorj»ia  Cen- 
tral Railroad.  At  nij^ht  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth 
camped  at  ten  p.  m.  live  miles  west  of  J^ouisville.  The 
29th  was  opened  with  an  early  march.  The  Kej»iment 
crossed  the  0«>eechee  River  and  soon  after  Kocky 
Creek,  where,  for  the  first  time,  cypress  trees  an<l 
palms  were  seen,  an  indication  of  a  more  tropical 
clinuite.  Innumerable  swamps  now  appeared  and  one 
of  these  was  i)assed  through  over  two  miles  of  coi'du- 
roy  road.  The  Regiment  went  into  cam])  four  miles 
beyond  Louisville.  (leneral  Kilpatrick,  who  had  been 
sent  to  Milieu  to  liberate  the  Federal  prisoners,  find- 
ing they  had  been  removed,  started  toward  Augusta 
and  met  Wheeler's  cavalry,  with  whom  he  skirmished 
some  time  and  then  withdrew  to  Louisville.  Mean- 
time the  main  army  steadily  advanced  toward  Milieu. 
Leland  says  of  the  30th:  "Our  Brigade  being  in  ad- 
vance, the  march  was  easier  and  at  sundown  we  went 
into  camj)  two  miles  east  of  Sebastopol  Station  on 
the  Central  Railroad.  We  found  to-day  an  abundance 
of  forage,  such  as  pork,  poultry  and  meal.  The  weather 
proved  to  be  very  warm."  C.  C.  Courtright,  of  Com- 
pany G,  says:  "The  negroes  had  a  grand  jubilee  after 
dark;  the  boys  built  a  platform,  provided  a  fiddle,  and 
the  darkies  more  than  hoed  it  down,  one  old  fellow 
dancing  on  his  head,  and  keeping  time  to  the  music." 
A  short  march  of  five  miles  was  made  on  the  1st  of 
December  and  the  Regiment  halted  for  the  day  at 
nine  a.  m.  on  a  plantation  called  Nazareth.  On  the 
2d  the  march  was  resumed  at  noon  and  extended  in 
all  directions,  first  toward  Millen,  then  toward 
Augusta,  which  Kilpatrick,  with  Baird's  Division,  was^ 
threatening.  After  inarching  some  miles  and  until 
after  dark,  the  command  bivouacked  in  an  open  field. 
On  the  3d  the  Augusta  Railroad  was  reached  by  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  at  Lumpkin  Station  and  the 
Twentieth  Corps  was  engaged  in  tearing  uj)  and  burn- 
ing the  iron  and  ties.     Before  leaving  on  the  4tli  the 


JM  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

K«*};iiii«Mit  iissisii'tl  in  fmilici-  drsi  i«»\  in;;  iln-  iua<l  mikI 
thru  iii:in-li<*«|  1*1  llaiit'isliaiii.  aiiiNiii;;  :il  iumhi.  At 
iii;;ln  a  hall  N\as  math'  in  a  piin*  f»»n*sr  a  f«'\v  iiiiN's  in 
aWvaiHM*  aiitl  ten  niiirs  from  Millni.  TIm-  S«*vrnt<M'iitli 
t'orps  «Mil«'nMl  iIh*  latttT  jihirr  on  tin*  '.\t\.  Kilitatrirk 
lia<l  ilciMMiisiralt'ti  aii<l  fMn;;lii  Wliri'lrr  at  \\  aviM*sl»oro, 
su|i|Kin«Ml  liy  Haii-<l.  It.\  this  inMMMiiriii  oik-  ^^oitil 
(hiv's  iiiarrh  towartl  Savannah  had  Immmi  ;:aiii«Ml  and 
\N'hr«*h'r  |ii-«'\(>nl<*<l  fi(»ni  annovinj;  th«*  main  aiin\  and 
the  trains.  'IMu*  ••ncnix  roidd  imi  imiain  nnnh  h»n;^<T 
in  ij^mirancr  of  Sh«'iinan's  real  ul»j«*ri  ixc  ( )n  ih<*  r»th 
th(*  OiH*  Hundred  and  l^mrih  mar<h<'d  roniliMMi  niih'S 
on  th«'  Savannah  road  through  a  sparsely  settled  ronn- 
tr\  rov«Med  >\ith  swamps,  and  ramped  afiei-  daiU  at 
La  wton's  Mills  on  Iteaver  1  )am  <  'reek.  The  wlioh-  army 
was  tonvi'rjiin;:;  on  Savannah   1>\    four  |»arallel   roads. 

Ml  l.a\\*s  rehel   division  and   some    militia     had     I n 

thrown  in  fiont  of  Sherman  at  ( J^eechee  < 'hnrrh,  ahout 
fifty  miles  from  Savannah,  Imt  ou  the  approaeh  of 
the  Seventeriilh  Corps  on  I  lie  ."»ili  retreated  toward 
Savannah,  leaviiii;  their  iiewly  made  woiUs.  <Iem'raI 
Wheeler  in  the  real-  was  kepi  ai  hay  ity  Kilpai  rick's 
eavalry.  The  army  was  fasi  ap|troarhiii|i.:  the  sea,  and 
theeonntiy  hecanie  )ioorer  ill  appearance,  with  houses 
ami  sei  I  lejiiciils  fewer  ami  far  heiwceii.  Iniermiii- 
al»le  pine  ami  cypress  swamps  prevailed.  I'ion  jsions 
and  foi-;;ae  liecame  scai'cer,  Itiit  I  heir  jdace  was  siip|died 
l»y  rice,  which  t;rew  almiidantly  alon^  the  ii\eis  in  this 
part  «»f  the  state  and  was  harvested  hy  the  ln>ys.  The 
main  roads  were  ;;o<m1,  the  weal  her  tine  and  e\  t-iyhody 
in  hi;,'li  spirits.  .Md.aw  fell  hack  steadily  iiiiiil  he  was 
safe  within  the  defense  of  Sa\annali.  Some  of  his 
men  liein;:  taken  prisoners  a  thrined  that  t  he  army  could 
never  lake  Savannah.  The  Hue  Ihiiidred  ami  I'oiirth 
marched  seventeen  miles  on  llie  )iili  all  ilie  way  near 
the  Savannah  Kiver  just  across  which  the  sand  hills 
of  Sonth  ('arolina  rose  into  view,     t  Mi  the  way  a  rehel 

Hteamhoat,   the  "Swan,"   was  sunk    l»v    oi f  iMir  hai- 

teries.  She  was  loaded  with  corn  for  Savaimali.  .No 
ol  her  imideni  of  importance  mar  keil  t  he  day.     .\  i  iii;;ht 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  267 

the  camp  fires  of  Sherman's  army  made  of  blazinj^  pine 
knots,  illnniinat(Ml  the  whole  eonntry,  and  were  sur- 
rounded by  as  joyous  a  lot  of  soldiers  as  ever  went  to 
war.  On  the  Ttli  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  led  tlic 
advance  of  the  Division  over  heavy  roads  which  had 
been  blockaded  where  they  crossed  the  swamps.  This 
work  had  been  done  by  citizens  and  negroes,  the  hit- 
ter beiiiij;-  run  off  a  litth'  later  into  South  Carolina, 
Sergeant  McLain  says  of  the  movements  of  the  8th: 
"After  marching  until  noon  we  halted  for  dinner  and 
wliile  thus  engaged  a  rebel  gunboat  came  down  the 
river  and  fired  several  shots  at  the  head  of  our  column; 
then  returned  up  the  river.  That  night  the  HcgiuHMit 
camped  on  Ebeneezer  Island,  near  a  very  old  church 
of  the  same  name.  It  was  built  in  1761)  and  used  by 
General  Greene's  army  as  a  hospital  in  the  lievolu- 
tionary  war.  The  church,  which  was  of  brick  and  inside 
had  an  old-fashioned  pulpit  and  high-backed  pews, 
stood  in  a  very  picturesque  spot  In  a  pine  forest  on  the 
bank  of  the  river.  Near  by  were  the  remains  of  an 
old  fort  built  by  iTOvernor  -Tared  Irwin  in  th<^  early 
settlement  of  the  countiT.  One  in  looking  over  these 
ancient  relics  is  forciblj'  struck  with  the  antique 
appearance  of  everything.  The  forest,  the  fort,  the  old 
Ebeneezer  homestead,  and  the  church,  carried  the  mind 
back  to  other  days.  The  waters  of  the  Savannah  on 
the  left  flow  silently  by  wending  their  way  to  the  ocean. 
The  island  showed  ample  evidence  of  former  high  cul- 
tivation and  prosperity.  As  one  reflects  on  the  many 
changes  he  cannot  but  wonder  how  many  of  the 
descendants  of  those  noble  old  sires  who  built  the 
church  and  fort,  are  now  in  arms  against  the  Govern- 
.   ment  their  forefathers  fought  to  establish." 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  marched  on  the  9tli 
over  roads  which  had  been  blockaded  with  fallen  trees. 
Cannonading  was  heard  in  front.  Another  swamp  was 
crossed  and  some  time  after  dark  the  Regiment  camped 
near  the  forks  of  a  road  where  the  rebels  had  built  a 
Ifort.     Our  advance  had  driven  them  from  this  with 


THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 


uaii  was  iiiiKic  on  tli<'  railroad  t<*ii  miles  ii-oiii  savan- 
nah. Soiur  of  tin*  l»ovs  wcni  out  fora;iin;;  ami  i»'t  uriu-il 
well  la«lcn  with  foildri-,  pork  ami  |>oulirv.  <  in  the  lltli 
of  I  iiM-cmlxM'  iln*  (im*  Ihimlird  aii<l  I'oiiilli,  marching 
six  milrs,  ari'i\r<l  within  ti\r  mih-s  of  Savannah  ami 
roust  riict  «mI  InfasI  works.  Il<i<ii  sii|i|mh  (<•<!  l*n*s<*ott'H 
Hattt-rv.  First  Illinois  Artili»i\.  l>»-foic  ilirarmy  now 
ilosin;;  in  lav  "I'air  Savannah,"  siiri-oMmh'tl  l»v  fxtcn- 
sivf  svstrins  of  fort  ilirations  ami  th-frmh-d  hv  an  army 
iiml«*r    <i<'m'ral    llardtM-.      Tlif    11th    closed    with    an 


iiiid«*r  <i<'m'ral  llardtM-.  Tlif  11th  closod  with  an 
almost  <-om|d«'t<'  lim'  of  invest  iin-nt  \>\  our  foiccs.  'Tin* 
h'ft  of  th«'  Tui'iit  i«*t  h  ('or|»s  rest  od  on  the  Savannah 
lkiv«-r.  m-xt  to  it  were  the  Seventeenth  and  I'ifteeiith 
('or|»s.  and  the  I'oiiii  eeni  li  on  the  riulil.  <  Mi  i  he  TJih 
tin'  <)m*  llnndied  and  I'oMith  »  lussi-d  ilie  Sa\annah 
and  ( );;eerhee  eanal,  ino\ed  n|)  a  (piarter  of  a  mile  ami 
bnilt  a  heavy  lim*  of  works  under  lire  of  the  rehel  liat- 
ttM'ies.  situated  <»n  the  opposite  sid»'  of  a  llooded  riee 
swamp.  The  I'ifieeiit  ji  (nrjis.  itein;;  relieved  hy  tin* 
Seveiiieenih,  marched  down  the  (lj;e«'chee  Ki\er  to- 
ward I'oit  .McAllister.  This  l>arri<*r  stood  in  the  way 
of  eommniMcat  ion  with  the  tieet,  which,  umler  Admiral 
I>ahl;:ren,  had  been  sent  with  supplies  to  await  the 
itrrival  of  Sherman's  armv,  and  was  then  in  <>ssalriw 
Sound  and   vicinity,  helovv    the  fort. 

The  lirsi  step  taken  l»v  <Ieiieral  Sheiiuau  was  to 
ju-epare  for  the  <a|»tnre  of  |\.ii  McAllistei-.  TIm'  Sec- 
oml  liivision  of  the  I'ifieeuih  <  "orps.  iimler  <  leiieral 
Ilazen,  was  selected  for  the  assault,  to  vvliicji  ii  uiov-il 
on  the  l.'lth.  from  Kind's  I5rid;:e,  fourteen  miles  helow. 
<'aptain  jiuiican  ami  two  others  of  Sherman's  hest 
Hcoiiis  had  on  the  e\«'nin;;  of  the  iL'th  tpiieilv  floated 
down  the  ( l;;eechee  in  a  skilT  under  cover  of  the  dark- 
ness past  the  fort,  ami  lepurted  Sherman's  arrival  to 
the  lleet.  «ieneral  Kilpatiick  was  also  s«'ut  with  civ 
ailrv  to  let  tin  n«  liter  t  he  posii  ion,  which  he  1 1  id.  « ieiieial 
Sherman,    to    hasten    sn    impoiiaui     a     moveuieiii,   ami 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  269 

leaving  the  main  army  for  tlie  time,  repaired  to  King's 
Bridge  and  on  tlie  13tli  witnessed  the  storming  of  Fort 
McAllister  from  one  of  our  signal  stations  situated  on 
a  rice  mill  some  three  miles  from  the  enemy.  The  fort 
had  been  built  with  reference  to  attack  from  tlie  sea, 
while  the  laud  side  was  weaker,  but  protect«Ml  by  ditch 
and  abatis.  Kice  fields  extended  northward  and  west- 
ward bordered  with  timber.  Late  in  the  afternoon 
Hazen's  Division  was  seen  to  advance  across  tlie  rice 
fields  to  the  assault  in  firm  steady  columns  with  col- 
ors flying.  Instantly  the  defenders  of  the  fort  opened 
fire  from  their  heavy  guns,  but  Hazen's  men,  in  three 
lines,  moved  briskly  on  until  the  skirmishers,  gaining 
the  abatis  and  felled  live  oaks  in  front  of  the  parai)et, 
were  enabled  to  pick  off  the  rebel  gunners.  With 
shouts  and  yells  the  soldiers  rushed  over  the  obstruc- 
tions and  into  the  works.  The  garrison  of  two  hun- 
dred and  fift}'  men,  under  Major  Anderson,  then  sur- 
rendered. Thirty-six  heavy  guns  were  among  the  tro- 
phies. Just  as  the  lines  were  moving  to  the  assault 
the  smokestacks  of  a  stamer  were  descried  coming 
up  the  river  below  the  fort.  The  signal  officer  was 
notified  of  Sherman's  presence,  and  soon  after  of  the 
capture  of  McAllister.  In  this  afl'air  Ilazen  lost  ninety- 
two  men,  the  rebels  about  fifty.  Sherman  resolved  to 
visit  the  fleet  that  night,  so,  accompanied  by  General 
Howard  and  several  of  his  Staff  w^ho  acted  as  crew, 
he  started  down  the  river  in  a  skiff'.  On  the  way, 
learning  from  our  soldiers  below  that  General  Hazen 
was  at  the  McAllister  house,  a  landing  was  made  and 
a  late  supper  eaten  with  Hazen  and  his  Staff*.  Major 
Anderson  was  also  present  as  a  guest.  After  supper 
the  party  inspected  Fort  McAllister  by  moonlight  and 
saw  the  dead  and  living  lying  side  by  side,  some  to 
wake  no  more,  others  dreaming  perchance  of  the  fierce 
assault  and  victory.  Sherman  and  party  then  em- 
barked, and  after  going  six  miles  further,  reached  the 
boat  Dandelion,  a  tender  to  the  regular  gunboat  "Flag." 
It  is  hardly  necessary  to  say  that  the  reception  by  the 
officers  of  the  Dandelion  was  hearty  and  that  there 


iTO  THE  ONE  Hl'NDRED  AND  FOURTH 

\\a>  j<>\  all  r«>uii«i.  (i«*ii«ral  Sli«'riuaii  thcii  Icaiiicil  the 
lalt'si  news  fiHMii  tlu*  Noi'tli  ami  iibmit  the  mails  and 
sii|i|>lirs  au  ail  ill;:  his  aniiN.  Tin*  icsi  of  i  In- iii;:hi  was 
s|M'iit  ill  iiMfivii'Ws  with  <J«Mi«*ial  F«>si«'r  ami  A<lmiral 
Diihl^nii.  Thr  14th  was  jjivfii  to  the  coiiiplctioii  nf 
aniiii;:«'imiils  f«ir  fuiwanlin;:  supplies  to  Kin;:'s  ln-i«l;;t' 
till  lln*  «  >o,mtIhm',  fur  ilisiiilnil  itui  to  llic  aniiv.  Sh«*r- 
man  ih»*n  nMiiriUMl  to  llo\vai«rs  h«'a«h|Marl«'i*s. 

M«'antiim'  siimc  prrliminarv  ni«iv«'m«*nts  had  liccii 
l>(*};iiii  liMikiii;;  to  the  riMlnrtion  of  Savannali.  One  of 
these  was  an  ailemi»i  to  close  llard<M''s  only  avenue 
of  rs«ap«'  l»\  poiiioMii  ovrr  I  he  rivrr  and  |>laiik  cause- 
way into  South  Csirolina,  hut   this  failed. 

t  Ml  the  ni^iht  of  the  ir)th  Colonel  llt»l»ail,  with  the 
(hie  llumlied  and  Foiiith  ami  two  other  r«';iinients  of 
his  Hri;;atle,  made  a  reconiioissance  !<•  ascertain  t  he  |>os- 
sibility  of  crossing;  t  he  swamp,  or  siilniieriied  rice  lields, 
hetwiMMi  his  position  :iml  the  rebel  lines.  The  b<»yH 
wad«il  in  for  a  considerable  distance.  In  places  the 
water  was  <leep,  reaching;  to  the  armpits  ot  some.  The 
route  taken  was  found  to  be  impracticable,  ami  the 
enemy  becoming;  alaiMiied  ami  ojienin;:  hie,  ilie  coin- 
inami  was  ordered  back  t«>  camp,  where  it  aniveil  wet, 
cohl   ami  disiinsted   with  tJeoiM^ia  swamps. 

The  next  ni;;lit  Lieutenant  .lames  M.  \\  ri;:lil,  of 
<'oinpaiiy  I,  a  bra\e  and  venturesome  ollicer,  deter- 
mined to  tin*l  some  wa\  of  ciossin;:  the  swamp  if  it 
could  be  done.  lie  set  oul  alolie  oil  a  tlitTereiit  route 
from  that  taken  the  ni;:lit  befoie,  and  suc«eeded  in 
reachin;:  a  h»w  lyin;;  bank  of  liriii  i^iouml  at  the  e«l;:e 
of  the  timber,  which  he  snpp<>seil  was  the  boundary 
of  the  swamp  ttii  the  enemy's  side,  ami  on  top  of  w  hich 
was  an  old  rail  feme. 

Lieutenant  \\iii:lii's  |ui\ate  e.xpt'dition  beinn;  re- 
ported to  < 'oloiiel  llobart,  the  latter,  on  tin*  afternoon 
of  the  r.Mli.  oi-dered  Majoi*  W'idmer  to  cross  on  the 
route  discoNeied  by  \\'ri;:lit,  and  reconuoiter  the  woods 
on  the  rebel  side  of  the  swaiii|t  thai  iii^^ht  to  liml  «>ut 
if  tluTe  was  room  to  form  tin*  Hri^^ade  on  lirtn  ;:roumI 
bet  we<*ii  the  swam  |t  ami  the  enemy's  main  line  of  works. 


REGIMENT  IT.LINOTS  VOLUNTEERS.  271 

which  were  in  the  woods  an<l  out  of  sij^ht  from  our  side 
of  the  swani]),  excepting-  a  lunette  for  three  ^uus,  which 
was  ou  tiip  rebel  ed^c  of  (he  swaui])  and  in  full  view. 
(Ndonel  llobart  t(dd  Maj<U'  WiduuM-  to  use  his  own 
ju(lj»nient  as  to  the  number  of  nu'u  to  uuike  the  trip, 
to  take  the  whole  Kef^iment  if  he  thouj;ht  it  necessary, 
or  <;(>  alone  if  he  wanted  to,  but,  ;it  all  events,  to  get 
the  recpiired  infcn-mation  that  niiiiit. 

The  Major  selected  Captain  Proctor,  Lieutenant 
Wright,  Mark  Purviauce  and  William  Frink,  all  of 
Company  I,  to  go  with  him.  Each  was  armed  with 
two  revolvers,  and  carried  a  liglit  pole  with  which  to 
feel  the  depth  of  the  Avater,  and  all  went  bareheaded, 
so  as  not  to  be  readily  distinguishable^  from  other 
objects  in  the  dark.  The  night  was  extremely  dark 
and  the  party  proceeded  to  work  its  way  across  the 
swamj)  with  the  utmost  caution,  as  no  part  of  the  route 
taken  was  more  than  three  hundred  yards  from  the 
rebel  lunette,  and  it  was  knoAvn  that  the  enemy  at  night 
had  pickets  out  on  several  dikes  that  extended  i)art 
way  across  the  swamp. 

At  length  the  bank  found  by  Wright  on  his  former 
trip  was  reached,  but  it  was  discovered  that  a  canal 
or  feeder  for  the  rice  swamp,  abont  twenty  feet  wide 
and  tilled  with  water  six  feet  deep,  lay  between  the 
bank  and  the  nuiinland.  How  to  cross  was  the  (pies- 
tiou.  By  using  his  pole  Major  Widmer  found  a  sub- 
merged log  lying  across  the  feeder,  and  on  it,  he,  Ca])- 
tain  Proctor,  and  Lieutenant  Wright  ])assed  over,  leav- 
ing Frink  and  Purviauce  to  guard  the  crossing.  The 
ground  was  carefully  ex])lore(l  up  to  the  rebel  line  of 
works,  and  it  was  found  there  Avas  room  to  form  the 
Brigade  between  the  feeder  and  that  line.  After  an 
absence  of  more  than  four  hours  the  party  returned  to 
our  side  of  the  swani]).  Major  AVidmer,  reporting  to 
Colonel  Hobart  that  the  route  was  ])racticable,  was 
ordered  to  select  one  hundred  men  of  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth  to  lead  an  assault  on  the  rebel  works 
the  following  night.  Lo(dving  to  that  end  he  had  poles 
prepared   to  use  as  sleepers  for  a  bridge  across  the 


m  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

* 

fiftlrr,  1*11  whiih  rails  froia  ilu*  tdil  fi-iuf  wi'ie  to  be 
laid;  lonlu'K  wiTt*  also  iiuule,  to  be  U8e<l  if  necessary, 
and  ilu*  dt'tarliiiH'Ui  was  hrld  it-atly  t«>  luakt*  tln' assault 
whi'UrXfr  tU'dfj-fd.  Tln'it'  is  no  duiilii  ii  \n»hi1»I  liavr 
Imi'Ii  sut«fssfiil,  hill  lln'  «*variiaii<»ii  nf  tjic  ciiciiiv  iliat 
iiijjlil  I'l'iidniMl  it  iiiiii«M«'ssar\ . 

S«M»ii  afi«T  «»iir  anii>  irarlicil  ilif  rii\  (oloiu'l 
IluWarl  rrri'ivi'd  liis  hn-vi't  as  ltii;j;atli«'i-(  Jtin'ial  f(»r 
his  a«tivitv  diiiiii;;  tin*  si«*;;«*,  and  he  r«»m|iliiii<'iit<'<l 
Major  WidiiHT's  party  l>y  y;iviiij;  tlnMii  a  l»ain|iitt  at 
his  h«'adi|iiai-t('!s.  wliirli  was  nijoyrd  l»y  all  in  i  iim* 
anii.x  st\l«'. 

I)  mi  11'^'  III*'  I  iin*'  ln-t  utMii  i  in-  PJi  li  and  'Jlsi  tiic  nuc 
liuiidn'd  and  l^mrili  in  addiiion  to  takin;:;  jiaii  in  iId' 
advt'iitiin' of  (h<'  ir.ili,  was  fully  (MM-upied  in  jx^Jit'diii^j 
its  liin*  of  a  inilf  in  l<n;;th.  Naii(tw  dikes  ran  amiss 
llif  rirr  swamps  and  butli  aiinics  walclu'd  tin*  ap- 
|tr«iarln'S  to  ihcsi*.  Tlify  wri'«*  also  «onimand«Ml  by 
artilliTy.  Tlwrr  was  nnirli  fora;;inj;  donr  in  lln*  «ouii- 
try  around  Savannali.  bni  pending;  iIm'  ariival  ol  sup- 
plies tlM'  boys  liulb'd   rict*  to  help  out    the  rations. 

( '.  (\  <  "oiiit  lij^hl,  s|H*akin;;  of  this,  says:  "\\  «• 
poiindi'd  lor  hulled)  lire  in  mess  ])ans  with  the  butts  of 
our  ;:uns;  liowevei-.  not  bein^  able  to  uei  all  the  hulls 
off,  when  i-aiin;;  tin-  ri<e  some  ol  ii  siialrhed  all  the 
way  down."  Leiand  notes  that  the  army  at  this  lime 
looked  well  ami  hearty  with  hardly  a  case  of  sirk- 
n«*HM  in  till-  Ke;:iment.  lie  also  says:  "(in  i  lie  Hlih 
we  rereJNed  uiir  llisi  mall  from  the  Norili.  In  the 
evening  w«'  heard  a  rebel  band  playing  'l>ixie'  and 
*l|oiin'.  Sweet  lloiin-.'  As  ilie  lovely  sii'ains  came 
IJoatin;,^  to  ns  across  the  water  some  of  us  felt  blue. 
While  here  I  weiity-seNeii  rnion  soldiei-s  came  in.  'Phey 
had  b«i*n  jtrisoiiers  of  war  for  over  a  year  and  joined 
the  rebel  army  as  the  <piickest  way  «»f  n'achin;;  our 
liin*s." 

Frank  W  .  Hums,  of  Company  I,  postmaster  of  the 
I''irst  Division,  says:  "The  lar;;est  mail  ever  received 
by  m»'  was  at  Savannah.  It  look  a  six-mule  army 
Wii;;oii  lojided  to  the  bi;;  canvas  covei*  !o  carrv  if .    Tlirci- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  273 

hundred  dollars'  worth  of  staiups  which  1  obtained  for 
the  Division  was  only  a  fraction  of  what  were  wanted 
for  the  first  mail  out  from  Savannah  and  1  was  kept 
busy  franking-  letters  that  there  were  no  stamps  for." 

General  Sherman  had  sent  for  heavy  siege  guns, 
and  was  preparing  to  assault  the  rt'bel  works,  which 
after  careful  reconnoitering  it  was  decided  coukl  be 
done  successfully.  By  the  ITth  his  supi)lies  were  com- 
ing in  from  sea  in  great  quantities.  On  that  date  he 
made  a  formal  demand  through  a  flag  of  truce  on 
General  Hardee  for  the  surrender  of  the  city.  On  tlie 
18th  an  answer  refusing  to  surrender  was  retnrncMl. 
General  Sherman,  directing  Howard  and  Slocum  to 
continue  the  preparations  for  assault,  left  at  once  by 
sea  for  Hilton  Head  to  confer  with  (ieneral  Foster  and 
arrange  with  him  to  send  General  John  1*.  Hatch's 
Division  to  Savannah  for  the  purpose  of  operating  on 
and  taking  possession  of  the  old  plank  causeway  on 
the  South  Carolina  side,  which  was  Hardee's  only  ave- 
nue of  escape  left  to  him.  This  nuitter  was  setth'd  and 
Sherman  set  out  on  his  return  on  the  20th.  Being 
delayed  by  low  tide  he  did  not  arrive  near  Savannah 
until  the  21st,  and  was  met  on  the  way  by  a  staff 
ofticer  with  tlie  news  of  tlu^  fall  of  Savannah  that 
morning.  Hardee  had  retreated  across  the  river  into 
South  Garolina  during  the  night  of  the  20tli  with  his 
army  of  about  fifteen  thousand  men  and  the  light  artil- 
lery, after  blowing  up  some  of  the  public  ])roperty,  bnt 
vast  quantities  remained  and  were  captured  by  our 
army.  Among  other  trojjhies  were  two  hundred  and 
fifty  cannon  which  he  left  unspiked;  all  the  railroad 
rolling  stock;  thirty-one  thousand  bales  of  cotton 
l)elonging  to  the  Confederate  Government,  and  much 
other  material.  Early  on  the  morning  of  the  21st  our 
pickets  had  discovered  that  the  I'obel  works  were  aban- 
doned. Upon  hearing  this  Slocum  and  Howard 
marched  their  troops  in.  Geary's  Division  claimed 
to  be  the  first  to  reach  the  heart  of  the  city.  The  One 
Hundred  and  Foui'th,  crossing  the  rice  swamp  in  front 
on  a  dike,  marched  to  the  Ghimney  Fort  and  bivou- 


L*:4 


■v     "      NI)KK1>  .\V'>   loiKTH 


arkttl  UIuliT  the  «  t(l;il>  ;ill«l    livr  «>aKs  ;il<MIIul    l.;i  \\  I  <  in's 

lioiisi*.  On  till*  L'L'ikI  (III*  Kr^hiifiit  iiiarrliiMl  ilii-ti\i::h 
iIh'  priiu-ipal  strtnMs  of  tin*  til  v  aiid  was  iliariin*«l  wiili 
its  bcaiilifiil  a|i|>«sii-aiK-f,  so  (lilTci-t'iit  fritiii  aiivtiiiii;: 
stiMi  iM'foif.  Tlifi'i*  was  a  drciiitMllv  iropiral  air  aboiii 
fV<TVt hilly;.  Tin*  lions«'s  with  l»ro;i(l  ami  latii««'<l  vnaii 
lias,  till*  vanis  till«Ml  wiili  i-ar«'  tlo\\i>rs  in  Mooni,  tli«' 
palm  and  oninp*  iihm's,  wnr  intnvstin;;  sijilits  i«» 
Im'IioM.  Tin*  livi*  oaks.  (iiaiMMl  with  Spanish  moss  (Til- 
iaiitl^ia)  ailoi-n«'«l  tin*  str«i>is  anil  paiks.  It  wonhl  Im* 
hard  to  drscrilM*  tin*  f«M'lin;is  of  satisfariion  that  p«*r- 
vadiMl  all  on  this  irinmphal  mar<  h,  the  tilting  snpn'l 
to  tin*  (■anipai;:n  lM*;;nn  t*arl\  in  NovcmlH'i-.  ami  with 
sonn*  mis;:i\in^.  Tin*  rrsnit  ha<l  Imm-ii  attaim-d  with 
out  anv  hattic  on  tin*  thn'**  hnndn'd  mih's'  Jonnn'v 
and  provi'd  ihr  wisdom  of  (icmM'al  Sln-rman  w  Immi  Im* 
i«»n««*iv«'d  tlu'  project  that  was  to  add  to  his  fame  as 
a  t-ommamh'r  aii<l  strategist,  e\eii  moie  than  did  the 
Atlanta  rampai^ii.  'rin*  <  Mn*  Ihiiidied  and  I'onith 
ha\in^  shared  in  the  army's  triumph  on  the  L'L'ml, 
niai'ched  out  two  miles  imrihward  and  wfnt  into  camp. 
(Ml  the  march  from  Atlanta  the  loss  to  Sheiman's 
armv  in  killed,  wtuimled  ami  missin;::  amonnted  in  the 
a;ij;r«*;;ale  to  Ttil  men;  \,'.\'.is  jiiisom'ts  were  ca]>tnred. 
As  on  the  fall  of  Atlanta  the  North  had  heeii  excited 
to  the  hi;:hest  pitch  of  enthnsiasm,  so  the  anmnmre- 
meiii  that  Sherman  ami  his  army  had  arrived  safely 
l»ef«ne  the  walls  of  Savannah,  was  j,Meeted  with  new 
rejoi«in;r.  to  find  more  emphatic  expression  two  weeks 
later,  when  the  cits  had  fallen.  There  was  donhle 
cause  for  the  National  u'ratit'ide  and  iiappim*ss,  foi- 
the  s|M*edy  downfall  of  the  uieat  lehellion  was  assnred. 
The  liatlle  of  Nash\ille  had  heeii  fon;iht  on  the  l.'ith 
and  Hit  h  of  l>eceml»ei-.  and  a  si^mtl  victory  obtained 
by  the  army   nmlei-  tieneral  (leoi-^e  II.  TJionias.  o\er 

the   rebel    (ieneial    II I,    who    had    with    him    the  ohi 

Army  i»f  the  Tenness«*e,  that  b«»re  on  its  banm'is  the 
historic  names  of  every  ;;reat  batthdield  fimn  I>om'l- 
son  and  Sliiloh  to  .\tlanla,  ami  had  learned  tin*  art  of 
war  under  Albert  Sidney  .bdiiision.  Heaiirei^ard.  l?ra;:ii 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  275 

and  Joseph  E.  Johnston.  The  two  armies  were  about 
equal  in  numbcis,  but  a  part  of  General  Thomas'  army 
was  composed  of  new  recruits,  negro  sokliers  and  con- 
valescents from  the  vast  hospitals  of  Nashville.  Gen- 
eral Thomas,  assuming  the  offensive  against  Hood's 
veteran  troops  posted  on  the  hills  around  Nashville, 
defeated  them  in  fierce  assaults,  extending  <n'er  two 
days.  The  results  were  most  decisive,  the  enemy  los- 
ing a  large  number  in  killed  and  wounded,  thirteen 
thousand  prisoners  and  nearly  all  of  their  artillery. 
A  feeble  remnant  of  a  few  thousand  found  its  way 
back  to  Alabama  in  a  demoralized  condition,  but  the 
proud  and  almost  invincible  Army  of  the  Tennessee, 
with  its  glorious  record,  went  down  in  ruin  at  Nash- 
ville before  the  "Kock  of  Chickamauga."'  As  a  fair, 
open  test  of  American  valor  and  a  battle  on  a  large 
scale  that  was  fought  and  finished  on  an  open  field, 
that  of  Nashville  stands  alone.  The  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  had  its  rei)resentatives  there  to  the  number  of 
seventy-five,  soldiers  of  Sherman's  army,  who  had  been 
wounded  or  sent  back  on  account  of  sickness.  A  pro- 
visional division  of  the  Fourteenth  Corps,  composed  of 
convalescents,  had  been  formed  under  General  Steed- 
man  and  rendered  good  service  in  the  battle.  Ca])- 
tain  C.  K.  Brown,  of  Company  C;  Lieutenant  S.  V. 
Arnold,  of  Company  A,  and  Lieutenant  P.  Talbot,  of 
Company  B,  commanded  each  a  company.  Lieutenant 
Arnold,  of  Company  A,  says:  "There  were  about  four 
hundred  of  our  Brigade  in  the  battle.  After  it  was 
over  we  followed  Steedman  to  Decatur  in  pursuit  of 
Hood's  remaining  forces.  There  some  brisk  fighting 
was  done.  The  Fourteen  Corps  detachment  was  then 
sent  to  Chattanooga  and  the  several  companies  assigned 
to  patrol  duty  from  that  city  south  and  east.  My  com- 
pany was  stationed  at  Ringgold,  Georgia,  where  I  acted 
as  Provost  Marshal  from  January  20th  to  February 
2-tth,  ISn.").  Besides  myself  there  were  Sergeant  Frank 
Pickens,  O.  Riley  and  Fuller,  of  Company  A;  also  many 
others  from  different  companies  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth.     T  will  add  that  I  performed  at  Ringgold 


r7«  THE  ONE  HL'Nl»ia:i»  AM»  K»a  ItTH 

uiv  iiuist  ilirticult  aiitl  ilaiiy;i'nni.s  srrvice  tlurinj;  the 
war,  as  wt*  wi-iv  loiislanily  iai«lt*d  bv  Clatewood's  aud 
MrlKtuald'H  baiuls  of  jfuiTiillas.  Thev  weiv  restive,  aud 
knowing  fM-rv  f<M»i  of  ilu*  ruimiry,  we  were  kept  on 
thr  al^rt  waithiug  ilieiii  ami  tli«*ir  spies,  and  proiett- 
iuj;  «»ur  stores.  To  t»nr  «;reat  d«'li«;hi,  on  Manli  JTith, 
lM»r»,  the  delaeliinents  were  ordered  to  rej«»in  Sher- 
man's army.  <J<»in^  by  way  of  I'arkersbnrj;,  West  \  ir- 
jjinia.  .Vh-xandria,  and  by  sea  to  .Mntn<'h<'ad  <'ity,  N. 
i\,  at  hist  wt'  r«-a<-h<*d  oiii'  roniiiiands  ai  (iohlsboro,  in 
time  to  help  elose  tin*  war  nrar  Kaleij;li."  The  battle 
of  Nashville,  tin*  niairli  to  tho  sea,  and  the  fall  of 
Savannah  an*  all  to  be  r«';::ai(h*d  as  |»aris  id  one  ;;reat 
nn>v<'inent  that  settled  forever  th«*  fate  of  tin*  ronfe<l- 
eraty.  .N«»  jxreat  ami  or^^MMz«*d  rebi*!  army  now  re- 
inaim*d  in  all  the  sonthwrst  to  be  eon<pn*red.  The 
"marrh  to  the  si*a"  had  dfirionst rated  the  weakness 
«d  tin*  Smith  and  the  f»dly  of  its  fnrther  resislam**, 
Only    the    lildshill^    blow     n<*i*<led    !<•    br    ;ii\<'II    to    L«1*'8 

army  at  Hi<hmoml.  ()n  <Jeneral  Sln*iiiiairs  arrival  at 
Savannah  he  had  been  refpii'sted  by  <Mn«*ral  (irant  lo 
transport  his  army,  w  lM*n  Sa\aiinali  shoidd  br  takt*n, 
to  N'irj^iida,  bnt  on  fiirihtr  icilcctitm  another  roiirse 
\va8  pnrsned  ami  Sln*riiian's  army  left  to  sweep  like  a 
whirlwind  northward  tinini^ih  tin-  States  of  South  and 
Noit  h  ( "aiojiiia. 

Tin*  army  remained  in  and  m-ai-  Savannah  diirini; 
tin*  ;:r«*at«'r  part  of  .lamiary,  lSt».">,  enjoyiij;;  a  well- 
eariH'd  r<*st  ami  pr«'|>arin^' for  am>ther  eampai;;n.  Dnr- 
in;:  'his  time  the  ( )m*  lliindr(*d  ami  Fourth  lived  in 
eomfortable  (piarters  built  bv  the  men,  ami  im|)i*oved 
tlie  opportunity  to  s«*e  tin  city  ami  surrounding;  «oun- 
irvat  leisure.  On  Januarv  IMli  Tolouel  llapeman  went 
home  on  a  thirty  days'  have  of  abseu<-e  ami  .Major 
Widnn-r  eoinmamled  the  Ke;:iment.  Captain  M.  ( tsman, 
of  ('ompany  .\,  ami  dereiniali  <irove,  of  t'ompany  K, 
ln'in;:  taken  sick,  were  sent  lo  the  hospital.  Tin*  lat- 
ter, who  had  been  a  '^'ood  soldier,  unfortunately  died 
on  Februarv  !Mh.  The  writer,  while  Shermau's  army 
was  mart'hin;:  to  the  sea.  Ikin  iui;  esrapeil  from  the  i-ebe| 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  277 

prison  pen  at  Columbia,  S.  C,  on  the  evening  of  Novem- 
ber 28tli,  was  also  marching  through  the  swamps  of 
the  South,  arriving  after  ten  days'  journey  by  field  and 
flood,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Santee  River,  S.  C,  and  was 
rescued  by  the  U.  S.  Steamer  Nipsic,  from  hell.  Going 
north  and  reporting  at  Washington,  he  returned  after 
a  short  leave  of  absence  to  Charleston,  S.  C,  which 
had  just  been  evacuated  by  the  rebels.  Remaining 
here  a  month  or  more,  he  was  put  in  command  of  the 
First  Battalion,  Third  Brigade  of  the  "Coast  Division," 
under  General  John  P.  Hatch,  who  commanded  the 
Department.  Ca])tain  M.  Osman,  who  also  arrived 
there,  comnmnded  anotlier  battalion.  In  April  both 
were  ordered  to  join  their  regiment,  then  marching 
through  North  Carolina,  and  thus  were  enabled  to 
witness  the  death  throes  and  attend  the  funeral  of 
Johnston's  army  near  Raleigh.  While  in  prison  the 
writer  became  acquainted  with  Lieutenant  Byers,  of 
the  Fifth  Iowa  Cavalry,  whose  famous  song  of  "Sher- 
man's March  to  the  Sea,"  composed  by  him  in  prison, 
is  deemed  so  appropriate  as  to  merit  an  introduction 
here. 

Oui'  camp-fires  shone  bright  on  the  mountain 

That  frowned  on  the  river  below, 
While  we  stood  by  our  guns  in  the  morning 

And  eagerly  watched  for  the  foe, 
When  a  rider  came  out  of  the  darkness 

That  hung  over  mountain  and  tree, 
And  shouted,  "Boys,  up  and  be  ready, 

For  Sherman  will  march  to  the  sea." 

Then  shout  after  shout  for  bold  Sherman 

Went  up  from  each  valley  and  glen, 
And  the  bugles  re-echoed  the  music 

That  fell  from  the  lips  of  the  men; 
For  we  knew  that  the  stars  on  our  banner 

More  bright  in  their  splendor  would  be, 
And  that  blessings  from  Northland  would  greet  us 

When  Sherman  marched  down  to  the  sea. 

Then  forward,  boys,  forward  to  battle! 

We  marched  on  our  wearisome  way. 
And  we  stormed  the  wild  hills  of  Resaca. 

God  bless  those  who  fell  on  that  day! 
Then  Keiesaw,  dark  in  his  glory, 

Looked  down  on  the  flag  of  the  free, 
But  the  East  and  the  West  bore  our  standard 

When  Sherman  marched  down  to  the  sea. 


.:»  THK  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

Still  onwiinl  we  preitsed,  till  our  banners 

SW.-I"  '  ■"  'rom  Atlania'K  Rrini  walls. 
AntI  '  "f  till'  patriot  dampt-nrd 

Th.  •  !•«'  iho  traitor'8  flag  falls. 

Uut  wf  paiibcU  not  to  we«'p  for  the  fallen 

Who  Bifpi  by  KMch  rivor  and  tree. 
Yet  we  twined  them  a  wreath  of  the  laurel 

A»  Shernjan  niarche<l  down  to  the  »ea. 

().  proud  wa8  our  army  that  morning, 

That  Btood  where  the  pine  proudly  towers. 
When  Shernuin  said.  "Hoys,  you  ar»  weary — 

This  day  fair  Savannah  is  ours." 
Then  same  we  a  song  for  our  Chieftain 

That  etho<*d  o'er  river  and  sea; 
For  the  stars  on  our  banner  shone  brighter 

When  Shernjan  had  marrhed  to  the  sea. 


while  ami  l»la»k,  were  piotecltMl  and  tln'ir  ri^rlits 
rt'8j)ect<»(l,  vrt  tilt*  n*ln*l  itajtcrs  in  tin*  Soiiili  r«*pn*s»Mii«'(l 
that  i-apinc  and  i>illa;:«'  |>r<*vail«Ml,  the  uhjcct  Immh;;  t<» 
k«*«'p  alive  the  Myiiij;  eiiiixMs  of  ilw  icJM'JIiMii  aii<l  tin* 
spirit  <»f  hati'tMl.  The  iiiinisti'is  nf  the  ;x*»!<p<*l  <>f  J<*ku8 
<'hrist  Were  nut  nmliily  iiii1»n<Ml  with  luve  for  their 
enemies.  (Micuf  ihciii,  as  Shcnuan  Lelan<l  relates, 
ealleil  on  (leneral  Sliernian  an*l  askt'«|  if  he  would  \t" 
allowed,  in  his  piil|>it,  to  |tray  for  .lelT  haNis.  •'(  N-r- 
tainly,"  n-plied  iIm-  <  leneral,  ".letT.  Ha  vis  ami  the  d«'vil 
— !»oth  lu'ed  jiiayin;:  for."  Caplain  Strawn  «onnilt- 
iiles  the  following'  iiiter<*sl  in;;  narrali\e  of  his  impiis- 
sioiis  and  experiem-es  on  the  mairh  !«•  the  sea:  "Thf 
eanipai;;n  from  Atlanta  to  the  sea  remains  on  my  mind 
as  a  kind  of  half-forp>t ten  dream,  now  ;;ay  and  li;:ht- 
s«nm',  now  ironhh'd  and  ;ri't'wsom»\  We  had  no  !it:ht- 
in;;  Worthy  of  tin*  name,  l»nt  occupied  oinscJNcs  chictly 
in  inarehin;;  from  one  fi-riilc  \;iMi\  lo  anoihrr,  remo\- 
in;:  the  snlistam-t*  of  iIh-  land  on  our  way  toward 
Savannah.  Supplies  for  the  army  were  ahiindanl,  Init 
We  had  to  colled  theiii.  Details  of  fora;;ers  were  sent 
out   daily   to  ;;athei-  in   the  fai    of  the  land.      Stran;;e 

Hllpplies    We|-«'    >o|nelinies    SecUfed    on    I  he    sly.    aud    selil 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  279 

lioiiu'  as  souvciiii-s.  Unc  iiiaii  was  i'«']>«»i'1('<l  lo  have 
sent  home  eonsiderable  silver  plate.  Another  bronjiht 
me  for  transportation  a  horn  comb!  It  is  bnt  jnst  to 
say,  liowever,  that  most  of  our  men  scorned  to  lay 
hands  on  anythini;  of  value  not  really  needed  for  the 
.army.  There  were  some  notable  exceptions.  It  con  Id 
not  be  expected  that  among-  so  many  tens  of  thousands 
there  would  be  no  rogues,  gamblers,  thieves  and  rob- 
bers, before  they  joined  the  army.  Their  natural 
inclinations  remained — to  get  money  without  earning 
it;  therefore,  it  is  not  strange  that,  now  and  then,  they 
disgraced  themselves  and  the  army.  T  have  said  that 
we  found  our  line  of  travel  well  stocked  with  food 
supplies,  the  collecting  (d'  which  occu])ied  much  of  our 
time.  There  was  one  other  matter  that  helped  to 
amuse  and  vary  the  usual  routine.  This  w^as  the 
destruction  of  the  railroads  leading  to  our  rear.  If 
the  embankments  of  the  roa<l  we  desired  to  destroy 
were  high  and  steep  a  whole  brigade  sometimes  placed 
itself  along  the  line  and  laid  hold  of  the  rails,  and,  at 
a  given  signal,  heaved  the  whole  outfit  down  the  grade. 
If  the  ground  was  com])aratively  level  we  had  tongs 
and  other  tools  for  the  purpose  in  view.  The  rails  were 
wrenched  from  the  ties,  which  were  then  piled  up  far 
enough  apart  for  the  rails  to  reach;  other  ties  were 
then  piled  underneath  and  fire  set  to  them.  When  red 
hot  the  rails  were  seized  with  wrenches  and  twisted 
out  of  shape;  sometimes  they  were  wound  around 
trees  if  convenient.  On  the  latter  part  of  our  march 
food  and  forage  were  not  so  abundant  as  at  first.  We 
had  to  use  rice  as  a  substitute  for  bread,  most  of  it 
unhulled  if  not  in  the  straw,  too.  Within  a  short  time 
after  going  into  camp,  one  could  hear  the  pounding 
of  the  improvised  pestles  and  mortars  separating  the 
hull  from  the  kernel.  This  substitute  f<u'  bread  was 
very  healthy  and  nourishing,  but  we  welcomed  the 
arrival  of  the  Government  cracker,  facetiously  called 
by  the  boys  ^hard-tack'  and  'Lincoln  platforms.^ 
Savannah,  which  on  arrival  we  invested,  was  ditficult 


-•so  THK  ONK  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

«)f  ii|>|iroa«-h,  iioi  tuily  on  artoiiiit  of  its  «lrf»*nsi*s,  ton- 
KiKliii;;  of  viisi  fart li works  ami  forts,  iiiouiittMl  with 
liiilKirinls  of  caiiiioii.  hut  tli<*  rebels  lia<l  tiooded  all  of 
the  laiiW  ap|>roarlies  l»v  iihmiis  of  the  ^real  tlitches 
iuterseetill*;  the  rire  liehls  ill  all  tlireriioiis,  ami  whirh 
hail   heeii   iiiaih*  for  the  purposes  of  irri;;:at ioii.     The. 

opposite  eiuls  of  the  dikes  Were  j:^liai*(le(l  hv  raillioll 
sii|tportetl  hv  iiifaiiliv.  These  dikes  were  oiilv  wide 
eiuMi;;h  for  I  wo  or  I  hree  soldiers  to  travei'st-  at  t  he  saiiu* 
time.  The  One  llnildl'i'd  Mild  l-'olirtli  will  reiiieinher 
w«'ll  its  experieme  Mile  daik  iiiulii  in  line  nf  hai  i  h*.  1 1\  • 
iny:  lo  wade  throii;:h  ihe  flooded  rice  tield  ill  our  from, 
hopin;;  lo  surprise  the  eiieitiy  aiitl  iiiaki*  a  lodgment 
in  their  works.  We  aihaiired  as  sih-iitly  as  pttssilde, 
splashing'  lhroii;;h  the  waier.  Tin*  rebels  hearing:  the 
n«ds««  opened  on  us,  hut  did  no  daiiiaj;e.  Hut  as  tliev 
Were  apprised  of  our  a|»pi-oa(h  we  fell  hark  to  «lrv  land. 
A  few  days  after  I  he  eiiemy  ahaiidoiied  Sa\aiinah  an<l 
with  Im  Hindi  till  Ilea  I'l  s  w«'  look  u))  t  he  line  of  uiairh  into 
the  «ily.       1    have  ne\er  silire   ihell   alleiupled    lo   lead    A 

pokey  horse  hilt  what  1  am  reminded  of  an  imidenr 
that  orriirred  lo  me  while  on  this  marrh.  I  was  pull- 
in;;  aloii;;  a  \f\\  slow  iia;:  hy  the  hiis.  w  Inn  1  was 
hailed  hy  I'hil  Hawk,  of  <'om|iany  (I,  as  follows:  'I 
say,  <'a|t,  why  don't  you  ;;ei  a  sled  and  ha\'e  someihini: 
to  pull?*  We  wi'ie  inieiisely  iiileiested  ill  Saxaiiiiah, 
of  whirh  We  had  heard  so  miith.  <  in  Sunday  many  of 
ns  Went  to  rhiirrh  and  for  ihe  tirsi  lime  since  leavin;; 
home,  heard  inside  a  house  dedicated  lo  the  worship 
of  (iod,  an  oldfashioiietl   sermon.      We  did   not    infer, 

however,  fl-iuil  I  lie  liearliliess  of  our  leci'plion  hy  the 
few  preselil,  ihe  deactilis  aild  paslor,  ihal  lhe\  Wfle 
especiallx  ;:ralitied  hy  our  |ireselice.  Ilavillii  removed 
ram|>  lo  a  new  localil\  we  found  on  dearini:  olT  the 
hriish  ami  trees  that  the  ;;rouinl  oecu|»ied  was  a  mil- 
itary cam])  diirin*:  the  last  war  with  (ireat  l>riiaiii. 
The  rid;;<*s  of  the  coiion  liehls  were  jdaiiily  \isihle, 
tin-re  heili;;  he|e  ||o  flost  to  raise  and  le\el  ihe  i:round. 
The  trees  illl    dow  II  showed    tiftv    liu'js.      The  (  Mn-   lluil- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  281 

dred  and  Fourth  remaiiied  some  time  in  this  camp, 
and  as  it  rained  most  of  the  time  we  welcomed  the 
order  to  march  toward  Richmond." 

Sergeant  Fred  G.  McLain,  of  Company  K,  who  evi- 
dently kept  his  eyes  open  while  on  the  march  through 
Georgia,  thus  pictures  the  home  of  a  "Georgia  cracker" 
living  in  the  "piney  woods"  section  of  the  State,  lie 
says:  "I  will  iioav  describe  to  you  the  homestead  of 
one  of  the  'poor  white  trash.'  I  will  give  it  without 
varnish  and  you  nmy  draw  your  own  conclusions  about 
the  people  and  the  manner  of  living  of  the  great  major- 
ity of  the  chivalry.  As  you  pass  along  the  road  you 
come  to  a  little  clearing  ranging  in  size  from  lialf  an 
acre  to  ten  acres,  according  to  the  tinancial  condition 
of  the  owner.  This  is  planted  in  little  patches  of  cab- 
bage, sweet  potatoes,  corn,  negro  beajis  and  turnips. 
Seldom  does  the  list  differ  from  that  given,  as  the  tastes 
of  the  people  are  very  much  alike.  You  may  see  a 
house  near  by  in  the  timber;  if  not,  follow  that  path 
and  Tou  will  find  one  down  at  the  spring  which  may 
be  half  a  mile  away  from  the  garden.  Around  the  door 
stands  a  family  of  eight  little  towheads,  youngsters  of 
nearly  the  same  age;  before  them  stands  a  little  runt 
of  a  Georgia  co\v,  full  breasted  on  the  back,  with  her 
head  sticking  straight  out,  resembling  a  portable  corn 
crib  with  the  door  wide  open.  Near  her,  tied  to  the 
wheel  of  a  little  one-horse  wagon  made  after  the  pat- 
tern so  much  in  use  in  the  mountains  of  Pennsylvania, 
and  called  by  Uncle  Sam's  'pups'  regular  'schooner- 
fashioned  rockaways,'  stands  a  Georgia  pony  to  match, 
or  in  lieu  thereof,  a  yoke  of  male  corn  cribs  keep  com- 
pany with  the  cow.  In  a  little  pen  in  front  of  the  house, 
or  rooting  in  the  ground  near  by,  will  be  seen  three 
or  four  twenty-pound  slab-sided  porkers  just  as  inde- 
pendent as  their  owner.  There  is  a  shelf  fastened  up 
against  the  side  of  the  house  on  each  side  of  the  door, 
which  the  owner  must  have  made;  in  fact,  I  think  he 
built  the  house,  which  is  of  small  pine  logs,  and  the 
casings  of  the  two  doors  are  fastened  on  with  pegs. 
The  chimnev  is  built  of  sticks  instead  of  bricks  and 


Jtt  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOl'HTH 

j»iH»s  Up  nil  I  In*  oiitsidi*  of  tlu*  Inmsi'.  TIm-  n»«»f  is  iniuk' 
of  rlii|»lMi;ii-.|s  ami  ln-M  «lt»\\  ii  witli  ioiij^  poh's  wliich 
run  a«  loss  tin-  iu«if  fium  um*  si«U*  to  ihr  «>tln'i".  'i'liifi* 
shflvfs  oiitsiili*  of  the  liousr  roiitain  tin*  rnM-korv  waiv 
uwhI  ill  tlic«lairv,  whiih  is  roinposfd  mostly  of  ;:onnls. 
You  sirp  up  to  tin*  «lo<»r  anil  ask  f«»r  a  <lriuk.  The 
ladv  «>f  tlic  liousr  liaihls  vou  a  small  ^MMir<l  wiili  a 
loiij;  trooktMl  liaiKlIt',  and  iiifoniis  vmi  liiai  M  lie  spring 
is  just  Im'Iow.'  Strpplii;:  <lo\\ii  in  \\\v  sprinjjj  you  jjet 
a  \U'\\  tif  tin*  bark  of  tin-  Innisr,  wliitli  is  just  likt*  the 
front,  dirty  as  it  «an  Ik*.  Kcinrnin*;  to  tin-  hous<*  to 
thank  the  lady,  tin*  oppuii  nnity  is  finbratrd  to  cxain- 
iiif  tin*  internal  arran^^'incnts.  In  tin*  cmtrr  of  tin* 
hoiisr  oil  both  sides  is  u  door.  At  oin*  (*inl  is  tin*  tire- 
pla««'  and  on  ••m*  side  of  it  is  a  slab  with  fonr  im*;,^s  in 
it  thai  s«*i\«*s  for  a  kiidnn  table;  on  tin*  oiIht  side  is 
a  (timimni  board  table  to  eat  on.  In  the  other  end 
of  the  house  is  tin*  bed  and  a  loom,  but  in  cast*  there 
are  I  wo  beds,  they  are  pla<'e<l  in  tho  corners  and  the 
loom  stands  on  the  poreh.  There  is  a  baby  «radle  in 
the  middle  <»f  the  floor,  ami  sometimes  iwtt,  wiih  three 
or  four  rhairs  scattered  around  aiiy\vli(*re.  In  con 
clnsi<»n.  I  will  say  that  kittheii,  dining-room,  bed -room 
and  parlor  are  all  in  oin*,  like  the  Irishman's  jtalace." 


CHAPTER  XVIII. 


The   March    Through   the  Carolinas— Battle    of    Averysboro    and 
Bentonville. 


The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  remained  in  Savan- 
nah until  the  19th  of  Jannary,  1865,  occupied  in  vari- 
ous  duties,  such  as  going  on  picket  and  building  breast- 
works, as  the  city  was  to  be  garrisoned  by  General 
Foster's  command  Avhen  Sherman's  army  resumed  its 
march.  The  continuous  rains  had  prevented  the  on- 
ward movement  that  had  been  initiated  on  the  14th 
by  General  Howard  with  the  Seventeenth  Corps,  on 
Pocotaligo,  S.  C,  twenty-five  miles  distant.  This  place, 
an  important  strategic  point  at  the  time,  was  seized 
and  held  with  a  loss  of  only  ten  men.  General  Slocum 
had  also  crossed  the  river  with  two  divisions.  Thus 
the  army  had  begun  to  impinge  on  the  sacred  soil  of 
South  Carolina,  the  state  that  our  soldiers  had  always 
desired  to  visit,  regarding  it  truly  as  the  birthplace 
of  the  rebellion  and  the  home  of  the  most  virulent 
rebels  in  all  the  South.  The  same  causes  that  delayed 
Sherman  operated  in  favor  of  the  rebels  by  giving 
them  time  to  collect  the  scattered  fragments  of  their 
armies;  to  enforce  a  rigid  conscription  which  embraced 
everything  capable  of  bearing  arms,  except  their  slaves, 
from  the  cradle  to  the  grave;  and  to  concentrate  the 
heterogeneous  elements  before  Sherman.  It  therefore 
became  the  latter's  policy,  as  usual,  to  deceive  the 
enemy  by  the  exercise  of  his  favorite  weapon — strategy. 
Beauregard,  Bragg  and  Hardee  were  all  in  South  T'ar- 
olina  watching,  and  endeavoring  to  ascertain  the  prob- 
able object  of  Sherman's  first  attack.  It  might  be 
Augusta,  Charleston,  or  Columbia,  but  they  were  kept 
in  doubt  until  the  Union  coluiuns  were  ready  to  strike 
in  any  one  of  the  three  directions  with  equal  facility 
and  certainty  of  success.     Pending  the  resumjition  of 


»i  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

active  i>|MTalions  tin*  rdtcls  iiuiuo\t«l  tin-  liiiM-  in 
i»l)sii-iiriiii;i  i»N  far  as  inissilili-  tin*  roatls  ^H\  Slicriaairs 
KUppustMl  liin's  «)f  advaiHf,  rvidcnilv  not  «*v»*n  yet 
uiulerstamliii;;  that  ShernuiirM  ai-niy  knew  how  to  luiihl 
roads  in  apparently  th«*  most  iinpossihh*  phucs.  Said 
a  relirl  sohlier  to  tht*  writer  on  this  p<»int  :  "It  Sh«'i- 
niaiTs  ai'niy  had  •4;one  to  hrll  and  wanted  to  nian-ii 
over  and  th»M-e  was  no  othiT  way,  tliey  woidd  roi-dni-oy 
it  and  inareli  on."  This  man.  who  was  a  fain«ui8  rebel 
srotit  and  ti«:htri\  as  I  had  h'arned.  mad(»  the  I'emark 
wit  h  a  prifiM-t  randoi- 1  hat  impirssed  as  \n  ell  as  amused 
me.  Anoihef  lehel  sohlief  having  sn^j^esteil  at  one 
time  that  a  lailioad  tunnel  should  be  blown  u|)  a  eom- 
rade  i-e]died,  "That  will  do  no  p>od;  SluTinan  rarries 
a  duplieale  tunnel  in  his  jtocUet."  Ilowevel-,  the  fatt 
leiuains  that  the  rebels  who  had  for  nearly  a  year  wit- 
nessed the  continuous  onward  inarth  of  iln-  riiiou 
armies  tinder  Sherman,  first  to  Atlanta,  ami  iImmi  Io 
Savannah,  be^^an  to  think  there  was  no  obstacle  lou 
;:reat  for  them  to  surmount.  And  ii  was  oidy  by  the 
most  frantic  and  «*xtreme  measures  on  the  part  of  the 
rel)el  jjeiierals  that  t  lu-  semblam  c  nf  an  army  w  as  raised 
in  these  last  days  of  i  he  war  for  the  purpose  of  pio- 
lon;:inj:  what  the  leaders  knew  was  the  death  stru^^- 
^le  of  their  rause.  Drowiiiui:  mmmi  willtatehat  straws. 
On  the  JMh  of  .January  the  rare  ot  Sa\aiiuali  was 
turned  iiMT  lit  (ieiieral  I''oster.  wim  pre|»aied  !<•  gar- 
rison it  with  a  di\isioti  fnun  \iiLiiiiia  cnmuiaiidtd  by 
<  ieueral  <  iro\  t-r. 

The  ( Mie  Hundred  ami  l''o\irlh  received  marching; 
orders  on  t  he  |*.li  h  and  proceeded  to  pack  up.  The  IMM  h 
o|M'ned  u|)  rainy,  but  the  jie^inienl  turned  its  bark 
on  Savannah  at  eh-veii,  and  wended  ils  way  ahui;:  t  he 
west  bank  «»f  the  Savannah  lii\er  toward  Sister's 
Ferry,  wheiv  Sherman  pni|iitsed  in  cross  a  part  of  his 
army,  .\fter  a  wet.  loilsouic  march  of  ei^hi  miles  it 
camped  in  the  wouds.  <'ourtri^ht  says:  **\\  »•  lay  down 
to  sleep  at  nine,  but  awoke  at  iuidni;:ht  dr«»w  ned  out . 
There  Were  three  inches  of  water  in  our  i«'n!,  and  also 
in  the  icuis  of  i.ih.is.     (heiiiiire,  .Marian   and   m\self. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  285 

liaviug  procured  some  wet  wood,  succeeded  utter  iiiucli 
whittling  aud  blowiiig  iii  starting  a  tire  by  wliicli  we 
dried  our  clothing,  lu  the  moruing  felt  cross  aiid  stift'." 
Owiiig  to  coiistaut  raiii,  the  iiext  three  days  were  speiit 
at  this  camp  aud  corduroy  roads  built  for  our  trains. 
The  24th  was  cold,  causiug  one  of  the  boys  to  remark 
that  "glory  was  a  good  thing  to  cover  one's  self  with, 
but  not  so  warm  as  a  bhiuket."  The  Regiment  moved 
a  short  distance  to  higher  ground.  The  weather  being 
clearer  on  the  25th  march  was  again  resumed  over 
better  roads,  and  going  sixteen  miles,  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth  camited  in  the  Nick-a-Jack  swamp, 
tired  and  hungry.  The  2(Uh  was  rainy,  but  the  uuirch 
was  continued  for  ten  miles.  The  roads  Were  again 
bad,  through  a  i)itcli-pine  region  full  of  swamps  and 
needing  to  be  corduroyed.  During  the  halts  tires  were 
made  with  the  pitch  pine  to  dry  the  clothes  of  the  sol- 
diers, which  became  black  and  dirty  from  the  smoke. 
On  account  of  the  delay  occasioned  by  bad  roads  only 
half  a  mile  was  made  on  the  27th.  Passing  through 
Springfield  on  the  28th  and  crossing  the  Ebeueezer 
River,  a  halt  was  made  after  going  eight  miles.  Sis- 
ter's Ferry  was  reached  on  the  29th  and  the  Regiment 
went  into  camp,  remaining  until  February  4th  on 
account  of  high  water  in  the  river  and  swamps,  mak- 
ing pontooning  and  much  corduroying  necessary.  On 
the  latter  date  the  river  was  crossed  and  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth  invaded  the  sacred  soil  of  South  Car- 
olina. A  camp  was  made  near  the  steamboat  landing, 
where  rations  and  clothing  were  distributed  to  the  men 
during  the  5th. 

The  entire  army,  then  engaged  in  the  endeaA'or  to 
escape  from  the  swamps  and  floods  of  the  low  coun- 
try in  its  immediate  front,  was  constituted  as  follows: 
The  right  wing,  of  the  Fifteenth  Corps,  General  John 
A.  Logan,  and  the  Seventeenth  Corps,  General  Blair. 
The  left  wing,  of  the  Fourteenth  C<irps,  General  Davis; 
the  Twentieth,  General  Williams;  the  cavalry  division 
of  General  Kilpatrick,  and  Corse's  division,  tempo- 
rarily attached.     The  aggregate  force  Avas  ()0,0T9  men 


tM  THE  ONK  HLNl>ia:U  AM>  K« -l  KTH 

of  ihf  ihitf  anus,  iiifaiun.  aiiilN  rv  and  lavalrv.  Tlic 
w  a^iMi  iraiiiK  iiu«l  aniiiials  iiiiiubcr<Ml  tin*  saint*  as  «»ii  llit* 
iiianh  fn»iii  Atlanta.  Tlioiv  was  foiajje  f»u*  seveu  ilays 
and  pruNisinns  fur  iwmtv.  Tin*  artillnv  anionntrd  t«> 
hixt vfij^lit  j;uns.  That  »»f  tin*  Fi»uii»MMit li  (\u|>s  was 
iu  chargi*  of  Major  riiarU*s  lloii;:liialin«;:  laftiMward 
<MMi«'ral|  of  Ottawa.  Frw  will  ever  ft»rj;«'t  him,  with 
his  Ion*;:  i'<i|  hair  han^^in^  down  on  his  shonldns  in 
t-nrlv  hnks.  Thr  rnnnv's  infant  rv  »MrM|>i«*d  thr  Mm- 
<»f  tin*  Salki'hatrhir  Kivt-r,  while  \\h««-l«i's  »avah\\ 
liovcr«Ml  around  \\n*  hea<ls  and  flanks  nf  uui-  colnnins. 
Till*  ri;:ht  inoviMl  at  onrr  to  l»n*ak  thr  rrlud  liin*  and 
soon  rlMssrd  tlo'  liviT  ill  tin*  farr  of  inilrll  opposit  i<»n, 
lint  iiti  lM*avv  fj«ihtiii;;.  .Mt*antinn*  tin*  h*ft  wiii;^  was 
toilin;;  ahmj^  fr«nii  Sistn's  F«*rrv.  drlayrd  liy  rain, 
mud  aind  ronstanl  riiiihirux  in^.  Its  mux  riiM-ni  :i|i- 
|M'ariM|  as  a  thifai  tn  Anj^usta  whih*  tin-  uhjcniNr  was 
<'<dninl)ia.  Thr  lalirr,  with  < 'harlrsion,  stood  in  rtpiai 
daii;:rr  of  a  visit  from  Shrrman,  and  thr  rrbri  ;;rn- 
rials  wrrr  hrld  ill  niirrrtaiiity.  On  thr  7th  thr  rii:ht 
rrarhr«l  thr  railroad  iradiny:  fiom  <  "harlrston  !••  Am- 
;:nsta,  and  i-xprrtrd  to  tind  this  inipurlant  linr  strnnt;ly 
drfriidrd,  loit  it  w  as  not.  and  lakin;::  possession,  How- 
ard's inrli  prorrrdrd  lo  irai'  up  :ind  <lrsn-o\  1  hr  rails 
and  tirs.  This  was  doin*  for  a  distaiicr  of  Ijfty  iiiiirs 
in  thr  most  toniplrlr  mannrr.  <i<*nrral  Howard  rrlairs 
that  whilr  ap|*roarhiii^^  thr  railroad  in  linr  of  batilr 
rxjMMtin;:  a  Ji^'ht,  hr  saw  a  man  coiiir  frarinj;  toward 
him  oil  a  whilr  horsr  ;;ni<lrd  Ity  a  ropr  hriillr.  Thr 
tjriirral  lr(o;;nizrd  liiiii  as  olir  of  his  "fora^^rrs."  .\s 
hr  rainr  nrar  hr  ralird  out,  "llnrrv  up,  Cirnrral.  wr 
liavr  ;;ot  thr  railroad."  It  is  hardly  iinrssary  to  say 
that  iJriirral  Howard  was  both  snrprisrd  and  «::rati- 
tird.  Hy  thr  *Mh  thr  Irft  winiT  Imd  r«>mr  into  linr  at 
Itarnwrll  and  virinily. 

Thr  t  »nr  Ihindrrd  and  I'ourili.  Iraviii;,^  ramp  on  thr 
<llh,  man-hrd  trn  iiiiirs,  four  of  which  was  thronjxh  a 
Mwamp  whirh  had  brrii  rordnioyrd.  Soon  aftrr  noon 
thr  Kr^'immt  passrd  ihroiij^h  Kobrrtsvillr,  bnt  thr 
town   had   brrii   biiriird   b\    troops  in   llir  aihanrr.      It 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  287 

raiued  very  hard  aDd  a  halt  was  made  fur  the  iiij^ht 
near  the  fm-ks  of  the  Orangebury  lioad.  The  storm 
continued  all  of  the  7th,  but  the  Kegiment  marched 
ten  miles,  often  stopping  to  remove  the  trees  which 
the  enemy  had  felled  across  the  road.  It  did  not  take 
long  to  clear  these  away  and  going  on  the  Regiment 
camped  after  dark  at  Lawtonville.  This  ]dace  had  also 
been  burned,  A  part  of  the  Brigade  became  lost  in  a 
swamp  and  did  not  reach  camp  until  late.  The  8th 
was  spent  at  Lawtonville,  and  foragers  being  sent  out, 
returned  with  an  abundance  of  forage,  hams,  uKdasses, 
potatoes  and  peas.  Leaving  camp  at  seven  (j'clock  on 
the  9th  the  Regiment  made  a  long  march  of  twenty 
miles  and  halted  at  Mathew's  Bluff.  Starting  eaily 
on  the  lUth  night  found  the  command  near  Barnw»'ll 
Court  House,  The  foragers  came  in  loaded  with  sup- 
plies, showing  that  something  besides  hell  could  be 
raised  in  South  Carolina,  though  from  the  numerous 
coutlagrations  along  the  way  that  much  talked  of  place 
might  be  supposed  to  have  its  location  there.  Lelaud 
says  of  the  11th:  "We  marched  through  Barnwell, 
which  was  being  destroyed,  and  camped  at  a  saw  mill, 
having  made  eighteen  miles.  As  we  passed,  a  man 
who  was  trying  to  keep  the  tire,  then  burning  his  house, 
from  spreading  to  the  fences  and  buildings,  one  of  the 
boys  asked  him  how  his  house  caught  tii'e.  Rather  cool.'' 
The  different  corps  moved  in  near  connecticm  on  the 
11th,  the  Seventeenth  striking  for  Orangeburg,  an 
important  place,  which,  when  secured,  the  communica- 
tion between  Charleston  and  Columbia  would  be  sev- 
ered. The  division  of  General  Gile.s  A.  Smith  entered 
the  town  and  found  several  houses  burning  which  had 
been  set  on  tire  before  the  arrival  of  our  men.  The 
tire  was  put  out.  A  large  building  tilled  with  orphan 
children  sent  from  Charleston  was  given  protection  by 
General  Sherman,  The  depot  was  burned  and  rail- 
road destroyed.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fouith  marched 
on  the  12th  to  White  Pond  Station  and  beyond,  destroy- 
ing its  allotment  of  railroad  (the  Charleston  and  Au- 
gusta).   This  road  was  wh(dlv  ruined  to  within  twelve 


2M 


'NE  HUNDKK 


FOVKTH 


iliih's  of  Aii;;usia.  (iriuTal  .sininian  on  ihe  coiiijiN'- 
tioii  of  tlu*  uork  (lirr<-t«Ml  liis  aniiv  toward  ('ohmihia. 
lliK  iiiovfiiu'iits  thus  far  had  bmi  so  t'oiifiisin*^  lliat 
the  rt'hfl  pMuTals  kiu'w  not  whfiv  t«)  nuM't  liini.  How- 
ever, lh«*v  rvidiMillv  thon^^ht  hr  would  not  fail  ti*  stiikt* 
Cliarh'stoii  and  |ii«'|iaiMMl  to  nMriv»*  him  thrir,  as  th«*\ 
«li(I  also  at  Au;:usta.  lint  thcv  (ouhl  not  tlicn  i  on- 
centrate  a  heavy  fon-r  at  any  jioiul.  <'oluuibia  was 
h»ft  uiipuiided  «'xc«iti  l»y  \\  ad<'  I  lani|tt  oil's  and  Hut- 
ler's  ravaln. 

On  tin*  loih  of  Fi'hruary  the  <  Mi«-  Ihindn-d  and 
Foiirtii  niaD-iicd  to  ihr  south  )ii:in<  h  of  th<*  IMisto 
Hiv»T,  airivin;;  ihciT  ai  iioom.  In  ih*-  afternoon  t  ht* 
lv«';:iMi»'nt  riossctl  o\ri-  and  ;^oin;;  iiv<*  ndh's  caniiMMl 
at  llulhii-d's  .Mills.  TIm'  men  dirw  thr«M*  days'  rations 
hen*.  whi<h,  with  what  was  «li-aw'u  fi-oin  the  rountiy 
for  tw«*iily  niih's  on  «arh  sidr,  assni-rd  them  a;;ainst 
the  daiiiirr  of  starvation.  Tin'  foraj^ns,  rallril  "Imm- 
nn-rs,"  k»*|»i  tin*  whoh*  army  w«'ll  siij»pli»'d  wiih  all  tin* 
ronuti-y  alToiilrd.  (  Mio  day  a  itaiiy  of  them  xisiiin;;  a 
plantation,  proriMMh-d  to  |c\y  on  the  poultry,  pork, 
rows,  «'ir.  rinally  they  canK*  t<i  tin*  small  ont-huild- 
in;:  usrd  for  smokiny;  hams.  This  was  localt-d  on  the 
sidr  of  a  hill,  and  «'nt«Min;:  from  tin*  iii>im'I-  sid*',  tln-ir 
t*a;;«*r  «'Nrs  diioctrd  upward,  w  line  a  lot  of  hams  hun^j^ 
on  the  raftrrs,  thry  did  moi  uoijt*'  ihc  loos*'  planks  in 
tlir  floor,  <  Mh*  of  the  hoys,  sicppiiij^  tin  llu*  rnd  of  om* 
of  t  lu'Sf,  was  um«'r«*moniously  jutrhcd  into  tin*  ««'llar, 
fallin;:  into  a  ho;;shrad  of  s<»r;;huni,  and  t h('r«*aft<*r  was 
ralird  hy  that  nanu'.  Whet  ln*r  our  ;;ay  "Iniminrr"  was 
nMidcrt'd  any  swe«*ier  in  person  and  disposition  l>y  the 
novrl  hath,  d<'|M»n«Mit  saith  not.  Kains  lurxaih-d  on 
till*  14th,  hut  the  <)n«'  Hundred  and  l-'ourth  made  a 
iiianh  of  twenty-one  miles,  crossinj;  durin<r  the  day  ih«' 
north  hramh  of  the  Kdisto  Kiv«*r.  .\t  ni^dit  a  halt  was 
made  at  t  he  W'ateree  I'errv  t  'ross  Koads.  ninetoon  miles 
from  t'oliimhia.  The  w  hoh»  army  was  now  ron\eru:in<r 
on  that  rity.  the  rapilal  of  the  State,  and  met  with  no 
^piMisition  rxre|>t  fnuu  ravalry.  Tli.-  ( Mie  Hundred 
and    I'ourlh.    marehin;:    until   foui-  jt.   in.  of  ilu-   iriih. 


REGIMENT  IL,LINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  289" 

halted,  and  while  preparing  the  bivouar,  expecting 
to  remain  all  night,  received  an  order  to  niarcli  to  Lex- 
ington Conrt  House.  This  ]>hice  Mas  reached  at  eleven 
and  the  rest  of  the  night  spent  there.  During  the  day 
a  few  men  were  captured  by  incautiously  venturing 
too  far  away  from  our  lines,  among  them  Lieutenant 
Chaunell,  of  Battery  C,  The  Regiment  acted  as  l*ro- 
vost  Guard  in  Lexington  until  noon  of  the  Kith.  It 
then  resumed  the  march  and  guarded  a  train  to  the 
Saluda  Kiver,  Here  the  rest  of  the  Brigade  Avas  found. 
Going  one  mile  further  the  command  bivouacked  in  the 
swamp  until  the  morning  of  the  17th,  when,  starting 
again,  Rockville  Postoffice  was  passed,  and  having 
nuirched  ten  miles,  a  halt  was  made  at  Spring  Hill 
until  the  10th.  The  canij)  was  in  a  cedar  grove  and  an 
im]>r(>venu'nt  on  many  previous  ones.  General  Sher- 
man says  in  his  '^Memoirs"  that  on  the  16th  he  camped 
near  the  old  prison  camp  opposite  Columbia,  known 
as  "Camp  Sorghum,"  where  he  saw  the  remains  of  the 
mud  hovels  and  holes  made  by  our  men  when  prison- 
ers. Possibly  he  may  have  observed  the  one  built  by 
the  writer.  This  "pen"  was  situated  about  three  miles 
from  the  city,  across  the  river.  The  Seventeenth  Corps 
arrived  there  on  the  16th  and  camped  on  the  bank  of 
the  river.  The  Fifteenth  Corps  was  four  miles  above. 
The  left  wing  of  the  army  was  directed  to  turn  north 
again.  On  the  ITth  the  Fifteenth  crossed  the  Broad 
River  on  a  pontoon  bridge  and  occupied  Columbia.. 
Generals  Sherman,  Howard  and  Logan  accompanied 
the  column.  Hampton's  cavalry  had  retired,  but  before 
leaving  had  set  fire  to  a  quantity  of  cotton,  and  from 
there  the  fire  spread,  aided  by  a  verv'  high  wind,  until 
before  the  next  morning  eighty  squares  of  buildings 
in  the  heart  of  the  city  had  been  consumed.  Our  sol- 
diers under  Howard's  orders  assisted  in  the  endeavor 
to  stop  the  flames,  but  without  avail.  It  was  asserted 
for  a  long  time  that  the  soldiers  fired  the  city,  but  this 
was  proven  to  be  untrue  in  the  "cotton  investigations" 
later.  While  in  the  city  several  of  our  escaped  pris- 
oners who  had  been  confined  there  waited  on  General 


M9  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

Shci'iiiaii,  iiiiioii;;  MilnTs  Adjutant  liyt'i's,  Nvhi»s«'  faimius 
hMii;;  Slifi'iiiaii  llnMisaw  for  tlir  lii-st  tiiiii*,  and  ihrirsult 
>\"iisthat  he  altarhiil  the  Li(Mit<Mianl  t<»  liis  Staff,  wlicr*' 
In*  n'hiaiiKMl  until  I'avrttrvilh'  was  I't-aclird.  Hy«*rs 
was  t  luMi  SIMM  to  \\  asliin^iion  as  a  ln-arn-  of  «lispat«h«'s. 
I)nrin«:  lh«*  isth  and  I'.Mli  tin-  stat«*  arsrnal.  with  vast 
«|nantiti('s  nf  shot  and  shell,  was  drstroyiMJ,  also  many 
fonndrics  and  nia«hin«*  sJiojis.  <'olnnilda  was  rrdnct'd 
to  a  stiiti*  of  iMiin  l>y  tlir  L'Oih  and  Sonih  <'ai'o|ina  had 
by  this  t  inn*  irali/.fd  soim-  ol  i  he  fiiiiJs  of  srcrssion  and 
r«*lH'llioii.  Tin*  ri^iii  win;:  thru  Ih^;iii  fhc  niarrh 
toward  N\'innsl(oio.  As  onr  rcsnli  of  Shfinian's 
niovrnn*nts  < 'liaih'sion.  which  had  Immmi  ahh*  in  irpcl 
«*\rrv  attack,  was  ••va«iiatrd  on  tin*  listh  (►f  I'diniaiy 
by  Hard***',  ami  ai  onrc  orrnpicd  l»y  (irncral  l'i»shM's 
troops.  toMirral  llaidfo  hast«*n«*d  uiih  his  furccs  to 
N'oiih  ('arolina  lo  <^('\  ahead  of  Sherman's  rojiinms. 
Alioni  this  lime  (ieiieial  .lose|di  K.  .lohnston,  w  ho  had 
been  abnsed  ami  mistreated  by  President  dtlT.  l)a\is, 
was,  in  tin*  new  and  threatenin<;  stale  of  (onfederaie 
affairs,  called  lo  i  In*  command  of  all  tin*  forces  in  Soul  h 
and  North  t'aiolina,  as  the  only  relM*l  i:eneral  capable 
of  accomplishing:  anything  a;:ainsi  Sherman's  vicio- 
rions  aiiiiy.  Thns  the  main  jtait  of  Sherman's  army 
faiiltMl  to  sec  rohimbia.  hm  undei-  oidei-s  marched 
toward  W'innsbopo.  Tin-  one  Ihimlicd  ami  I'oiirih 
Icavin;;  camp  on  the  P.Uh,  ciossj'd  the  i.road  Ki\«'i-  at 
Threshley's  Mill  and  bivouacked  at  (libson's  Meeiin;: 
IIouKe.  Alex.  <'4»yle,  of  t'oinpaiiy  10,  bill  dciailed  al 
regimental  head<pmrii*i's,  and  who  had  been  sent  iinl 
fora^nn;:,  came  in  with  ti\e  tine  mules  ami  four  horses. 
A  soldier  of  t  ho  l]i;:hlyei^hi  h  Indiana  w  as  accideiiially 
nliot  here.  ( )n  t  he  LMH  h  t  he  Ue^imeiit  broke  cam  Jt  before 
HimrJKe  and  inarchin;:  six  miles  crossed  l.iiile  |{i\ei- 
and  bivouacked  at  I'beiiee/er  <'lMirch.  Iler**  tapiain 
Koss,  who  ha<l  been  sent  out  with  a  |tarty  of  f«>ra;:ers, 
rame  into  camp  in  the  evenin;;,  brin^iii;;  anion;;  other 
thin^K  Keveii  innles  and  a  span  of  horses  attached  to  a 
HilverinoniiljMl  carriap-.  in  which  was  pack<'d  away 
lianis  and   shoulders.  •  The   Ke;:iiiieiii ,    supplied     wiili 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  291 

about  thirty  i)a(k  mules,  started  the  next  iiioriiiiig  well 
loaded  with  sii})i)lies  and  all  were  in  a  happy  mood. 
Lelaiul  leiiiarks  in  rejj^ard  to  the  21st:  "Crossed  the 
Little  Wateree  KivcM*  and  reached  ^\'innshoro  at  noon, 
in  time  for  dinner.  Before  our  arrival  a  milliner  in 
i(»\vn,  declaring-  that  the  Yankees  should  not  get  her 
stock  of  gooils,  set  them  on  tire,  and  a  strong  wind  blow- 
ing, the  entire  city  was  soon  in  flames.  In  the  after- 
noon Ave  marched  Ave  miles  to  White  (Jak  drove,  on 
the  railroad,  and  camped  after  a  march  of  seventeen 
miles."  Courtright  says:  "The  foraging  on  the  21st 
was  gt)od.  The  foragers  brought  in  besi<les  the  usual 
suj)plies,  a  lot  of  tobacco  and  wine.  Of  the  latter  smuk^ 
of  the  b<>ys  had  too  much  for  their  own  good.'"  From 
Winnsboro  the  right  wing*  was  deflected  toward  Che- 
raw  and  Fayetteville,  North  Carolina.  The  left  wing 
moved  for  Eocky  M(uint,  preceded  by  the  cavalry.  (Jn 
the  22d  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  broke  camp  be- 
fore sunrise  and  passing  through  Youngstown  reached 
Blackstock  on  the  railroad,  and  stopping  long  enough 
to  destroy  five  hundred  yards  (its  allotment)  mov(Hl 
to  the  main  Chesterfield  road  and  camped.  Marching- 
early  on  the  23d  past  Gladden's  Grove  to  Kooky  Mount, 
fourteen  miles,  a  halt  was  made  just  in  time  to  pitch 
the  "pui)"  tents  before  the  rain,  which  had  been  threat- 
ened all  day,  came  down  in  torrents.  This  continued 
all  night  and  the  whole  of  the  24:tli  and  25th,  obliging 
the  army  to  remain  in  camp.  Leland  says  concerning 
the  event  of  the  26th:  "The  Brigade  moved  down  to 
the  Catawba  River  and  camped  at  the  mouth  of  liocky 
Mount  Creek.  Xick  McCormick,  of  Company  B,  came 
in  at  night  with  his  left  wrist  shattered,  and  reported 
the  foraging  detail  that  had  been  sent  out  in  the  morn- 
ing all  captured.  He  escaped  by  swimming  Fishing 
Creek  after  being  wounded.  The  party  was  as  follows: 
Captain  W.  C.  Ross  and  John  Mellon,  of  Company  B; 
William  Buckley,  Company  A;  C.  G.  Phillips,  Company 
D;  C.  Brock,  Company  F;  J.  H.  Misner  and  J.  C.  Carues, 
Company  G;  W.  Lakin,  Company  1;  M.  B.  Bushnell, 
Company  K.     On  the  27th  Major  Widmer,  command- 


»2 


THK  «>NK  HI.'NIJHKD  ANI»  Fol'RTH 


in;:  iln*  <  Mir  1 1 II  III  I  r«M  I  ami  F»  Mirth,  was  sciii  i»in  l>v  (  u-n- 
I'lal  llMbari  willi  tin*  K«*;;iiin'ii!  it»  ft»ia;;«' ami  limit  for 
tin*  jiartv.  It  was  IrariuMl  that  tin*  f«>raM;,.|-s  lia<l  lM«n 
('a|>tiii*(i|  at  Stnuhl's  .Mill  uu  Fisliiii;;  ( 'rrrU."  Tlic  iiaiii*' 
of  .lohii  K.  .MtMiitt,  of  (\iiii|taiiy  II,  who  rs(a)MM|  with 
.M<  < 'oiiiiitk.  shoiihl  Im'  a«M«M|  to  the  al>o\r.  Tin*  (  Mi«' 
Ihiiitlrrtl  a  IK  I  Foil  It  h,  w  hit*'  tuii  on  this  «'\iKMlitioii,  did 
Jiot  stM*  tlu'ir  (-aptiii'cd  <  omi  adis,  Init  t*iu*«niiilcrtMl  pliiii  y 
of  rclM*!  tavalrv  and  tlid  sonir  skiiiiiishiii;:.  Imt  the  lai- 
t«T  did  Hot  ran*  to  a|tpioa«li  too  iirar  t  iu-  sii|M'rioi-  i  ith*s 
of  our  I  toys.  ( 'a  plain  St  i  au  n  rdatrs  t  In*  follow  in;^  iiiri- 
dt'iit  that  otiincd:  "A  'roniiart'  sii!-;:«'on  who  hid 
UctMiiiipaiiit'd  IIS  ariidi-niaijy  ;:oi  lM-i\\«fii  our  mmii  and 
tin*  irltrls.  Itcroiiiiii;;  |ta  iiic-st  lickrii  In-  niadf  a  dash 
for  tin*  KouinnMit  and  nsin;;  his  spurs  nioio  than  hi-; 
«*vrs,  ran  his  hoisr  into  a  ditch  and  was  pit(  lied  lM*a<l- 
lon;:  into  tin*  r<M|  nnid,  hfini:  lomph'trly  jdastrird  with 
it.  ('atchiii;:  his  horse  an<l  |»itkiii;L'  n|»  his  ai<Miin»' 
iiMMils  In*  taiiM*  toward  lis  as  if  all  Wlifflfi's  caxaJry 
was  at  his  In-fjs.  Mis  haste  and  coniicaj  appoaram-e 
canscd  all  in  laii;:h,  thoM;:h  he  himself  failed  to  s<»e 
wln-re  I  In*  fiiii  came  in." 

The  incessant  and  liea\y  rains  had  so  swollen  the 
<  'at  aw  ha  t  hat  t  he  |>ontoon  lirid;;e  <  oiild  not  he  anchore<l, 
in  fact  had  heeii  carried  away,  and  the  whole  I'oiir- 
teeiiih  Cttrps  remained  is«>laied  on  i  he  wesi  i>aiik  iiiiiil 
the  2Sth.  The  Twentieth  Torps,  lioweNcr,  had  critssed 
iM'foie  the  Ineak,  and  was  then  in  advance  at  llan;:iii;r 
liock,  in  «amp.  The  Ke;;iim*nt  crossed  the  ri\er  in  the 
afternoon  of  the  I'Sjh.  ('ajMain  Sti-awti  nieniions  i  he 
followiii;:  cinioiis  event:  "While  on  our  way  fo  ihe 
pontoon  we  came  across  one  of  those  rude  rail  pens 
hnill  after  the  fashion  of  smh  structures  in  the  hack- 
wimmIk  to  k«M'p  1ioh;s  from  disiiiihiuu  .i:r;i\es.  Ai  liisi 
we  supposed  that  some  man  had  lou;:h(  his  last  li;:ht 
and  was  Imiied  there,  hut  on  close  inspection,  an  oliicer 
was  fftiind  to  he  lyin;;  <ui  to|i  of  the  ;;rouiid  dead 
driiiik.  Who  he  was,  <u'  how  Ioul:  he  had  heeii  iheie 
hefole  he  hecniiie  conscious,   we  ne\er  learned." 

The  (  Mie  1 1  Mildred  a  lid  I'ouii  li  on  Maicli  1st  i:  nan  led 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  293 

the  train  throiijih  to  Hanging  Rook  and  were  much 
dehijed  by  bad  roads,  only  fourteen  miles  being  accom- 
plished. The  Fifteenth  and  Seventeenth  Corps  reached 
(jheraw.  On  the  2d  the  liegiment  after  going  half  a 
mih'  halted  until  nine,  and  then  moving  forward 
marched  fourteen  miles  to  Wharton's  tavern.  The 
roads  Avere  so  bad  as  to  make  constant  corduroying 
necessary.  The  advance  forces  on  entering  C'lu'ster- 
tiehl  skirmished  with  liutler's  cavalry.  Tiie  forMgers 
wei'e  not  successful  in  ol>taiuing  anything.  (Jeneral 
Sherman  here  learned  that  Hardee  had  retreated  across 
the  Great  Pedee  Kiver.  Cheraw,  occupied  by  Uo^^  ard, 
was  found  to  be  full  of  rebel  su]>])lies  of  all  kiiuls. 
Among  these  were  t\v<Mity-f()ur  cannon,  two  thousand 
muskets,  and  thirty-six  hundred  barrels  of  gunpowder. 
The  peojile  of  Charleston  had  also  sent  their  valuable 
hcnisehold  goods  to  Cheraw  for  suppose<l  safety,  but 
probably  soon  realized  that  nothing  was  safe  from 
Sherman's  army.  Among  their  numerous  assets  were 
many  cases  of  the  finest  old  Madeira,  which  were  duly 
taken  care  of  and  distributed.  General  Sherman  gives 
the  following  interesting  colhxjuy  between  himself  and 
a  negro  on  the  way  to  Cheraw.  The  General  asked: 
''What  road  is  this?  "Him  lead  to  Cheraw,  master!" 
"Is  it  a  good  road,  and  how  far?"  "A  very  good  road, 
and  eight  or  ten  miles."  "Any  guerrillas?"  "Oh,  no, 
master,  <ley  is  gone  tAVo  days  ago;  you  could  have 
played  cards  on  der  coat-tails,  dey  was  in  sich  a  hurry!" 
On  the  3d  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  encountered 
the  worst  roads  it  had  yet  seen,  but  toiled  slowly  along 
in  the  rain,  halting  at  noon  near  Oxhaw  for  dinner. 
Crossing  Lynch  Creek  and  moving  on  the  camp  was 
reached  at  Blackleys  after  a  march  of  fourteen  miles. 
On  the  4th  the  Regiment  marched  fifteen  miles  and 
during  the  day  crossed  the  state  line  into  North  Car- 
olina. Foraging  poor.  Here  General  Sheruuin  issued 
an  order  to  the  army  calling  upon  all  to  be  mwlerate 
in  North  Carolina  in  their  foraging-  and  treatment  of 
the  people,  who  had  been  forced  into  the  rebellion 
against  the  will  of  the  majority.     He  theref(^e  relied 


m  THE  t>NE  Hl'NDKED  AND  FOIHTH 

U|M>ii  tln'  Koldicis  lit  slniw  iln-  |Mi.|il.-  <if  iIh-  Siiiic  ili:il 
thfv  liiiii  i-fsptMi  for  tluMii  ami  \v«ml«l  takt*  «iul\  siuli 
supplirs  as  wt'H'  lUMi'Ssarv  for  siil>Kisi«Mir«'.  h  is  Im*- 
lif\r«l  that  tln'onlrr  was  oIm«v<m1  jirriiv  i:<in  r;ill\ .  (Mi 
ilir  r»ili  ili«-<>iir  lluinlnMl  ami  Fourth  iiiairlu'tl  in  rrar 
of  llir  ("••rps  to  within  oim*  au«l  a  half  iiiih-s  of  tin* 
<ir«*at  TtMltM'  Kivcr.  ainl  i-«'iiiaiiHM|  in  *Miiip  until  the 
"ill,  waitin^^  ft»r  tin*  pontoon  to  In-  laiil.  This  ln-i«lp' 
was  thiown  at  K«'u:«'iit's  l'«'ii_\.  uiuf  Miih>  alioNr  < 'In- 
law, and  roiisistftl  of  foitv-luo  |>ontoon  hoats,  four  of 
whirh  w«*f«'  \\a;ion  hoxrs  tovcimmI  with  ranvas.  <  Mi 
till'  7tli  tin*  Kr^^inuMit  ifossrd  the  INmNm'  at  on<*  o\hMk, 
iiiairlnMl  foi-  awliilf  towani  UocUin^ihani,  tln-n  taking 
I  hr  I'a  v«'t  tr\  illf  io;n|  t  hioii^ili  t  In-  piin-  \N  ootis  to  .la  to!  is'. 
ranijMMl  for  tlir  nii^dit,  liavinj;  rovcifil  ilfictn  iiiih's 
hrtwi'cn  ten  ami  six  o'riork.  IJut  tin*  i«M<»rtl  of  the  Sth 
hrat  all  pirN  ioiis  ones.  LrlamI  savs:  "\\ f  start<M|  at 
six  a.  III.  ami  lialtrd  for  diiim-r  at  «'l«*v«'n  a.  in.,  Iiavinj; 
inanhrd  tiftmi  inih-s  in  liv«'  Imnis,  which  «*lirit«'t|  tin' 
miiaik  fioin  (o'ln-i-al  Slicnnaii,  who  was  with  our  rol 
niiin,  t  hat  "it  wastln-d  st  inarrhin;:  I  «-v»-r  saw  ."  Itut 
w««  had  two  ohjtM-ts  in  vi«*w  ;  liist,  to  ;;ain  tin-  I'aviitc- 
Nilh-  plank  rojnl  lM'foi*«'  the  'rwcntifth  i'tujis  ami  tak«* 
t  he  ad  \  a  mo.  A  ml  second  I  v,  to  |tic\('iii  t  ho  fin'in  v's  cav- 
alrv  fioiii  Imiiiiii;:  I'dm-'s  bridge  o\ci-  howiiinu  rpock. 
\\'«*  accojMplishod  lioih  piirposi's.  Aftci-  diiinci-  wo 
cfossrd  the  clerk  aild  Weill  into  taiiip  at  the  tliiitv- 
foiirth  mile  post  from  I'avet  te\  ille,  having:  inarched 
tNvent\two  miles  throui^h  a  steady  rain  from  the  lime 
of  start  in;;.  "  While  i  he  nne  II  umlreil  and  Fourth  were 
thus  makiiii:  »|uick  time  for  the  "idiject ive,"  <';iptiin 
Stiawn  had  heeii  sent  out  after  «r«»ssine  the  Fedee  in 
roiiimand  of  ;i  lar;;»*  IhmIv  of  foia;;ers  and  directed  to 
march  tow  aids  Jiockin;;liaiii.  llesays:  "I  wasdirected 
to  secure,  if  possilde.  a  lot  of  lloiir.  The  ca\aliy,  as 
usual,  were  ahead,  hut  we  had  m*  tioulde  in  ke«'pin;j: 
up  with  them.  .\t  iii^xht  we  camped  a  few  miles  from 
Kockin;;liam.  The  next  inornini;  we  were  oiT  liriuht 
ami  eail\  for  the  town  and  arrived  in  time  to  see  the 
cavalrv  tU'ivt*  out   s«une  rebel  troo|>ers.     <  )f  course  our 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  295 

cavalry  gobbled  most  of  the  Hour  and  left  us  scant 
pickings.  Wliile  searcliing  diligently  for  what  might 
be  hidden  in  (Uithouses,  oiio  of  our  b()ys  found  a  cjuau- 
tity  of  coined  silver  stuffed  under  the  shingles  on  the 
X)lates  that  held  the  rafters.  Now,  this  was  not  strictly 
something  to  eat,  but  tliei-e  being  no  one  to  claim  it, 
and  it  being  certain  that  siuue  one  with  m*  better  right 
would  carry  it  off,  the  fiinler  kept  it,  but  had  much 
trouble  to  carry  the  bulky  stuff'  into  cam]),  where  I 
learned  that  he  disposed  of  the  booty  to  another  sol- 
dier who  had  a  'pull'  on  a  baggage  wagon.  One  of  the 
boys  informed  me  that  on  the  march  he  threatened  to 
throw  it  away,  when  one  and  another  offered  to  let 
him  divide.  On  our  return  to  the  Brigade  I  found  that 
thc^re  had  been  some  anxiety  about  us  as  we  had  gone 
quite  a  distance  from  the  route  of  the  main  army  and 
were  nearly  surrounded  by  Wheeler's  cavalry  at  tiines.'^ 
(xeneral  Sherman,  who  was  with  the  Fifteenth 
Corps,  reached  Lanrel  Hill  on  the  8th  of  March.  The 
Twentieth  Corps  followed  the  Ponrteenth  into  Fay- 
etteville.  The  Seventeenth  Cor])s  was  on  the  right  and 
Kilpatrick's  cavalrj^  guarded  the  left  of  the  array 
toward  Wadesboro.  Hampton's  and  Wheelei-'s  cav- 
alry were  in  his  front,  but  he  drove  them  steadily  be- 
fore him.  General  Sherman,  while  at  Laurel  Hill,  sent 
Corporal  Pike,  a  trusted  scout,  in  disguise,  to  work 
his  way  down  the  Cape  Fear  River  to  Wilmington  with 
letters  in  cipher  announcing  his  ap]n'oach.  This  Cor- 
poral Pike  was  with  Thomas  on  the  Chickamauga  cam- 
paign and  well  known  to  the  writer.  The  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth  marched  twelve  miles  on  the  9th  and 
bivouacked  at  Montrose  Postofifice.  Courtright,  who 
had  been  out  with  a  foraging  party  and  lost  his  way,, 
reported  to  the  Regiment.  The  march  was  resumed 
on  the  10th,  and  after  going  nine  miles,  a  halt  was 
made  for  the  night  thirteen  miles  from  Fayetteville. 
On  this  date,  Kilpatrick  met  with  a  surprise  from 
Hampton's  troopers,  bnt  escaping  Avith  a  part  of  his 
men  into  a  swamp,  he  reformjed  them  and  charging  the 
enemy  recovered  his  camp  and  most  of  his  artillery. 


5M  THE  ONi;  Hr.M'i;i;i>  and  k<  h  uth 

Tin'  FumMrriiih  rorps  was  tin*  liisi  ii»  arrive  in 
l-'avfii«'\ill«',  wliiih  it  did  on  the  lllh,  an<l  was  fol- 
lowed by  tlu'  r«*Kt  of  tin*  army.  As  our  troops  iMHiinl 
tin*  imumiiv  niid«*r  Ilard«M«  Irft.  «iuss«mI  the  ('a|M'  l^-ar 
and  litirn«M|  i  he  lirid;;:*-.  Tlii' <  Mir  1 1  iiiidi-«i|  and  i'uiirtli 
r«'arhfd  tin*  rity  about  noon  and  afirr  hailing  foi-  din- 
ner wiMit  into  ramp,  wImt«*  it  rmiaincd  until  tin*  l."ltli 
of  Marrli.  'Pin*  boys  thus  had  an  opportunilN  to  \  it-w 
this  brautiful  and  important  jilac*-.  Tlif  old  rnil<*d 
Slatrs  arsiMial  was  |orat«'d  lu-ic  aud  had  Ihm-u  us«m1  by 
tin'  n-lu'ls  as  a  manufartory  of  arms.  Ilrfon'  h*avin«; 
i  H-noral  Shniuan  ordn-rd  it  s  dost  nut  ion.  Tho  ollico  of 
till'  *M  >b»<«*rN«*r."  a  xirulout  rebel  new  .s|iaper.  was  also 
burned.  The  at laiiiiMeiit  by  the  artuy  of  a  |>oint  so 
near   the   theater  of  ojieraiioiis   in    \'ir;:iiiia.  aud   oiu» 

%vlii*riM-ommuni<-atioii.s*could  I |Miied  with  the  North 

anti  home,  aud  mail  rereived,  was  a  source  of  joy  to  all. 
^^'ilulin;:tou  had  been  raptured  by  tleneral  Terry's 
for«-es  on  I'ebruary  l!lid.  About  noon  of  the  li'ih  the 
shrill  whistle  of  a  steamboat  was  heard  «»n  the  ri\er. 
It  was  Sunday  aud  this  salutation  froui  lie-  «>iiiside 
■World  breakiiiu  ou  the  Sabbath  stillness  seiii  a  thrill 
of  ^dadiiess  through  the  ariuy,  whieh  kiu-w  well  its 
meaniu^'.  The  bearer  of  ^lad  tidinj^s  steanu'd  into  jhui 
and  its  raptain  bote  dispalclu's  bu-  ib-iu'ral  Sheiiuan. 
<'orporal  IMke  had  tpiieUly  perbuiued  his  errand  and 
this  the  answer.  .\t  si\  p.m.  the  boat  returmd  to  Wil- 
niiii;;tou  with  h-tiers  from  «ieueial  Sherman  to  \aiious 
liij;h  oHiiials.  In  one  to  Secretary  Staniou  In-  said: 
"The  army  is  in  sjiletnlid  health,  condition  ami  sjtirits, 
thou;^h  we  have  had  foul  weather,  ami  r<ta<ls  that 
Would  ha\f  slopped  travfl  to  alnmsi  an\  other  body 
of  men  I  ever  heard  of."  Well  mi;,dit  ^Jem-ral  Sln-rman 
be  proud  of  his  army  ami  satisfied  wiili  the  results 
achieved  on  this  march  of  m-arly  four  humlred  miles 
from  Savannah.  The  obstacles  emonnleied  were  many 
and  mostly  those  of  nai  ure.  The  rains  had  been  almost 
<-ontinuous  since  slailin;.j.  The  swamps  ami  lowlamis 
were  thioded.  Se\eral  u'reai  ri\ers  m-eded  to  be  pon- 
toom-d.      N«-arl\    c\ef\    mile   of   the   roads    was   c(»rdu- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  297 

royod.  Besides  the  important  cities,  with  their  arse- 
nals, miiiiitions  of  wai-,  and  pnblic  property,  and  rail- 
roads, captured  or  destroyed,  the  effect  of  the  move- 
ment resulted  in  the  evacuation  of  Charh^ston  and, 
remotely,  the  fall  of  AVilmington.  But  not  less  por- 
tentious  to  tlie  rebels  was  the  result  in  the  new  dan- 
ger threateninrj-  Lee's  army  in  A^irgiuia,  only  some  two 
hundred  miles  distant.  Sherman  having  disposed  of 
Johnston's  army,  estimated  at  this  time  to  contain 
thirty-seven  thousand  uumi,  could  march  to  the  assist- 
ance of  General  (irant.  Truly,  the  rebel  leaders  were 
being  slowly  driven  to  their  last  lines  of  defense  and 
knew  not  which  way  to  turn.  General  Sherman  con- 
sidered the  possibility  of  Lee's  abandoning  Richmond 
and  marching  to  form  a  junction  with  Johnston.  Tn 
this  event  General  Grant  would  follow  Lee  wherever 
lie  might  go.  But  General  Sherman,  having,  with  Sclio- 
tield's  Army  of  the  Ohio,  then  approaching  Goldsboro, 
nearlv  ninety  thousand  men,  felt  able  to  meet  and  cou- 
<iuer  any  combiujition  that  could  be  brought  against 
him. 

On  March  13th  the  army,  having  rested  for  a  day 
and  replenished  somewhat  its  depleted  supplies  of  cof- 
fee and  sugar,  other  articles,  particularly  shoes  and 
clothing,  not  being  available,  set  out  again  on  the 
march  and  was  directed  toward  Goldsboro.  General 
Johnston  was  supposed  to  be  concentrating  his  forces 
near  Kaleigh,  but  there  Avas  a  possibility  of  his  attempt- 
ing to  intervene  between  Sherman  and  Schotield,  and 
this  made  a  speedy  junction  with  the  latter  desirable. 
The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  left  camp  on  the  13th 
and,  crossing  the  Cape  Fear  River  on  a  pontoon  bridge, 
marched  out  some  three  miles  on  the  Raleigh  plank 
road  and  bivouacked.  Sui)plies  being  scarce,  c«)w  peas 
formed  for  several  days  the  principal  article  of  diet. 
The  Regiment  remained  in  camp  on  the  14th,  as  some 
boats  had  arrived  from  Wilmington  with  su])plies, 
which  were  transferred  to  the  wagons.  The  loth  was 
rainj^,  but  the  march  was  resumed,  and  after  going  eight 
miles  the  Regiment  went  into  camp.     The  army  was 


IM  THE  ONE  HL'NDKED  AND  FOURTH 

iM»w  <liK|M»sti|  as  follows:  'I'Im*  Si*vi*i»tiMMitli  Corps  on 
ihr  ri;;lit,  tin*  Fifl«'<*iit li  iH'\t.  ami  tin*  FoiirtrtMit li  ami 
'rwfiii  i«Mli  oil  I  lif  h'ft.  wiili  Kilpal  rick's  cavaliy  \>\•^t■ 
i**r(iii;^  that  Ilaiik,  wliirli  il  siMMiinl  |iiolial»lc  iiii;^lit  !)(> 
altarkiHl.  All  tin*  liaiiis  wiMf  iiio\»mI  on  iiiirrit>r  roads, 
fiii'tlifr  i*aiHt  towai'il  ( ioMshoro.  Siociinrs  coliiiiin 
iir«MmffnM|  ri'sistaiiro  as  it  a«lvaiirr(l  intrtli  ami  tho 
.i\ali'\  «li«l  roiisiilrral»l«-  skiniiisliiii^  in  front,  raptiir- 
iii;:  aiiioi|w^  oilnTs,  ro|«tm'l  AIImti  Klictt,  a  tfirlMat«Ml 
S«Mitli  ('ai'olina  liirrat«*i-,  \n  lio  was  miicli  chajiiincd. 
Il«'  luitl  (-oniiiiaiiil<-*l  a  lii-i;:a<lf,  iImm  ariiii;;  as  n-ar 
;:nartl.  It  Immii;.' a|ipari-nt  that  I  lir  «'ii<iii\  w  as  in  si  ion;; 
for<  I-  in  front,  Sloriini  iiio\«mI  witli  i-aiiiion  on  iIh-  Hlih, 
until  a|ipi'oarliiii;r  A  v«*i-\  sImuo.  I  laidrc's  aiiiiv  was 
foiiml  orrnpviii;;  a  stfon;^:  position  mi  swainpv  uioiiml 
Im'|w«'«'|i  tin*  <"api*  l'«*ai'  ami  South  Kivci^i.  ili-mial 
SliiMiiian.  who  was  on  tin-  loft,  diroctiMl  an  iinnnMliat«*' 
attark.  <M'm*fal  Sjocnni  deployed  .Jaekson's  and  jiait 
of  VN'afd's  divisions  in  linni,  w  hile  a  hripulc  was  sent 
far  ai-oiind  on  the  left  to  take  the  enemy  in  the  ttank. 
The  latter  nio\cinent  fesnited  in  diivin;;  them  in  font 
fioiii  their  first  line  and  the  captnre  of  Khett's  Ini- 
;:ade  t<i;;et  her  with  Macliet  h's  battery  tif  t  hiee  i^iins.  A 
;;eneral  attark  was  now  jirepared  for  l»y  foiinini:  'l'«' 
tirst  and  seroiid  divisi(»ns  of  the  I'onrteenth  ( "orps  on 
the  li'ft  «»f  .laekson.  Kil|»atriek  heiii;:  sent  to  sei/e  the 
Iteiitoiiville  road  was  driNfii  liark  hy  the  division  of 
M«  Law's.  The  atta«kin;:  foires,  then  ad\anriiiLi.  drove 
Hardee's  army  within  his  inlremhmeiils  and  w  as  press- 
ing him  elose  w  hen  ni;:ht  eanie  on.  In  the  disposal  for 
attack  the  One  lluiidred  and  I'oiirth  oreiipie<l  a  posi- 
tion in  the  fioiii  line,  loit  was  scarreiy  eii;.:a;.jed  ami 
lost  no  men  <  Mi  the  nioinin;:  of  the  iTth  il  was  found 
that  llartlee  had  aliandoiied  his  works  and  retreated. 
Hiir  losses  in  the  hat  t  le  of  A  \erysl)oro  were  t  W  el\e  o  ni- 
ce |>i  and  sixty  ti\e  men  killed,  and  four  hundred  ami 
>»eviMit y-si'Veii  men  woiindid.  The  enemy  left  one  hun- 
dred and  seMMit  \  ei;iht  men  d4*ad  on  the  tield,  the  nuni- 
Iter  of  wounded  not  known.  Several  hundred  prisoners 
Wen-   taken.     The  arm\    roniinued    liie   mairh    toward 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  29» 

Goldsboro  <»n  the  17tli,  the  Fourteenth  Corps  leading. 
The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  marched  six  miles 
through  s\vam]>s  and  ereeks  and  <am])('d.  The  roads 
traversed  on  the  ISth  were  bad,  witli  many  ch'e])  creeks 
to  Avade,  but  tlie  Kegiment  marched  fourteen  miles. 
Some  of  the  foragers  brought  in  good  supplies  of  hains^ 
chickens,  turkeys,  and  sweet  potatoes. 

(leneial  Sherman,  believing  that  Johnston's  army 
had  retreated  to  Smithtield  and  would  not  furtlier  oj)- 
pose  his  march  to  Goldsboro,  joined  Howard's  column 
and  pushed  hard  for  that  place.  The  roads  were  bad. 
and  the  lines  were  well  stretched  out,  but  Sherman 
was  anxious  to  meet  Schotiehl.  He  apparently  h>st  for 
the  time  his  usual  caution  in  allowing  the  two  wings 
to  be  so  widely  separated  in  the  presence  of  his  wily 
antagonist.  The  latter  had  by  forced  marches  effected 
a  junction  with  Hardee  at  l>entonville,  where  lie  had 
caused  several  miles  of  works  to  be  erected  and  was 
ready  to  fight,  offensively  and  defensively.  Well  posted 
as  to  Sherman's  movements  a  trap  was  prepared  by 
Johnston,  which  added  new  credit  to  his  skill  as  a  com- 
mander. Two  isidated  divisions  of  the  Fourteentli 
Corps  were  approaching  his  lines,  two  more  were  sev- 
eral miles  distant,  the  rest  of  the  left  wing  was  scat- 
tered for  ten  miles  in  the  rear.  ITe  proposed  to  attack 
and  destroy  these  in  detail.  Howard  was  known  to 
be  too  far  away  to  afford  immediate  assistance.  That 
Johnston  did, not  succeed  was  owing  to  conditions  aris- 
ing which  he  could  not  control  and  Avhicli  developed 
later.  The  left  wing,  under  Slocum,  marched  early  on 
the  19th  of  March,  Carlin's  Division  leading.  ITobart's 
Brigade  was  ill  advance  and  had  proceeded  leisurely 
along  for  some  three  or  four  miles  toward  Bentonville, 
meeting  with  some  show  of  resistance  from  Dibbrell's 
Cavalry,  as  was  supposed,  from  behind  rail  bai-ricades. 
These  were  driven  oif,  but  the  character  of  the  oppo- 
sition indicated  heavier  forces  behind.  Major  Wid- 
mer,  who  commanded  the  Regiment,  advanced  care- 
fully in  the  woods  on  tike  right  of  the  road,  when  his 
attention    was    called    bv    Sherman    Leland    to    what 


300  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 


aii<l  t lu*  iiftioii  lifciiiiic  «;<*ii<T:il  in  fioiit  of  i he  (  Mi«'  1  luii- 
thctl  aiiiil  FiMirili  ami  I  lie  Hi'i;:ailc.    .Majoi-  W'idiiK'i-  ntn- 

M'ilMltfS  tllf  follnNX  i|i;r  amitllll    of  lilt*  lialllr  uf   Iti'llloli- 

\ill<-  nil  till-  IMili,  aii*l  tin-  part  lakrii  in  ii  hx  ilw  ( »ii*' 
IIiiikIi-imI  and  Fourth  and  lltdiari's  liri^radr:  -*Tlir  Itat- 
1 1<*  of  (lif  null  was  ill  I  lie  iuiiiii'«'  «if  a  sniprisc  !«•  ('ar- 
I  ill's  Division,  ami  rsjMTially  to  I  lidtait's  I'.i  i;;ad«',  \\  Idle 
oil  t  ln'inanli.  Kailv  in  t  ho  iiioinin;,M  In*  Uriuadr  started 
oiii  nil  th«*  road  to  <Johlsl>oro  by  wav  of  <  "ox's 
luid;;«*  in  tho  foMowin;.^  oidoi-:  Ninoty-loiin  h  (Hiio, 
Kij:hty-tM;:ht  h  Indiana.  Thiit  \  i  hiid  Ohio,  Forty-srroml 
Imliana.  Tw  fiitylirst  W'iscoiisiii,  ( »no  llnndiod  and 
i'onrth  Illimds,  tin-  fiist  ihifo  rc^iimt'iits  coniposin;: 
w  hal  was  t  Iumi  «alh'd  i  h«-  riuhi  w  Iiil;  of  i  he  |»ri;;ad«'.  and 
tin-  last  tliior  the  jclt  uin;^.  In  advance  of  the  ridnmn 
and  sjiieadin^  ri;^ht  and  left  o\  er  t  he  connt  I'V,  weie  t  he 
nsiial  dt'tails  of  foia;;ers,  who,  thus  faf  on  the  lonj; 
niai'rh  from  Sa\annah,  had  lieeii  aide  to  lniish  away 
any  liodies  of  rehel  ravalry  that  atteiii|)ied  to  ini|MM|e 
our  (no^iiess.  \\  hen  t  he  l'rit:a<h*  ^^  ii>*  almnt  t  hiee  miles 
out  on  the  road  a  seatteiin^  mnskeiiy  lir  half  a  mile 
or  so  ill  advance  was  heanl,  w  hirh  ;iiadiiall,\  increased 
until  it  assnined  the  |>ro|Mirt  ions  of  a  li\ely  skirmish, 
and  as  the  Hri^aile  a|iproached  the  scene  it  was  «lis- 
roxeied  that  the  'iMimmeis'  had  for  once  ^ot  hold  of 
Hoiiiet  hin;j  t  hey  could  not  uet  away  with. 

"The  |{ri;:ade,  under  i  hi-  dirertion  ^>\'  (leiii-ial  «'ai- 
iiii,  was  |>rompil\  l>rou;:iii  into  line  of  hattle  on  i  he 
ri;:hl  (east>  side  uf  the  road,  the  ri;;ht  w  in;^  in  advance, 
the  left  win;:  ill  leserxe.  The  ii;:hi  will;:;  was  then 
oideri'd  to  c|iar;:e,  which  it  did  in  handsome  st\  le,  dii\- 

iii^   the  enemy   from    his   lii f   rail    harricades,   and 

folhiw  in;:  liiiii  rapidly  across  sonie  open  tields  and  into 
heavy  tiniher  lieyoml.  As  soon  as  the  harricades  were 
■  .inied    the  left    wiii;;.   still    in    line  of   hattle  dlu*  Oue 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  301. 

Hundred  and  Fourth  being  the  left  regiment),  was 
ordered  to  join  in  tlie  pursnit,  whieh  was  maintained 
for  more  than  half  a  mile  at  a  very  rapid  pace,  some- 
times on  the  double  (piick,  and  until  this  wing  had 
nearly  arrived  at  a  point  where  the  Goldsboro  road,, 
which  for  soni  distance  ran  almost  nortli,  turned  east- 
ward. Here  the  left  wing  was  ordered  to  halt,  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  being  on  the  left  side  of  the 
road,  and  the  other  two  regiments  to  the  right  of  it,, 
all  in  line  fronting  noi-thward,  and  still  in  heavy  tim- 
ber. 

"The  right  wing  of  the  Brigade  had  pushed  on  sev- 
eral hundred  yards  further  to  the  north  and  away  from 
the  road  as  it  turned  eastward.  To  its  front  was  an 
open  field,  on  the  further  side  of  which,  in  plain  view,, 
was  a  line  of  earthworks  stretching  across  the  held 
and  into  the  woods,  right  and  left,  but  how  far  could 
not  be  seen.  In  fact,  as  it  was  afterward  ascertained, 
the  line  of  works  to  the  right  bore  southward  so  as  to 
cross  the  (loldsboro  road  a  short  distance  east  of 
the  turn  in  the  road.  Behind  these  works  were  the 
old  veterans  in  gray,  ready  to  give  us  their  warmest 
reception  ;  and  here  in  the  timber  was  our  little  Bri- 
gade of  twelve  hundred  men,  facing  what  proved  to  be 
the  wlude  of  Johnston's  army,  but  still  supposing  it 
had  nothing  but  cavalry  to  drive  away,  and  tlien 
resume  its  march. 

"The  left  wing  had  halted  but  a  few  moments,  when 
a  rebel  battery  in  their  line  of  works  opened  tire,  sweep- 
ing with  shot  and  shell  the  road  coming  up  from  the 
south  through  the  timber.  The  wing  was  then  moved 
east  of  the  road  about  two  hundred  yards  and  again 
brought  to  a  front  facing  northward.  Just  as  the 
movement  was  completed  General  Garlin  discov.Ted 
the  enemy  was  advancing  on  the  right  Hank  of  this 
line.  He  in  person  ordered  me  to  move  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth  to  the  rear,  change  front  to  the  east,. 
advance  and  prevent  the  rebels  from  turning  that  flank. 
I  did  as  dire(;ted,  throwing  Company  F  forward  as  skir- 
mishers under  Captain  Strawn,  who  soon  struck  the 


903 


THE  ONJ.    HI    M>Ki.l«   AM"   KiilKTH 


oiirtiiiiiii;;  vv\u'\  skiniiisliri  s  and  a  warm  t'\<i\\[  «mis(mm1, 
n*Mi)tiii;;  ill  sioppiiij^  tlir  «'iii'|iiv'k  athaiirr  on  that 
tlaiik.  Ity  tliiK  iii(iviMiii*ut  tli('<>i)<>  lliiii<lnMl  ami  Fourth 
«i)>taiii(Mi  a  positiitii  in  h<-avv  ti!nh«>i-  alMMil  tivc  hiiii- 
<ii-r«l  \art|s  to  ih«'  ri^ht  uT  (h«-  itiail.  aiiti  fntiiiiii^  cast- 
wjirii.  In  a  shoii  time  Ih**  Thiid  Hri^^aih*  nf  ('ailiirs 
Uivistnii  caiiK*  lip  (III  the  ii;;hl  <>f  1  he  <  )ii«'  i  I  uiuli-cil  and 
Foiirih,  thiiK  I'Xti'ndin^'  lh«'  lint'  uT  haith'  soulhwai'd 
thr  h'n;;th  of  that  lni;:adr,  and  lh«*  Tw  «'iil  \  liisi  Wis- 
«-onsin  raiiK*  inio  lini>  on  the  h'ft  of  our  Kf^zitut-ni,  and 
thr  Forty-s«n'«ind  Indiana  on  Hn-  l<fi  of  the  'r\N«'nt,\- 
tii-st  W'ist'onsin  thr  liin'  of  ihcsf  iwo  rr^iinicnts  i-oin- 
iii;;  soiiifwhal  to  tin*  \M's1,  l»iit  imi  i  iinii<-rt  in;;;  with  ih- 
otln-r  uin;:  <'f  lli"  |{ri;:a<i»',  iho  ;ia|>  luin;:  jtaitiallx  <  ov- 
«t«mI,  howrvrr,  hv  a  foni-;:Mn  iKillciy  of  oiii-  l>i\ision. 
Tin*  S«M<ind  Ihi^iatjc  was  put  into  linr  to  tho  h'ft  of 
Mohan's  Hri^xadr,  and  t  hns  <  arlin's  I  >i\  ision,  in  a  sin^^h* 
liin*  of  halt  h'  \N  ilh  a  <i;\\t  in  t  h«'  niithlh*,  faird  t  he  tMiciny. 
As  soon  as  ih«*sr  disposit  i«ins  had  Imm-ii  math-  <i«'in'ial 
<  'aiiin  oidcird  i  h<*  oi  ht-r  w  inu  of  uuf  Uii^xadt*  to  ciiarj^c 
tin*  rrJH'l  woiks  in  ihcii-  fioni.  I'roni  ih<-  jtositittii  of 
our  K«-;;inH'ni  von  could  not  s«»«'  th«'  uioNt'un'Ut,  hut  tho 
4-oniiiinous  roll  of  niusUrtiv  and  houniin<;;  of  artillery 
told  US  that  oiif  roniradrs  of  that  win;;  w«'r»'  (Mi;ja;;«M! 
in  a  dt-adly  ronlrsi  with  the  tdd  for.  The  rhai'iir  was 
vi^^»|•onsIv  inadr  and  wt-H  sustained,  luii  mci  with  a 
Idoody  H'pnisc  u  hfii  the  assailants  unc  within  a  few 
ftM'i  of  ih«>  irhcl  works,  tin-  l'i;:ht  v  oi;,dil  h  hhliaua  suf- 
feriii;;  most  se\»'i-f|\   in  Uilli'd  and  wouudi-d. 

"I  think  it  was  ai  this  sia;;**  of  ihe  halile  «Mn«'ial 
<'arliii  tame  to  the  ronrlusion  that  soinethinu;  more 
than  ravalrv  was  o|)|M)sin;,r  his  inarch,  auil  thai  h<-  had 
a  serious  t);:ht  on  hand,  l-'ioni  the  NiuldMUii  resist- 
ati<'«*  of  the  enemy  in  their  fi-oiii,  ihi-  hoys  of  <  Niinpany 
I'  had  already  made  the  same  disro\««iy,  and  Captain 
Sirawn  had  lepnrted  to  mr  that  he  uas  li^jhlin;;  in- 
fant rv. 

**'rh»-  One  Hundred  and  I'oiiiih  remained  in  its  last 
ineiitioned  position  for  se\iial  hours,  iluiin;:  whieli 
lime.  h\    direction  of  (Icm-ral    llohaii.   the  line  of  hat- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  303 

tie  threw  up  a  slight  line  of  works.  The  skirmishers 
were  coustautlv  and  sharply  en<;;ij;e<l  with  the  rebels, 
the  firing  being  rapid  and  continuous  for  a  skirmish 
line.  Company  F's  ammunition  becoming  nearly  ex- 
hausted, and  their  guns  foul,  I  relieved  that  Company 
by  Companies  A,  B,  C  and  E,  under  Cai)tain  Dewey, 
who  pushed  the  rebel  skirmishers  clos(n'  to  their  main 
line,  and  who,  in  turn,  were  relieved  by  Company  D, 
under  Lieutenant  Kood. 

"After  the  other  wing  of  our  Brigade  was  repulsed 
the  game  on  our  side  appeared  to  be  a  waiting  one, 
though  the  skirmishers  kept  up  a  (•i)nstaut  rattle.  The 
fio-hting  was  wholly  in  the  woods  and  but  little  could 
be  seen  of  what  was  going  on,  right  or  left.  J^ome  time 
after  noon,  I  think  about  two  o'clock,  a  tremendous 
firing  and  cheering  brcdce  out  over  whe?;e  the  other 
wing  of  the  Brigade  had  made  its  charge  in  the  fore- 
noon. It  required  but  little  experience  to  know  that 
one  side  or  the  other  was  making  an  assault.  But 
which  side,  and  with  what  result?  In  a  few  moments 
I  noticed  the  firing  and  yelling  was  moving  south- 
ward, indicating  that  the  rebels  were  on  the  charge 
and  had  smashed  Carlin's  lin^.  I  at  once  directed  Jacob 
Overmire  and  Philip  Hawk,  two  as  brave  and  trusty 
boys  as  ever  pulled  trigger,  to  go  to  our  rear  (west), 
get  as  near  to  the  road  as  they  could  without  being 
seen,  and  let  me  know  what  was  going  on  there.  In 
about  fifteen  minutes  they  came  back  and  reported 
that  a  heavy  body  of  the  enemy  was  in  our  rear  mov- 
ing southward  and  driving  everything  before  them. 
I  aftei'ward  learned  that  this  force  and  the  troops 
participating  in  the  rebel  movement  numbere<l  about 
ten  thousand  men. 

''Before  Overmire  and  Hawk  returned  the  Twenty- 
first  Wisconsin  and  Forty-second  Indiana  had  let  go 
their  line,  and  drifted  by  the  rear  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth  in  squads,  thus  leaving  the  left  tiank  of 
our  Regiment  'in  the  air,'  and  my  skinuishers  in  front 
were  also  being  driven  in,  showing  that  the  enemy 
were  moving  on  us  in  that  direction.    When  I  received 


)M  iiii.   ...NK  Hl'NI>HKl'   AN!'   FoL'KTH 

Ovrrmin'*'  aiul  Hawk's  i«|Mti'i  1  \\«*iit  tn  tin-  unict-r 
roiiiiiiaiHlin;;  tin*  n*t;iiiu'iii  in*\(  lUi  tlu*  ri|^lii,  wliirli 
was  still  in  liia*.  tohl  liiiii  tin*  silualioii  wr  wi-if  in, 
and  proposi'ii  that  wt*  ab«»ul  face  both  ifjiiim-nis,  tix 
havoiMis  an<l  rhaip*  thi*  irhfls  then  in  «Mir  n-ar,  strik- 
in;;  thrill  «iii  ihr  Ihiiik,  ami  with  a  vrll  ami  a  vollrv  at 
tl»»sr  ran;:**  \v<-  \\«nihl  ;:ivr  th«-  '.luhiiiii«-s'  siuh  a  shovi* 
WfstwanI  as  woiihl  niahh-  iis  t«>  ^fi  <»ui  i<i  i  Ik-  souili. 
Tlif  Mnim-  jliM-liiiiii;:  to  taUr  jtait  in  t  he  rhar;i«-,  at  uin*': 
iihivimI  his  n';:iiiiriM  i»tT  hy  its  iii;ht  Ihiiik.  ami  was 
siMtii  «tiii  «>f  sij^ht. 

••Uni-  little  lvfL'im''iii  "f  t-i^hl  onicns  and  oiir  huii- 
tlr«-<l  and  lift\  iiifii  all  i«dd  was  tln-rc  alt»ii<'  with  I  li«* 
fiKMiiv  tlusiii;::  ill  on  its  from  and  h*ft  llaiik,  and  a 
lu*a\  V  foir«*  passinji  anoss  its  rrar,  noi  nioic  than  four 
hiindnMl  vanis  distant,  Imt.  Iiw  kilv  for  tin*  K»*^inn*iit, 
oiii  ttf  si^hl  owin;::  to  ili<-  ihirk  ninh'rinnsh  iiitnvcn- 
iii;:.  'I'ln*  situation  was  an  oxtnni«*ly  nitiral  oii»-,  and 
1  think  •'M-rv  man  in  the  lic^iiiimi  iimh-rstood  ii  just, 
as  Wfll  as  1  «lid,  v<*t  all  ht-havrd  lik<*  tin*  v«'t«*i-ans  tlu*y 
were,  and  await«*«l  orders,  lint  no  onlers  oanu'.  The 
onslan;;hl  of  tin*  leln'ls  had  Imm-ii  so  sudden  and  vio- 
h'lit  that  it  swept  lhe(NNisioii  and  luiiiaile  e«uiiiiiand- 
ers  and  tln*ir  stall'  oMici-rs  awa.v  in  the  general  rout. 
What  was  to  l»e  dnm-?  M  v  skirmishers  were  all  driven 
ill.  I  km-w  iliMi  in  leii  iniiiiiies,  |terliai»s  live,  t  he  enemy 
Would  he  on  top  (if  us,  and  would  answi-r  tin*  <|Uesiioii, 
so  I  derided  it  :  *A  1 1  eiit  itui.  ha  1 1  a  lion  !  lii^ht  fate,  ftu- 
ward,  niarrh!'  and  we  moved  <dT  in  ;:ood  order  to  the 
south,  'riiroii^ih  heavy  tiniher.  underhrush,  \ines  and 
a  <lense  swamp  where  the  water  was  o\er  knee  di*ej>, 
we  marehed  nearly  half  a  niih*  |tarallel  with  the  rebel 
assauliiii;:  rolumn,  but  un|)er(-ei\ed  by  them,  until  we 
arrixi'd  in  nnu"e  n|M'n  woods,  wlier<'  to  our  lefi  we  roiild 
see  the  lilies  of  the  Seroinl  IMvision  of  our  ( "oips,  and 
to  our  rij;ht  (west)  about  two  hundred  and  lifty  yards 
distant,  was  the  left  Hank  of  the  rebel  line  pushim:  <m 
south.  The  chaine  to  ;,dv«'  the  «'iieiiiy  a  blow  was  loo 
tempiiii'^  to  be  lost.  I  ;;ave  i  he  (■oiumamls:  '( )n  the 
ri;:ht,  b\    tih-  into   line!*  ami   '<'<Miimenre  liriui:!*      I'ile 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  306 

by  file  the  boys  stepped  into  line  and  opened  up  the 
old  tune  on  their  rifles  with  a  vim  that  soon  compelled 
the  enemy  to  give  us  their  close  attention. 

'^e  held  our  position  until  they  swung  around  our 
left  flank,  and  then  I  ordered  the  Regiment  to  fall  back 
to  the  Second  Division.  Thus  ended  our  fighting  for 
the  day,  and  it  turned  out  to  be  the  last  time  the  One 
Hundred  and  Fourth  delivered  its  fire  in  line  of 
battle." 

The  battle  of  the  19th  was  fought  mainly  by  eight 
brigades  of  our  army  and  Kilpatrick's  cavalry  against 
Johnston's  whole  army,  which  had  been  carefully  or- 
ganized for  attack  behind  his  works.  The  evening 
closed  down  with  our  forces  in  ]>ossession  of  nearly  all 
of  the  ground  that  had  been  lost,  the  last  charge  being 
made  by  Cogswell's  Brigade  of  the  Twentieth  Corps 
which  arrived  late.  As  the  rest  of  the  Twentieth 
arrived  the  line  of  battle  was  extended  to  the  left  with 
Kilpatrick's  cavalry  on  that  flank.  General  Sherman 
had  heard  the  cannonading  and  late  in  the  day  was 
notified  of  the  nature  of  the  battle,  Howard's  head 
of  column  w^as  then  ten  miles  from  Goldsboro.  Gen- 
eral Sherman  at  once  turned  back  the  troops  toward 
Bentonville.  Early  on  the  20th  Generals  Baird,  Geary 
and  Hazen  arrived  on  the  field  with  their  commands, 
Later  two  divisions  of  the  Seventeenth  Corps  arrived 
and  the  right  wing  was  deployed  until  its  left  connected 
with  SlocTim.  These  movements  occupied  all  of  the 
20th,  and  at  night  the  army  confronted  the  enemy  in 
his  works,  which  were  strong  and  built  V  shaped  with 
the  angle  projecting  to  the  Goldsboro  road.  Mill  Creek 
protected  the  enemy's  flanks.  The  columns  of  Slocum 
and  Howard  faced  these  lines.  On  the  21st,  w^hich  was 
rainy,  nothing  was  done  until  noon,  beyond  some  artil- 
lery firing  and  skirmishing.  General  Sherman  says 
in  his  "Memoirs" :  "In  the  uncertainty  of  General  John- 
ston's strength  I  did  not  feel  disposed  to  fight  a  gen- 
eral battle,  for  we  had  been  out  from  Savannah  since 
the  latter  part  of  January,  and  our  wagon  trains  con- 
tained but  little  food."    However,  about  noon.  General 


Mt  THE  ONE  HL'NDKKI>  AND  FulRTH 

MowiT,  who,  SlHTinan  savs,  was  "fVcr  rash."  a«lvaiHMMl 
hiK  division  aii«l  hrfakin-:  ihn»u«:h  iht-  rxtn-nn-  irhil 
li*fl  was  pushing  sur»»-ssfullv  f«»rwanl,  wImmi  Shrrm.-m, 
fi-arfiil  (»f  a  iniir»MHrai  i<»ii  agaiiisi  him  h>  th«*  nuMiiy, 
onh'n-.l  him  ba»k  whih-  h«-  ni-ia;.'.'.!  tin-  aliriiiiMii  i»f 
Ihi*  whole  rebel  line  willi  a  smmg  skirmish  lii*'.  <J»mi- 
eral  SlHTiuaii  says  fraiiklv:  "I  iliiiik  I  maih-  a  mi8- 
takf  tluM'f,  ami  shoiihl  lapiilly  li;iv»-  fnll.»w«'«l  Mower's 
\vm\  with  I  hi'  wh<»h*  of  ih<'  ri<.Mit  wing,  whiih  woiihl 
have  brotight  on  a  g»*m*ral  batth*,  ami  it  runhl  not 
have  resnltiMl  otherwise  than  sueressfuUy  to  iis,  by 
reason  of  our  vastly  suprrior  inimlu-rs;  liui  at  the 
mttmrni,  for  th«*  n-asons  given.  1  lUt'lcntMl  to  make 
juntti«»n  with  (Jeiirrals  Terry  and  S*  lioti«'l»l  brfon* 
«*ngaging  .lohnston's  army,  tin*  strength  of  whi<li  was 
utterly  unknown."  Tims  by  lark  of  good  jmlgment 
on  that  ocrasion  (irnnal  Slicrman  lost  tin-  golden 
opportunity  to  utterly  ruin  .lolnision's  army.  Tiie  day 
closed  with  our  lim*s  (dos«'  up  to  the  cmMny.  nu  tli»' 
morning  of  the  li2tl  it  was  found  that  .lolmsion,  with 
his  army,  hail  gone,  h*aving  nothing  behind  Inn  his 
pickets  and  tlied<*ad  and  wounded. 

Thus    ended     the    battle    of    IJeUtolixiiJe.    ronsidered 

liy  Home  historians  as  one  of  ijie  de»isive  battles  id'  the 
war,  but  We  ran  only  »  all  it  a  niittoi-  luie  id  that  riass. 
It  had  been  fuiiglit  mainly  by  ejglii  brigades  id'  our 
army  ami  Kiljiat  rit  k's  cavalry  on  the  I'.Mli.  and  against 
I  he  whole  of  doliusioii's  army.  The  w  ell-de\  ised  jdans 
of  the  t'oufederate  leader  hail  failed,  partly  fiom  lark 
of  eouperaiiou  by  his  troops,  rom|»osei|  of  the  com- 
mands of  Bragg,  I  lardee,  ( 'heat  ham  and  S.  I).  Lee,  and 
jiartly  on  account  of  the  splen.lid  fighting  ami  stejidy 
resistame  of  ("arlin's  and  Morgan's  divisions  until  the 
Twentieth  < 'orps  <-oulil  be  broiigln  into  llie  field.  The 
character  of  the  fighting  on  both  sides  was  eipial  to 
jiny  show  II  on  previous  occasions,  while  the  geiieial 
ship  of  Slociim  and  his  subonlinafe  commanders  was 
most  coininemlable.  No  doubt  the  result  was  a  bitter 
disappoint  nieiit  to  .lohustoii.  who  could  not  hope  after 
this  to  have  such  decided  advantages  in  his  favor. 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  307 

GeiU'i'jil  Slociiin's  losses  were  ns  follows:  Nine  ofli 
cers  and  145  iiicii  killed,  51  orilceis  and  SKi  ineii 
wounded,  and  22G  niissin«>.  Aj;iL»i'eoat(^  1,247.  The 
rebel  dead  buried  by  Slocimi  numbered  KJT.  Pris(Miers 
captured,  :>:iS.  The  losses  to  llowaril's  ri<;ht  Avini;'  were 
2  otiicei's  and  35  men  killed,  12  olVicers  and  2S!>  men 
wounded,  and  TO  missing.  Au:Lire<;ate,  107,  Grand 
total  losses,  1,054.  Howard  (•a])tured  1,287  prisoners 
and  buried  100  rebel  dead.  The  rebel  losses,  aecording 
to  General  Johnston,  amounted  to  2,'.WA.  This,  how- 
ever, is  underestimated,  as  shown  by  the  reports. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth,  which  felt  the  tirst 
force  of  the  atta(dv,  and,  as  usual,  acquitted  itself  with 
credit,  as  did  the  Brigade,  suffered  tlu^  fidlowing  cas- 
ualties on  the  10th:  ""  Killed— Kichard  M.  Ilhiibart, 
Company  K.  Wounded — A<ljutant  K.  (\  Stevens,  Cor- 
poral N.  Baker,  Company  A;  Corporal  Seneca  Gallup, 
Mons  Olson  and  S.  I).  Bassendale,  of  Company  li;  T.  H. 
Markley  and  Albert  Harris,  <'ompany  (';  Corjjoral  ^I. 
J.  Lane,  Company  I);  Cor])oral  A.  L.  Mason,  Company 
F;  Sergeant  W.  Misner,  G.  D.  Misner  and  P.  A.  Hawk, 
of  Company  G;  John  Coyne,  of  Company  I.  Total,  14. 
Major  \Mdmer  was  hit  by  a  ball  with  sufficient  force 
to  tear  off"  the  heel  of  his  boot  and  cause  a  slight  bruise, 
and  several  others  experienced  similar  narrow  escapes. 
Adjutant  Stevens,  Avho  was  struck  in  the  side  by  a 
spent  ball  and  suffered  severeh-,  would  not  go  to  the 
hospital,  but  renuiined  on  the  field.  In  regard  to  the 
character  of  the  fighting  Leland  says:  "After  our  lines 
were  established  the  rebels  charged  in  five  or  six  lines 
and  when  repulsed  kept  repeating  their  charges.  One 
of  these,  which  the  Adjutant  and  myself  witnessed, 
was  made  in  the  face  of  seventeen  pieces  of  our  artil- 
lery, until  seeing  the  folly  of  such  w^aste  of  life  the 
rebels  withdrew  to  their  works."  Captain  Strawn  thus 
relates  his  experience  on  the  skirmish  line  and  some 
incidents  of  the  battle.  He  says:  "Our  Regiment  had 
at  Bentonville  the  most  lively  affair  we  had  partici- 
pated in  for  some  time.  On  the  morning  of  the  19th 
we  w^ere  marching  along  by  the  right  flank  feeling  very. 


SM  THE  UNE  IHNl'Ki;!'  AM'  KoiicTH 

ctuuforial»l«-  ami  liapi»,v,  wiih  tin-  'lniiiiMirrs,'  as  usuaU 
ill  advain-f.     I  may  as  \\«-ll  ii;:li»  Ihm*-  it-mark  lliat  the 
*m*inis  ImmiiMi"  \n  as  sii|)|m>simI  to  hr  a  il<'\  il-mav-rarf 
K4U(  «»f  ffllow  who  matif  mtiliiiij;  of  small  tlilVunllifS, 
bui  if  rt'al  «nirs  (-onfi-onirtl  liim  in  his  'i'i*\as  sircr  fash- 
ion oi  r«»amiiiy;  at    lar{j[<*  ovtT  tin*  rouiitiy.  In*  was  as 
fast  ai«  tin*  afon'sai«l  st«'«T  in  hnntin;i  his  In-nl.     Ahont 
«'i;;ht  a.  m.  Manh  IJMh.  tin*  nnm<*nnis  Immnnis  in  luir 
flout    tann*   hnnxin;:    in   on    ohl    «io\vhail    lioist-s   ami 
iiiiiU's,  itnuonmin;^  iln*  «*n<*mv  to  In*  in  fnll  foirr  in  tin* 
woods,  fnmi   whrn»<*  tln-v   had  just   nia<h'  ilnii-  hasty 
ami  nmli;:nitii'<l  «*.\ii.     Tin-  lv«*^Mnn*nt  was  imm«'<liat<*ly 
thiowii  into  lin**  of  liaiilt*  Ity  Major  W  i<lm»'i-.     W't*  did 
not  r»*ally  rxiM-ri  iln-if  was  mm-li  m*<'d  of  it,  lint  latrr, 
wlu'ii  a  <*anmm  bail  <am»*  |don^hin^  tliioiiiih  tin*  ti«*«*s 
ovfi-  oiir  hoads,  saw    iliai   l>nsim*ss  of  a  stTions  natnre 
was  on  hand.     Tin*  (hn*  llnmln-dand  I'onrth  advanml 
on  t  In*  rii^ht  of  i  In*  road,  and  I  \\  as  smt  out  in  com  ma  ml 
of  tin*  skirmish   linr.      \\  lii'tiifi-  this  was  composrd  of 
nn'n  from  onr  Kr^^imt-nt  ajon*-  I  do  not   r<*m<*inli)  r.  Init 
I   itTolh'rt   distim-tly  that    we  had   mtt   j:;om*  far  wind 
wt'  r«T«*ivi'il   tin*  Jilt*  of  I  he  r<*lM*l   skirmish<*rs,  a|»|>ar- 
t'lilly  fjitsr   upon   ns.      h    did    not    take   lonLr  for  t'\»*ry 
man.    without    a    tiinniiand.    io   seek    i  om-i-   hrhiiid    iIm* 
n«*ar<*si  i  rco  oi-  snjilint:  ;nid  ili<*n  ktM-jt  up  a  shar|t  look- 
ont    for  a    rrln-j    iinifoini.      This   wa*^   m»t    always   safr, 
foi-  disc«»v«*riiij:  a  Idnt*  Idon.sc  ;i  lew   p;n»'s  in  fi-.ini.  ;ind 
snpposin;i    it    lu'lon^nl    to   uni-   of   niv    nu-ii,    1    liitil    to 
frstrain  on«*  of  my  hoys  from  liiinu  :ii  ii.     I  had  hafdiy 
spok<*n  w  hoii  a  pnIT  «if  smokt-  arosi*  ami  a  hnllfl   from 
tin*  ;:nn  of  the  man  in  tin*  hhn*  Idonso  harkrd  tin*  sa|>- 
lin;:  wln*r«*  my  skirmisher  sIo.mI.      Thf  rflicl  dr<»|»ii«*d  as 
In*  tii'cd  ami  nawlrd  awav.  Imii    I  did  not  laniion  any 
on<*  a^ain  m»t  lo  liri-  io  tin-  from.     This  was  ahont  ten 
or  •*h*v«*n  a.   m.  and   Itriwcrn   this  ami   two   p.   ni.  our 
nn*n  had  )*\p<*nd(*d  sixty  roumis  of  cart  ridi:fs.     When 
the  last    cartrid;:**   was  ranim*<l    lioun-  and    I    had   sfiit 
for   nn»i«*   w«*   wt'r«*   ii'licvcil    li\    amitln-r  skirmish    line 
and  iTJoincd  tin*  I{c;;inn*ni.      I  was  near  Major  \\'idiin*r 
w  In-n  In*  was  si  ruck  li\  a  huili-t .     <  Mn-  of  iln-  li..\  s  i  all»d 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  309 

out,  'Major,  are  you  hurt?'  'X-o-o/  lie  replied,  with 
a  look  of  disgust  I  shall  never  forget.  The  lighting 
continued  until  evening  with  a  number  of  casualties 
to  our  Regiment." 

When  on  the  iiHuniiig  of  the  22d  the  relxd  works 
were  found  to  be  empty  and  Johnston's  army  in  retreat, 
Geueral  Sherman  order(^d  pursuit  to  be  made,  but  soon 
recalled  the  troops  and  directed  all  to  march  f<u*  Golds- 
boro.  This  ste}*  was  quite  necessary,  as  ammu- 
nition and  rations  were  scarce,  the  men  ragged  and 
many  without  shoes.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth, 
striking  tents  (])U])  tents)  at  nine  a.  m.,  moved  off,  and 
marching  leu  miles  reached  Cox's  bridge  over  the  Neuse 
River  at  dark,  where  it  went  into  camp  for  the  night. 
General  Sherman,  who  had  arrived,  met  here  General 
Terry  with  two  divisions  of  the  Tenth  Corps.  The 
march  was  resumed  on  the  23d  and  much  foraging 
done  by  the  hungry  men  on  the  way.  Goldsboro  was 
reached  in  time  for  the  army  to  i)arade  through  the 
city,  after  which  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  camped 
on  the  north  side.  Leland  says:  "We  had  completed 
probably  as  long  and  eventful  a  campaign  as  any 
known  in  military  history  in  modern  times.  On  enter- 
ing Goldsboro  we  passed  in  impromptu  review  before 
General  Sherman's  headquarters  (i.  e.,  his  tent-flies) 
for  the  benefit  of  the  eastern  troops  in  the  city.  We 
were  a  gay  looking  set  to  be  revieAved,  some  having  no 
shoes,  some  no  hats,  and  all  in  rags,  while  a  great  many 
had  hams  or  shoulders  swung  on  their  muskets.  As 
the  pack  mules  came  along  General  Sherman,  slapping 
Schofield  on  the  shoulder,  said:  'There's  my  line  of 
communications.'  The  boys  inarching  badly  General 
Sherman  said  to  the  officers,  'My  boys  don't  march  very 
well,  but  they  will  fight.'  On  the  campaign  no  orders 
were  received  restraining  the  men  from  destroying 
from  the  time  we  entered  South  Carolina  until  we 
reached  North  Carolina;  then  we  were  ordered  to  stop 
burning.  The  first  house  we  saw  on  entering  the  for- 
mer state  was  destroyed,  and  probably  one  in  ten 
escaped  after  that.     The  rich  were  put  in  the  cabins 


310  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

of  tlif  iir^rtM's;  tlM'ir  tatilf  ainl  ruin  w «•!•«'  »isim1  for 
rations.  iImmt  f«Miri*s  for  «iii»liiiuv  aii<l  raiiin  lirrs,  aiul 
tlifir  barns  ami  lotioii  «;iiiK  fur  lM>utin*s.  It  st*iMin'«l 
to  In*  »li*rnHMl  that  South  ('ai'oliiia.  having:  s<t\\  ii  t  h«' 
wiiul.  slioiihl  ira|»  th«*  whirlwiml." 

'I'hr  T\N  ••lit  vt  hii«l  i  'oi|ts  was  i  h<ii  in  <  JithKlim-.t  ami 
thf  miit»Ml  sti«'ii;;:t  h  t»f  all  tin*  aiiui«*s  aiii<Miiii4Ml  i«t  one 
hiiiKli't'd  t  hoiisaml  iikmi.  ( >ii  tin*  24  th  the  <  Mi<-  1 1  iiii<li-«-<l 
uimI  Fourth,  ^oin;:  on  a  ftua;:iii;;  rxinMlitiou.  icniiinMl 
with  an  aliun*lanr«-  of  corn  niral,  ]Mitato(>s,  nit-at,  an*! 
fVrn  honov.  (Mi  tin*  iM.th  tin*  in»'ii  woio  niado  ^la«l  l»v 
tin*  arrival  of  an  moi  luous  mail,  tin-  tiist  lorriviMl  sim-c 
lmvin;x  Savannah,  two  uioulhs  hcftu-**.  ('<»urtri;;ht 
siM'aks  of  ^ifttini;  t  hilt  \  six  l»'it«-rs  ami  savs  In-  wrote 
lliirt  v-«'i;iht.  Till'  r«'j;ular  ih-iails  foi-  pirUri  duly  woi** 
math*  ('V«Mv  day,  hut  t  hrr**  rt-maim-d  amjdt'  I  imo  f«U"  all 
to  oujoy  llio  I't'st  and  |ih'asur<'s  (o  In-  roiiin!  at  (odds- 
lioio.  (Ml  A|»iil  lid  rloihiii^  was  issued  to  the  Kejii- 
nieiii.  Hetwecn  that  date  and  the  KMh  tin-  ;:allant 
Imys  who  had  fought  at  the  liatllc  of  Nashvilh-,  Lii-u- 
ti'iiant  Arnold  and  others,  also  many  iero\ered  froui 
8<*ver«*  wounds,  anionj^  them  Serjieani  \\  ni.  II.  (luiard, 
returned  to  the  Ke«^inieiii.  (Ml  Apiil  (Ith  ollicial  news 
was  received  <tf  the  fall  of  Kit  huioiid  and  its  or«u|»a- 
tioii  l»y  (leiiei-al  'Iraut's  arm\.  I.ehuul  says:  "The 
afternoon  was  s|tenl  in  rejoieiu^.  ami  alioul  one  hun- 
dred thtuisand  rheeis  went  u|i.  hi  say  nothing.:  of  the 
'old  r(Uiiniissary'  that  went  down  aniou^  the  ollicers. 
I  heard  a  dispaleh  fioui  <  Irant  io  Sheriuan  read,  order- 
iii;^  him  to  uiove  as  so(Ui  as  |iossilde  and  liel|»  hrin;; 
the  war  to  a  r|os<*.  In  the  eveninji  the  air  was  lillefl 
with  rorkets  ami  ini|u-om|itu  tireworks.  <  Mie  of  the 
favorite  devices  was  to  |uil  powder  in  a  «  aiit«M*n,  then 
luiry  it  and  li^lil  with  a  fuse."  The  army  reiiiaine«l  at 
(oddshoro  until  April  HMli,  during'  which  lime  it  was 
re<loiliei|.  reor;^ani/.ed  a  lid  put  in  shaiM'  for  aiioihei- 
campai;:n.  which  all  the  men  felt  was  to  close  the  war 
and    reiurn    lliem    in   iheii'   hoincs   ami    ilie   pursuit^   of 

peace. 


(CHAPTER    XIX. 


The    Last    Campaigrn — March  to  Raleigh — President  Lincoln's  As- 
sassination— Johnston's  Surrender — End  of  the  War. 


General  t^hennaii,  wht»  h;ul  ^miv  to  City  Point  on 
March  2r)th  to  confer  with  (Teneral  (xrant,  meantime 
leavinii'  (leiieral  Schofiehl  in  command  of  tlie  army, 
returned  to  (rohlsboro  on  the  30th,  and  set  vigorously 
to  work  on  ])reparations  for  the  next  campaign.  He 
made  some  changes  in  the  organization  of  his  army. 
The  left  wing  was  styled  the  Army  of  (Jeorgia.  Gen- 
eral Joseph  A,  Mower  was  put  in  command  of  the 
Twentieth  Corps  in  place  of  General  Williams.  The 
Tenth  Corps,  under  Terry,  was  added  to  the  Army  of 
the  Ohio,  which  was  called  the  center,  and  commanded 
by  General  Schoticld.  The  right  wing  retained  the 
old  title.  Army  of  the  Tennessee,  The  cavalry  was 
still  commanded  by  Kilpatrick.  The  left,  center  and 
right  contained  respectively  28,0()3,  26,392,  28,834  men. 
Grand  total,  88,948  men.  The  artillery  numbered  91 
guns.  General  Carlin  was  superseded  in  command  of 
the  First  Division  by  General  C.  C.  Walcutt.  The  First 
Brigade,  commanded  by  General  ITobart,  contained  the 
same  regiments  as  heretofore.  Our  own  and  the  For- 
ty-second and  Eighty-eighth  Indiana  had  marched  and 
fought  together  since  leaving  Mnrfreesboro  in  18()3. 

On  Monday,  A])ril  lOtli,  Sherman's  armies  were 
again  set  in  motion  toward  the  enemy.  Johnston 
was  then  at  Smithtield,  but  on  Sherman's  approach 
retreated  through  Kaleigh.  The  left  wing  was  directed 
to  the  latter  city,  fifty  miles  from  Goldsboro,  The  One 
Hundred  and  Fourth  marched  twelve  miles  on  the  10th 
and  camped.  Sergeant  William  Harrold,  of  Company 
C,  was  wounded  by  a  torpedo  which  had  been  planted 
in  the  road.    The  next  day  the  Regiment  acted  as  train 


II-  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

guanl.  Soiiu*  Kkirinishiujj  was  done  in  from  ;in«l  occa- 
8iiiii:il  raniinnadiii^'  was  lH*anl,  During  tin*  ni^'lit  of 
tlir  lllli  (iiMinal  SlH/niian  n-crivrtl  won!  fnuii  (Jt*ii- 
eral  Grain  thai  L^f  aiul  his;  army  liad  surivmltTeil  to 
hiiu  on  tin*  iMli  of  April.  This  w«*lr<nin'  in*ws  was 
aiinMUiUMMl  t«(  thr  arm}  in  Mi«hMs  on  ihi*  llilii,  and 
caus«Ml  «;rfat  n*joiriii;4;.  All  roiisidi'i»Ml  that  iln*  ••iid 
of  tJM'  war  was  iirar  at  hand.  The  t|iifs!ioii  iIm-m  was, 
will  .It»hiiston  surn'nd«*r — ami  whfMi?  As  th<'  arini»*8 
caiiu'  nearer  to  Ivalfiu;li.  .lohnston  rrtirril  to  (JnMMis- 
boro.  TIh*  (>m*  Ihimlifd  and  I'oiirih  ramiM-d  on  the 
evtMiin;;  of  tin*  12th  at  Stallinjj's  Stat  ion.  Inland  savs 
ill  rr^Mi-d  to  tin*  i:itli:  "\\«*  starifd  at  four  a.  m..  antl 
walUin^I  rapidly  brat  i  li.  Tw  cntiiM  h  Torps  into  Kah'i^di, 
arriving;  ln*foiT  10  o'riuck.  Marchini;  up  tin*  main 
stiii'i  to  the  iniio  of  'Hail  <  olnmhia/  a  hall  was  mad<* 
at  ili«'  tajtitol  and  onr  anus  stacked  mi  iIm*  sipiare. 
As  d»Mails  for  prt»t(M'tlon  were  calltMl  f<ir  l>y  tin*  riti- 
zens,  j;nards  w«'r«*  s«*nt  with  iIhiii.  so  that  in  a  short 
tinn*  the  nii«'  lhindr<M|  and  l-'ouith  was  scaltrrrd  all 
ov<*r  town.  Kalcijjih  was  tin*  pr«Mti«'st  looking  «ity  we 
bad  s«M'ii  in  the  Sontli,  tin-  honses  were  mostly  larjje 
and  in  ^nutd  condition,  the  ^aitleiis  fnll  td  llowers  and 
the  air  fra^^ranl  e\ery wlier**."  The  pleasure  derived 
from  sneh  surroundings  was  no  doubt  increased  by  the 
expectation  that  all  the  marrhinjj;  and  linhtin^^  was 
8oon  to  rml.  The  I'MftJM'nth  ( 'orps  was  reviiwtd  un  the 
14th  by  ^Jeiierals  Sli»rman,  Howard,  SltMuni.  Terry  and 
liOj^an.  (Jeneral  SlnMiuan,  siandinj;;  on  the  st«*ps  of 
the  capitol,  was  all  smiles  and  alTability.  l>ef«»re  his 
arrival  he  had  been  waited  u|>on  by  a  ••ommittee  of 
the  prominent  citizens  of  Kalei^h,  who  brspoke  his  for- 
bearance and  that  of  thr  army.  Their  coutidem  ••  was 
not  mis|da<-ed.  In  ihc  afternoon  of  th)'  11th  the  <  Mie 
Hundred  and  I^Mlrlll,  which  had  be^nin  to  ft'«*l  ai  home 
in  Kalci;xh,  was  mtli-icd  lo  march  toward  the  fnmt 
on  the  llillsboru  road,  and  ;;oin;;  •'ii,dn  miles,  camped 
at  Claiborne  Station.  The  inar«h  was  resumed  on  the 
loth  at  six,  ami  continued  all  day.  Holly  S|>rin;^'s  was 
rea<dHMl  at  ;ii;;ht  and  it  be;;an  to  look  as  if  the  war  was 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  313 

not  over  yet.  On  the  16tli  the  Regiment,  after  nuirch- 
iug  all  the  forenoon,  was  halted  and  went  into  camp 
near  'Martha's  Vineyard  and  not  far  from  the  Cai)e 
Fear  Kiver.  General  KSherman  had  on  the  14th  re- 
ceived a  note  from  Johnston  requesting  a  conference 
to  consider  terms  for  the  surrender  of  his  army.  Gen- 
eral Sherman  in  reply  named  the  17th  of  April  as  the 
date  when  he  would  meet  the  rebel  (Jeneral.  In 
the  meantime  hostilities  were  sus])end»Ml  for  forty- 
eight  hours  and  the  advance  columns  held  in  abeyance. 
On  the  morning  of  the  17th  as  General  Sherman  was 
about  to  leave  for  the  outposts  between  the  two  armies, 
he  received  a  dispatch  from  Secretary  Stanton  that 
President  Lincoln  had  been  assassinated,  an  attempt 
made  on  Seward  and  his  son,  and  that  it  was  supposed 
a  like  fate  was  intended  for  other  high  officers.  Gen- 
eral Sherman,  filled  with  sadness  and  astonishment, 
enjoined  silence  on  the  operator,  and  proceeded  on  his 
way  to  meet  Johnston.  He  was  accompanied  by  Gen- 
*eral  Logan  and  some  others.  The  party  on  reaching 
Durham,  twenty-six  miles  from  Raleigh,  left  the  car, 
and  taking  horses  furnished  by  Kilpatrick,  marched 
up  the  road  some  five  miles.  A  soldier  went  ahead 
with  a  white  flag,  and  soon  after  the  rebel  flag  ap- 
peared, followed  by  Generals  Johnston  and  Hampton. 
The  two  chieftains  after  an  exchange  of  compliments 
retired  to  a  small  farm  house  near  by.  General  Sher- 
man then  showed  the  telegram  he  had  received  to  Gen- 
eral Johnston.  Sherman  says:  "I  watched  him  closely. 
The  perspiration  came  out  in  large  drops  on  his  fore- 
head, and  he  did  not  attempt  to  conceal  his  distress. 
He  denounced  the  act  as  a  disgrace  to  the  age  and 
hoped  I  did  not  charge  it  to  the  Confederate  Govern- 
ment. I  told  him  I  did  not  believe  that  he  or  General 
Lee,  or  the  officers  of  the  Confederate  army,  could  pos- 
sibly be  privy  to  acts  of  assassination;  but  I  would  not 
say  as  much  for  Jeff.  Davis,  George  Sanders  and  men 
of  that  stripe."  There  was  mut-h  more  conversation 
on  this  subject  and  the  effect  on  the  country  and  par- 
ticularly the  armies,  as  Mr.  Lincoln  was  very  dear  to 


m  THE   ONE   HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

th«*  sulilii'PS.  TIhu  folliiw  «m|  a  iirtlimiiiaiv  talk  as  to 
ttTiiis  of  suntMnli*r.  afhT  uliiili  a  fiiilluT  iiirrtiii;;  was 
Hrniiij:«Ml  for  ilu*  iifXl  <la\  at  noon.  I'arh  t  Ikmi  ilcpai'tetl 
for  his  li<'ii<l(|nari«'rs.  <  Mi  his  it'tuiii  \*>  liah'i«^h,  <ieii- 
«*ral  Shriiiian  aiiiiMiiiii-«Mi  tht*  sa»l  iirus  to  his  ariiii<'s 
ill  S|M(ial  I'ifhl  <»r<l«'r  No.  ."»<».  \NIm*ii  on  ih«*  isih  the 
orth-r  wjiK  resul  to  the  sohlii-rs  and  they  rralizeti  its 
iiicaiiiii*;  the  s»«mh'  i»r«*seiite<l  was  <nie  iievn-  in  !»«•  f«ir- 
^joiti'ii.  raptain  Siiauii  savs:  "Snrh  a  linn-  I  hojM' 
never  to  s«*<' a;:aiM.  Mm  who  u«m«*  hahitually  jtrofaiie 
forpit  to  swear,  ttsirs  ran  Mown  from  eyes  ninis«M|  to 
w<*<*|iiny;.  Kvery wh«*r«*  men  were  stHMi  to  wei^p  who 
hiitl  never  llinrhed  in  the  white  heat  of  battle.  The 
cahiniity  ton«  h<<|  ih«'  innermost  reeesses  of  the  heart 
(►f  every  sohlier.  The  soldiiMs  declai-ed  that  they  di«l 
Hot  want  peart'  and  uonhl  take  no  more  |>rison«'rs.  \\\\\ 
tlie  jM»i;inanr\  uf  *^v\t'f  jiracinally  subsided,  and  when 
.]«dinston  had  suri't-mh-red,  w«*  ln-^aii  to  Ion;;  for  h<"m<'." 
On  April  iMh  <ien<Mals  Sherman  and  -lohnsion 
a^ain  met  and  signed  a  "Mrmoi-amhim,  *>v  l^asis  of 
A^'iiM-meiit,"  providing:  f«»r  th«'  surrcuth'r  of  dohnsion's 
iirmy.  <ten<'ial  Sh«-rman  insisted  on  snhmitlin^^  this 
for  ratiti<-at  ion  to  jiis  ( iovernnicnt,  and  the  document 
was  sent  at  onr«  l»y  a  trusty  messonuri-  lo  W'ashin^'- 
ton.  Meaniimc  fht-  stahi  i/im  of  iht-  armirs  was  i«t  Im- 
niaintaint-d.  (MMu-ial  Shfi-man,  as  appears  fr<UM  his 
h'lt«-rs.  piddishi'd  in  his  "Memoirs,"  ])a;;«*  ."{ol,  s«MMns 
to  have  enlertaiiM'd  no  d<>uhi  of  ilic  promjM  at»|uies- 
cenre  of  the  ( Jovt-riimtiit  !«•  ihc  icrms  a^r«'«'d  u|»on. 
Hut  he  was  doomed  to  disappoint  men  i.  lie  had  unfort- 
unaiely  allowed  some  «ivil  and  pojitieal  tpiestions  to 
find  their  way  into  the  "a;:reeiuenl."  «|m'siions  w  hirh 
had  during  t  he  mnferenee  jieen  art  fully  raised  l»\  .lojni 
Bt«»n.  Hrerkinridee  and  Kea^an,  and  these  at  oner  found 
<d>jeetion  in  the  Mispieious  mimis  of  the  new  I'resideiit, 
Andrew  .lolmson.  and  his  aeule  Seeieiary  of  War.  Stan- 
ton. The  latter  at  oine  te|e;.Maphed  <Jrant  as  fcdiows: 
"The  President  desires  that  you  pim  ted  immediately 
to  the  head(|uariers  of  .Mai«u' <  leiieral  Sherman  and 
dir«Mt  o|M'ralions  a^'ainst  the  enemy."     (hi  A]uil  L'lth 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  315 

General  Sheiiiian  Avas  surprised  by  the  sudden  an«l 
nnannounred  appcarauc**  of  (}eneraK(  rranl  in  lialei};h, 
who  informed  him  of  what  had  transpired  and  directed 
him  to  notify  (leneral  Jcdinston  that  the  truce  would 
expire  in  forty-ei*;ht  hours.  In  another  note  to  John- 
ston Sherman  <lemanded  his  surrender  (Ui  tlie  terms 
given  General  Lee.  General  Grant  saw  and  ap})rov(Ml 
of  what  was  done,  and  late  in  the  day  Sherman  received 
an  answer  from  Johnston  requesting  a  conference  on 
the  26th.  This  was  hehl-as  before  near  Durham,  and 
the  final  terms  of  surrender  arranged  and  executed. 
General  Grant  ai)proved  of  all  and  returned  to  Wash- 
ington on  the  27th.  In  the  first  agreement  General 
Sherman  had,  as  usual  "init  his  foot  in  it,"  though  he 
"meant  well."  A  man  of  his  character,  temperament 
and  position,  given  to  much  talking  and  writing,  as 
he  always  was,  will  do  such  things  occasionally.  Also, 
the  politicians  at  Washington  were  ever  ready  to  im- 
prove an  opportunity  to  reduce  those  whom  they  con- 
sidered were  becoming  too  popular.  The  correspond- 
ence and  discussion  that  ensued,  and  the  abuse  by  the 
newspapers  of  General  Sherman,  would  fill  volumes. 
The  chief  actors  on  the  scene  are  dead,  but  a  perusal 
of  the  history  of  those  events  reveals  the  meanness, 
jealousies,  ambitions  and  weaknesses  of  those  who 
attacked  Sherman  for  his  mistake.  General  Grant  had 
a  nobler  nature  and  stood  by  his  old  friend,  as  he  always 
did  by  any  one  who  had  gained  his  confidence.  He 
did  not  take  command  of  Sherman's  armies,  but  return- 
ing to  Washington  found  Halleck  and  Stanton  issuing 
orders  to  army  commanders  to  move  without  regard  to 
any  one  but  Grant.  The  announcement  of  the  final 
surrender  by  General  Grant  and  his  advice  induced 
those  gentlemen  to  subside,  and  the  excitement  raised 
by  overambitious  patri(>ts  died  away. 

During  the  negotiations  the  armies  in  their  camps 
speculated  on  the  rumors  of  surrender  afioat  and  quietly 
awaited  the  result.  Discipline  was  not  relaxed,  and 
drill  by  battalion  or  brigade,  also  x>icket  duty,  were 
kept  up  as  usual.     On  the  24th  the  writer,  who  had 


SIC  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

boon  •»ii  <liH  \  ill  ni:iil»*>i«ui.  r«'j<'iinil  ili«'«Mit'  lluinlr«'«l 
aixl  Fourili  ;ii  th«*  fnnii,  tliuiij;li  siill  siilTiMiii;:  from  a 
rln'oiiir  ilisfusr  roiit  i-ai-l<*<|  ill  llu*  piisDii  liflls  nf  the 
SiMilli.  (Ml  the  LTmIi  Coloiirl  I  la|MMiiaii.  wIk*  hail  Immmi 
absfiil  uii  li*av(%  i-i*iiirii«-<l  ami  assnim'il  tMiumaml  of 
tlic  K«';;:iiii<*iit  wliirli  lie  liail  Inl  so  loii^  ami  siirr<*sK- 
ftill\.  Caitlaiii  Usmaii  also  irporitil  uii  ili«-  saiii«'  <l-iii'. 
On  April  L'sth  .lolmsion's  siiiirmloi-  was  ft>rmallv 
aiinoiiiircil  ill  onliis.  (o'lirrai  Slicniiaii.  ralliiii^all  liis 
army  ami  rorps  t-ommamlrrs  to^«*tli<'i'  in  Kal«'i;;;li, 
siat«'«l  to  tliciii  his  ai'i'aii;:*'im'iits  for  i  In*  disposition  of 
his  aniiics.  (oMHTals  Silioiirld,  T<*nv  ami  Kil|iat ii«k 
wt'i-f  to  i-iMiiain  in  North  <  "jin.lina.  while  ihi-  ri;iht  ami 
Ifft  win^is  Wert-  in  iiiairh  I'oi-  Kitliiii«>ml.  'i'o  <i<MieraI 
Schotii'hl  uas  roiiiiiiitt«Ml  tin*  task  of  parojinnr  .Juhn- 
ttni's  inrii.  ami  tin*  sann*  diitv  »h'Vol\»Ml  on  <I«'n- 
«Tal  W'ilsiui  in  (oMU-^jia  ami  I'lorida.  Tin*  t«»tal  nnniiMM* 
Thus  siifi«'ii<l«T«'<l  ami  jiaroh-d  aiiionnt«Ml  to  S'.»,L*70 
nifii.  All  tin-  anus  ami  wai-  mati'fial  u«'r«'  also 
sniirmhTotl.  TIm'  waf  was  ov«m-.  No  iifrat  <'niiff(|- 
orato  aiiiiios  anvwht'ir  irmaimMl  »*ast  of  the  Mississ- 
ippi, ami  oiijv  a  U-\\  fiauinciils  west  of  ihal  fiN«'f. 
This  was  tin*  fniil  of  .lohnsioirs  siirit'mh'i'.  ami  it  was 
hafd  for  ns  to  i-ralizc  at  hfst.  that  tin*  fud  had  coim' 
and  tin*  \ast  afinirs  of  tin*  rnimi  wtif  to  he  diss«dM*d 
and  i-»*h';iatod  to  tho  pni-siiils  of  p<  ;n  i-.  Tin*  <Mm*  Ihin- 
difd  and  I'lMiith  had  niadt*  its  last  mairh  lowai-il  tin- 
♦MH'iiiN  I  tin*  Idond  of  its  niriiilx'ts  had  dam|M'm'd  tin* 
soil,  and  its  stained  ^nd  Inilh't-torn  tlau  had  waved 
amid  the  smoke  of  the  last  hatth-  at  l'>entoii\  ilje.  In 
leavili;^  folevel"  the  scenes  of  its  toils  and  <lan;;ers, 
niairlies  and  Watt  h*s.  extendiii};  over  nearly  three  years, 
the  Hue  Ihindred  and  I'oiiith  would  ever  he  aid«*  to 
n*rnll  with  sat  isfart  ion  :ind  pride  the  leroHeii  ion  of  its 
past  i-arei-r  ami  i  he  hiimii;ilde  fame  it   had  won. 

"Wf  \l\f  In  <liM'(lh,  not  vj'urK;  In  thuuKlitM,  not  l>r»'alhB; 

In  r«M<linKH.  not  In  (lKiin*H  on  a  illal. 

\V«*  mIiouIiI  <onnl  linn*  tiy  lii>art-t)irol)H." 

On  III**  LMMh  of  April  the  <  Hie  Ihindied  aii<i   1". Mirth 
«'Kri»rted  I  he  I  rain  lo  <  'hiihoriie  Stat  ion  niid  on  i  he  .",»M  h 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  317 

rejoined  the  division  at  Morrisville,  where  it  was  mus- 
tered for  pay,  received  its  mail,  and  starting  on  its 
homeward  march  made  twelve  miles  that  afternoon. 
Before  leaving  we  learned  of  a  little  "sell"  perpetrated 
on  General  llaird  the  night  of  the  27th.  Leland  thus 
relates  it:  "It  seems  that  the  order  announcing  John- 
ston's surrender  was  received  by  General  Walcutt, 
commanding  the  First  Division,  before  reaching  Gen- 
eral Baird,  who  was  stationed  at  Holly  Springs.  Gen- 
eral ^^'alcutt  was  so  elated  that  he  sent  word  to  every 
regimental  commander  to  have  his  men  make  as  much 
noise  as  possible  until  morning.  The  men  lired  by  vol- 
ley and  the  artillery  boomed.  Baird  hearing  the 
unwonted  noise,  started  to  the  relief  of  the  First  Divi- 
sion with  two  brigades  placing  the  other  brigade  in 
line  and  ordering  it  to  throw  up  a  line  of  breastworks, 
as  he  had  no  doubt  our  division  was  attacked  and  it 
might  be  necessary  to  fall  back.  After  going  three 
miles  a  soldier  from  the  camp  of  the  First  Division 
was  met  who  explained  matters.  For  a  time  the  air 
was  sulphurous  around  General  Baird  and  he  swore 
that  ^little  Charley  Walcutt  had  put  up  a  game  to  fool 
him.'  Nevertheless  he  was  pleased  with  the  news  and 
marched  back  to  bis  camp." 


<  ii\i'ri:i:   x.\. 

Off  for   WanhlnKton— IU<i-    With    lh«-    Twentieth    Corps    to    Rlch- 
monil— Th»*  t;rand    K.-vlew— Mu»ti-r  out  mikI   R.turii   Horn.- 

Tli«'  iiian-li  uf  tlu'  Fonrt«M«utli  mikI  'iNVfiii  i<i  Ii  (".miis 
to  liirliiiKMiil  was  iiMi  (lrv«»i(l  ol  iiitcicsi.  as  ii  lav 
within  iIm'  liiH'  »»f  o|MM-ali«>iis  of  tlir  rasiciii  aiiiii«'s  in 
pairi,  Iml  was  iiiaiiilv  «i'lfliiat<Ml  fur  tlir  »|ni(ki!«'ss  with 
whirli  it  N\as  inaMf.  '\'\i*'  ^i"i\  Ixraiin-  <  iiiirin  that 
<J«'n«'ials  I>avis  aii<l  Mmwim-  niadf  a  Imm  as  to  which 
rMi|»s  woiihl  i-t'aih  th«'  lat«*  icIm-1  «ai»ilal  tiisi.  'IMmm*** 
had  alwavs  Imm-ii  nnirh  livaliv  ht'twrrii  thr  two  and 
l«»th  n'snlvrd  til  d<>  th«'if  ln'st  t»ii  this  (Mcasinii.  Th*' 
<  Mk'  llniidi'i-d  and  l^||||-lh,  w  hirli  had  t-;ini]M-d  mi  ih<- 
Nriisi*  Kivt'i-  on  the  ."UMh  td"  April,  ciosscd  «-ail.v  on  the 
nioiiiin^'  of  Ma.v  1st  ami  at  noon  n*a«ln'd  tin*  Tar  l{iv«'r, 
when  a  halt  was  luade  f«ir  dinn«*f.  Wadinj:  t  hat  sii-ram 
the  |{r}.din<'nt  inairln*d  tmtil  ni^dit.  whi-n  it  wmt  into 
bivoiiar  one  inih*  hi'vond  Oxford.  N.  < '.,  having  ina<le 
t  went  \ -foni- niih's.  <  Mi  Ma\  'Jd  thr  Ki'uiin«Mit  stai-icd  at 
davli;,dit  and  niairhini:  lapidl.v  jiasst-d  ihron;:h  Wil- 
lianishoio  Ml  nooii  :ind  ii-at-hcd  \'ii'<j:inia  soil  at  toin- 
p.  ni.,  ;:oin;i  into  ramp  ai  ni^ht  m-ai-  Tavloi's  I'fiiv, 
on  ihf  Koaind<f  Ki\<'f.  Thf  day's  niairh  of  twentv- 
Kcven  inih's  had  ln't-n  niadr  inoir  s«*v«'f«*  by  the  rxtfenie 
Ileal  and  dnsiN  lojids.  Thr  fad  was  inalh'd  that  on»' 
year  a;:o  SlnMinan's  aiiny  had  h'fi  <  iiaysv  ilh-,  ir.\.,  to 
li('i:in  tin-  Atlanta  t;ini|»ai^M.  What  stupcinJoMs 
ehan^'cs  had  tak«-n  plarc  in  that  linn!  \\  ho  tlnMi  roiijd 
foretidl  tin-  fntni-c  of  lliai  ariii\?  W'ln-lln-r  ii  would 
march  on  to  \  irtoiy  of  ilcfciii  !  Tin'  most  saiii^uiiH'  woit- 
silent,  and  <\<-n  i'lfsidi-nt  Lin<-<dn  ami  (n-noral  (tiant 
had  ;:ia\«'  foais  as  to  tin-  smecss  of  the  nndciMakin;;  to 
rrdn«r  Atlanta.  I^ni  limr  pi-ovfd  the  basrlrssm'ss  of 
thene  fears,  ami  aflfi-  rontinnons  niaithiii;;  aind  ti;;ht 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  319 

ino-  for  one  hniidred  and  Iwciity  days,  pi-oud  Atlanta 
fell ;  thiMi  f(dIowed  the  lierce  piirsnit  of  1  lood,  the  inareh 
to  the  s<^a  and  iiortliwaiMl,  to  ti.nht  the  last  decisive 
battle  and  receive  the  sniTender  of  the  last  rebel  army; 
and  all  within  a  year!  Now  peace  reij>ned,  and  we  were 
marchino-  home,  a  fact  hard,  indeed,  to  realize,  but 
accepted  with  satisfaction  by  the  majority,  however 
strange  it  seemed  to  this  army  of  veteran  soldiers. 

On  the  3d  only  fourteen  miles  were  covered,  owing 
to  delay  in  laying  pontoons  across  the  Roanoke.  We 
camped  at  night  seven  miles  beyond  Boydtou.  In 
passing  through  we  saw  a  tine  university  building,  now 
empty  and  deserted.  The  4th  of  May  was  cel(4)rated 
by  a  march  of  thirty-seven  miles  and  all  previous  rec- 
ords eclipsed.  The  Twentieth  Corps  was  somewhere 
in  the  rear.  We  had  gone  through  Luneuburgh  Court 
House  in  the  afternoon;  this  was  a  most  forlorn  look- 
ing place.  The  camp  was  made  at  Nottaway  Falls. 
During  the  night  it  rained,  and  on  the  5th  the  roads 
were  not  so  dusty,  and  it  was  easier  to  march.  We 
arrived  at  Nottaway  Court  House  at  nine  a.  m,,  where 
we  first  saw  a  detachment  from  the  Army  of  the  Poto- 
mac ;  the  men,  who  were  dressed  nicely  and  wore  paper 
collars,  seemed  astonished  at  the  ragged  appearance 
of  Sherman's  boys  and  their  long,  swinging  mar<h, 
while  the  mule  train,  conducted  by  the  "bummers,"  was 
an  object  of  particular  interest  and  remark.  From 
Lunenburgh  the  march  was  resumed  through  a  ham- 
let called  Denniiisville,  and  we  camped  after  dark  at 
Beaver  Pond,  having  made  thirty  miles.  The  TA\en- 
tieth  Corps,  which  had  been  all  day  on  parallel  roads, 
was  coming  up  closer,  but  we  were  ahead.  On  the 
6th  we  crossed  the  famous  Apponuittox  Kiver  at  ( lood's 
bridge,  and  marching  twenty-eight  miles  went  into 
camp  at  night  fifteen  miles  from  Kichmoud.  The  coun- 
try^  we  passed  through  seemed  rich,  but  the  boys  did 
no  foraging,  paying  for  what  they  wanted,  though  milk 
at  fifty  cents  a  ])iut  and  onions  at  five  cents  each  seemed 
a  little  high,  but  the  natives  evidently  had  the  impres- 
sion that  they  were  being  paid  in  rebel  shinplasters. 


ao  THE  o.Nh    jn   .Ni'Ki.l'  AM>  KOL'RTH 

Tlu'  Ttli  t»f  Mav  was  iiM-iiioiaMf.  lifsmiiiiij.'^  the  march 
al  ftMir  a.  in.  tlifOm*  liuii<inMi  ami  Ftuiilli  ii^'aclird  ilu* 
.laiiu'S  KivtT  at  Hellt*  Islf.  «»|iin»Kit«'  KicliiiioiKl,  at  eijjflit, 
tliiMi  lialttnl  until  aftrr  <liiin«-r.  Hryond  tin*  historir 
riv»T  rosf  tin*  <Ioum's  aiitl  sjtirrs  of  tin*  lat«*  iflM-l  »a|»- 
itol  and  Urfon*  us  fair  li«'llf  Islr,  a  phui*  of  intrn*st, 
iMTaust*  it  was  nn«'  «»f  tin*  ju-isMU  lirlls  wlirn*  so  niauv 
of  onr  Koldiors  had  suffcri'd  and  diiMi  from  starvation 
and  iilt  r»'at  m«ni.  Urvond  lh»'  riNri-  was  the  famous 
('infam«>us|  Lildtv  Trisiui,  MJiich  now  «lisj:;rar«'s  ( 'hi«a^o, 
and  is  cxhihitrd  for  protit.  in  th«*  afternoon  of  tlie 
Ttli  tlic  (Mm*  Hundred  and  ^^*urth  moved  up  tlie  river 
three  mih's  and  went  into  ramp.  The  Twentieth  Torps 
was  one  day's  mar«h  In-hind.  The  I'ourtecut  li  had 
marched  in  six  days,  as  vaiiously  estimate*!,  from  one 
humlied  Mild  eiy;lity-seveii  lo  om*  hundred  and  ninety- 
two  mih's,  or  thirty-twi*  miles  per  day.  'JMie  east«'rii 
armies  around  Kirhmoml  had  heard  we  were  lomiuLr, 
Imt  eould  hardly  believe  the  anuouiiremeiit  of  arrival, 
kiiowin;;  the  dale  of  our  leaNiii^  Kaleii^h.  Aju'opos 
t<»  this  Major  \\idm»*i-.  who  ruuld  not  resist  his  <dd 
hahit,  a<-<|uir«'d  nw  i  In*  sUirmish  line,  of  ;j:oin;;  ahead. 
i*o«le  into  Kiehmoiid  early  on  the  luornin;::  of  the  Tth 
with  K(\.  Ilerrick,  i^.  M.,  who  was  hxdcinjj:  f«>r  rations, 
wet  or  dry,  and  in  prospecting:  around  they  entered  a 
restaurant  where  some  Potomac  soldiers  were  discuss- 
in;;  tin*  rum<»i's  afloat  that  Sherman's  army  luul  ar- 
ri\'«*d.  The  dis|»ule  ran  lii^h  and  our  forav:,.|s  listened, 
much  amused,  until  tinally  iIm'  .Major  threw  in  a  slmt 
l»y  sayin;:,  "Well,  ;:<'iit  lemcn,  wo  are  here  and  repre- 
sent a  pari  of  Sherman's  army,  which  is  camped  over 
the  river."  Those  fellows  coidd  have  he.  u  knocked 
down  with  a  feather,  and  when  they  had  recovered 
from  the  shock  were  ready  to  stand  lre;it  or  he  treated. 
Wln-n  we  had  rested  a  day  on  the  hanks  of  the  .lames 
all  were  ;;lad  thai  the  lirst  sta«ie  of  the  iKuneward 
march  was  tinished,  lhou;r||  whih-  «»n  the  way  many 
"could  not  understand  why  in  h  II  we  had  to  march 
so  fast  now  the  war  was  over."  The  One  Hundred 
and    I'ourth    remainetl    in   camp    until    May    llth,   and 


REGIMENT  II.LIXOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  321 

those  who  could  obtaiu  passes  iiiipi-oved  the  oppor- 
tunity to  look  over  Richmond,  and  some  who  had  been 
prisoners  revisited  the  bastiles  of  Libby,  Castle  Thun- 
der, etc.  The  writer  was  too  sick  to  go  and  had  little 
inclination  to  look  upon  those  scenes  of  former  sulTer- 
ing,  but  was  pleased  to  hear  that  "Dick  Turner"  and 
"Little  Ross,"  two  of  Jeff.  Davis'  minions  in  Libby, 
were  then  enjoying  themselves  there,  this  time  as  pris- 
oners with  Uncle  Sam  as  keeper. 

On  the  11th  of  May  the  army  again  moved  on 
toward  the  National  capital.  The  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  left  camp  at  seven  and  the  head  of  column 
reached  the  pontoon  bridge  across  the  James  at  nine 
o'clock  a.  m.,  soon  after  passing  over  and  then  marcli- 
ing  through  the  streets  of  Richmond  with  banners  fly- 
ing and  bands  playing  the  National  airs.  The  people, 
among  them  many  ex-confederate  soldiers,  filled  the 
doors  and  windows  and  lined  the  streets  anxious  to 
see  an  army,  the  achievements  of  which  had  amazed 
the  world.  The  impression  produced  by  our  soldiers, 
who  conducted  themselves,  however  rough  they  looked, 
as  soldiers  and  gentlemen  should,  was  evidently  favor- 
able. Seven  miles  from  Richmond  we  crossed  the 
famous  Chickahominy  at  Bottom's  bridge,  and  marched 
over  ground  occupied  by  McClellan's  army  May  20, 1862, 
which  army  was  officially  reported  May  .*)1,  18()2, 
to  contain  141,173  men,  with  109,522  present  for  duty, 
yet  Richmond  was  not  captured.  At  night  the  One 
Hundred  and  Fourth  halted  after  dark  in  a  ploughed 
field,  and  before  the  tents  could  be  ]>itclie(l  a  hard 
shower,  with  terrific  thunder  and  lightning,  came  uj), 
wetting  everybody  to  the  skin.  The  attempt  to  pitch 
tents  was  useless,  and  rolling  up  in  our  wet  blankets 
we  passed  a  comfortless  night.  On  May  12th,  after 
marching  half  a  mile,  a  halt  was  made  until  noon. 
Later  the  Regiment  marched  through  Hanover  Court 
House,'  where  Patrick  Henry  delivered  his  famous  ora- 
tion that  has  made  his  name  immortal.  Reaching  the 
Pamunkey  River  in  the  evening  we  were  delayed  by 
high  water  and  all  night  crossing.    On  the  13th  marched 


3^;:  THE  ONE  HLNDHED  AND  FOURTH 

tifleiMi  iiiilfs  tliitnigh  tlir  .swamps  \vIk*iv  .M«<  Icllan's 
ariiiv  ll«>uii«lnv«l,  and  laiiipetl  on  l*ok*  Cal  Crei-k.  Made 
iwt'iitv  inilrs  oil  iUv  14tli,  ovi-r  hisi(»iir  grouiul  ami 
haltril  at  Noriln-ast  < 'i-tM-k.  At  noon  on  tin*  ir)ili  the 
Kf^'iimMii  liali«Ml  for  diiim-r  tifi«M'ii  milrs  from  tin*  Kap- 
itiaii  ami  tin*  saim*  tlisiamt-  from  iIm*  hatl  Irlirltl  «»f  tlio 
\N  iMfiin'ss.  In  tin*  aft»*rnoon  \v«*  mafrlnMl  towanl  Cnl- 
pfpptT  i  'onrt  I  lousr,  on  a  road  alon;;  t  lu*  «Ml«;e  of  hallle- 
lirlds  forr\»'i-  mcmoialdf.  Soim*  «»f  onr  olti(«»rs  fxani- 
in«'d  iIm'S*',  Imt  found  nonr  tin*  like  of  \\lii«li  Slu-i-man's 
arm\  had  not  stoinhMl  and  taken.  At  ni;;lit  tin*  U«*;;i- 
intMit  went  into  Idvouac  at  \'«*i'<li«M'svilIp,  havin;; 
mai-riicd  ri^litiM'ii  miles.  lOarlv  on  the  Ulth,  at  seven 
a.  m.,  w«'iearhed  the  Uapidan  at  Kaceoon  I'oid.  How 
•  •ft en  dnrin^'  t  hn  wai-  we  liad  heard  an<l  read.  "All  <|niet 
on  the  Ka|)idan."  We  wde  near  the  hatilefield  of 
<"<Mlar  Monntain.  A  it'm|Mti;ir\  fnnthrid^e  was  Iniili 
at  the  ford,  hill  it  soun  hroke  down  and  then  the  sol- 
diers wadt'd  the  slieani  and  niai-thin;i  on  hailed  f<»r 
dinner  mar  Powell's  Mountain,  in  ilie  afternoon  we 
passed  the  old  winter  (|iiarters  of  the  Armv  of  the 
I'otomae.  The  day's  march  was  t  w  cnty-t  hr<  e  miles. 
The  ITtli  of  May  was  ver_\  hot  ami  after  rit^ssin;:  tie* 
Kappahannork  at  Kelly's  i'ord  and  mairhin^  until 
three,  a  short  hall  was  made  mi  a«ronnl  (»f  tin*  lu*at. 
We  then  moved  on  and  learhed  t'edar  Klin,  near  t'at 
leti's  Station,  where  we  hivoiiaekeil  tor  ihe  iH;.;ht. 
livery  fool  of  the  ^iioiiml  was  historie,  havin;;  been 
fon;;|il  oM-r  hy  hot  h  armies.  (  Mi  t  he  JSi  h,  leaving:  ramjt 
at  ti\e  a.  m..  Wf  soon  crossed  Kread  liiin  and  heard, 
thirty  miles  distani,  ihe  ihiimler  of  ailillery,  which 
announced  the  apjiroach  to  Wasliin^;toii  of  Sherman's 
army.  The  Ion;;,  sullen  boom  of  the  mins  sounded 
pleasant  to  oni*  ears  and  quickened  the  lift*  Idood  of 
every  soldier.  Manassas  Junction  was  jiassed  at  ten 
a.  m.,  and  marchiii;:  across  the  plain  of  .Manassas,  we 
came  to  the  faimtiis  Tlnll  Knii.  waded  that  stream  and 
ale  dinner  on  the  hallleljeld.  Un  the  m.iii  h  we  saw 
the  remimlers  of  former  hhtodv  contests  in  forts  and 
earthworks.  Iml    the  (Quaker  i;iins  that    fooled   Met 'lei- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  323 

laii  had  beeii  removed.  Centreville  was  reached  at  four 
p.  111.,  aud  we  went  into  camp  just  in  time  to  avoid  m 
severe  rain.  Tiie  day's  march  was  twenty  miles.  Tiie 
next  day,  the  19th,  ended  forever  the  long  marches  of 
the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth.  Starting  at  sunrise  we 
passed  Fairfax  Court  Mouse  at  ten  a.  m.,  and  in  the 
afternoon  cami)ed  on  Arlington  lleiglits,  above  Alex- 
andria, and  in  full  view  of  the  National  capitol,  which 
this  Regiment  and  army  had  fought  so  long  to  save. 
We  were  on  the  princely  domain  of  the  Lees.  All 
around  us  and  beyond  the  broad  I'otomac  lay  spread 
out  to  view,  the  grandest  panorama  tliat  ever  greeted 
the  eyes  of  man.  This  was  the  month  of  May,  and 
nature  had  decked  the  hills  and  valleys,  and  plains 
witli  her  h)veliest  adornments.  Kul  this  was  not  all 
that  met  our  eager  eyes.  Here  was  the  capitol  of  the 
Nation,  the  type,  center  and  representative  of  the 
National  life.  (Irouped  around  the  ('a])itol  City,  on 
every  hillside  and  plain,  covering  thousands  of  acres, 
and  extending  even  beyond  our  vision,  rose  the  snowy 
white  tents  of  half  a  million  of  veteran  soldiers  of 
the  Union,  w^ho  had  fought  for  long  years  to  preserve 
for  themselves  and  their  children,  and  their  succes- 
sors, all  this  fair  heritage.  No  soldier  could  look 
unmoved  on  these  scenes  or  fail  to  have  implanted  in 
his  heart  a  deeper  love  for  his  country  and  flag.  A 
lesson  in  patriotism  was  then  and  there  given,  far  more 
imi)ressive  and  lasting  than  could  be  learned  in  books 
for  a  thousand  years.  What  matter  for  proud  con- 
gratulation that  the  battle-scarred  remnant  of  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  could  say,  "We  were  there,'' 
and  he]i)ed  to  achieve  those  deeds  that  made  these 
things  ])ossible  and  had  their  glorious  and  propc^r  end- 
ing in  the  final  marshaling  of  the  saviors  of  the 
Nation  at  Washington. 

THE  GRAND  REVIEW. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  passed  the  21st,  22d 

and  23d  of  May  quietly  in  camp  on  Arlington  Heights, 

engaged  in  brushing  up  soiled  and  well-worn  uniforms 

and  in  polishing  their  arms  and  equipments,  prepara- 


824  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

un-y   lu  ihr  lui-eam   of  il..-   uionuw.     Tlu-  ;in.iu-s  of 
the  Polcuiuu-  pasHCHl  in  ivvi.-w  on   iho  l!:M,  l.ui   tlios.- 
annifs  ha.!  always  b.n-n   so  nrar  tin-  capiiol  an,    s<. 
..firn  s,M.n  that  nn.iv  ycMu-nil  intoivst  was  fell  in  Mn-r- 
luM.rs  aiinv.  all   Loin-  anxions    to    see    the    veteran 
le-ions  wIm'.so  i„oNvnn-nts  w.-re  ever  nivsternnis  as  1  Im-n 
eounnere.!  boil,  n.an  an,l  nalnre  in  the  Atlanta  rani- 
l.ai'Mi   iln-n  were  lost  to  view  in  the  lea],  to  the  sea  au.l 
a.uCl    ihe  swamps  of  (Ji-or-ia   an.l    ih.-  rarohnas,  to 
appear  a|j:ain  later,  luit  ever  virtorious.     Tln-re  was  a 
.lesire  t..  sei'  what    kin.l  <.f  nn-n   tln-se  Wi-re  who  ha. I 
,„;„1..  ,„arrh.-s  e.pial  to  thos,-  ..f  Can.hvres  an.l  Alex- 
.,„,l..r,  an   arn.v   that    with   .lannti.'ss  -rip   Inul   se./e.l 
h„hl  of  tin-  iniH-nnost  re.-.'sses  ..f  the  -r.-at  rebelhon  s 
heart  ami  laid  hare  its  failin-  pulsatnms.    '1  !'<•  LUh  of 
Mav  was  nshere.l  in  l.ri-ht  but  hot.     Kvery  sol.her  felt 
that  ho  ha.l  one  more  .Inty  ..f  a  pnhlii-  iialun-  t<»  por- 
furm      The  One  llun.lro.l  an<l   Fourth  was  early  astir 
ami  soon  after  sunrise  form.-,!  ranks  ami  took  up  the 
lineof  marrh.    Crossin-  iln-  Ion-  l,ri.l-e  ovr  t he  Polo- 
,nar    the  Ko-iment  rea.h.-.l  i  ho  virinily  of  tlu'  capif.! 
ahout  ..no  o'.l.M-k  ami  -..in-  an.uml  ihive  sides  of  that 
imiM.sin-   strneture,    im.ve.l    up    P.-unsylvania    aveiim* 
t..war.l   th.-   Whil.'   IL.uso.      (Mir   Division   f..rin.'.l   the 
rear  ..f  tin-  wl.oh-  mniy,  nn.l  lo,.kin-  .lowu  ih.-  av.-nu.' 
we  eoul.l  s.'.'  th.'  .l.-ns."-  mass.'s  ..f  s..l.li.My  inovin-  f<.r- 
vvar.l  with  stea.ly  ami  m.-asur.'.!  sl.'i>s.     Half  a  inilli..n 
peoj.le  looke.l   ..u   ill   a.linirat  i.'U   at    tin'  .la/./lini:  sp.'.-- 
ta.lo,   ..m'   har.llv    .Mpuih-.l    sav.-    l.y    tlu'    imp.'nal    i>a- 
-oanls  ..f  amieiit   K..m.-.  when  she  hrou-ht  entiiv  .ap- 
Uve  nath.ns  l<.  a.h.rn  her  triumphal   i.n..essi..ns:  l.ul 
Koine  f..u-ht  f..r  .-..mpiest  ami  -h.ry.  this  army  f..u<jhi 
for  the  mainteiiaiire  of  a  nation  ami  tli.'  .I.st ructi..n 
of  a    wi.k.-.l    n-l..'lli..n   a-ainst    -overnni.iii.   law   ami 
..nler.      I'ifiy    th<.usaml    hay. .nets   llasli.'.l    in   tli.-   sun- 
li;:ht  as  the  masses  swept  ..nwanl.  ]»re.'e«le.l  l.y  the  ...n- 
•  im-i-in^r  -enerals  with  their  stalTs;    tin-  h....m  ..f  artil- 
lery ami  the  exultant   strains  of  martial  music  hurst 
»i|M.n  the  ear  :in.l   impart. •.!  a.hlit h.nal  inten-st   to  th<« 
^r.ii.-.     Wealth  ami  rank,  h.-auty  ami  faslii..n  ha.l  -ath- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  325 

ered  there  to  shower  flowers  and  plaudits  of  welcome 
on  Sherman's  army.  In  one  particular  the  people  were 
disappointed.  The  idea  had  prevailed  that  Sherman's 
was  an  army  of  "bummers,"  that  during  its  mighty 
campaigns,  far  removed  from  its  base  of  supplies  and 
cut  off  f(>r  mouths  from  communications  with  the 
world,  discipline  had  been  relaxed  and  it  had  become 
indiflerent  to  military  restraint  and  laws,  but  when 
the  first  coliunn  wheeled  into  line  straight  as  a  tight- 
ened cord,  followed  by  others,  and  in  each  serried  rank 
but  one  footfall  heard;  and  as  the  eyes  of  the  people 
took  in  the  compact  formation,  seeing  no  stragglers 
and  nothing  wrong,  but  all  soldierlike  in  dress  and 
bearing,  there  was  a  sudden  revelation,  and  cheer  upon 
cheer  greeted  the  veterans.  "Distinct  as  the  billows, 
yet  one,  as  the  sea,"  the  army  moved  forward  to  the 
Presidential  Mansion.  There  President  Johns<jn,  sur- 
rounded by  all  the  great  statesmen  and  generals  of  the 
Nation,  reviewed  the  passing  thousands.  The  "Bum- 
mer Brigade"  formed  a  novel  feature  of  the  great  dis- 
play. This  was  led  by  a  sable  warrior  on  a  small  don- 
key, followed  by  a  motley  collection  of  mules,  big  and 
small.  An  occasional  horse  was  seen,  evidently  kept 
for  osteological  study.  That  the  men  had  a  clear 
appreciation  of  the  necessity  for  a  good  commissary 
department  in  an  army  was  shown  by  the  well-loaded 
mules.  On  one  of  these  was  a  goat,  on  others  roosters 
and  small  dogs,  with  a  coon  or  two.  There  were  also 
pots,  pans,  kettles,  and  other  articles.  This  Brigade 
was  indifferent  to  military  rules,  but  kept  an  eye 
open  to  the  main  chance  and  marched  along, 
the  roosters  looking  proudly  down  on  the  cheer- 
ing crowds.  It  was  a  great  day  for  Sherman's  bum- 
mers. The  sun  was  low  in  the  west  when  the  last  of 
Sherman's  army  passed  the  White  House.  The  One 
Hundred  and  Fourth,  with  the  Brigade,  marched  out  of 
review  and  back  to  camp,  arriving  late  and  well  worn 
out.  Thus  ended  one  of  the  grandest  pageants  in  all 
military  history,  and  every  member  of  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fourth  who  was  there  will  never  foraet  this 


K* 


...SK  HrNI>l(Kl«  AM'   KOL'RTH 


fifiin-   rliiiiax   t..   his  aiinv   s.ivi. -•  and  the  Nati..iial 

uiiniiph.  ,     .»-  1 

Thf  K«-;;iiiu'iit  rfiiiaiiuMi  in  camp  <»n  ilii-  -.»tli,  n-M- 
inj;  an.l   ninsin;:  »»n  th.-  j^n-a!   rvc-nis  of  the  past   few 
ilaNs.     (Ml  th.'  l-Mlih  tlu'  i-anip  was  remov«Ml  across  the 
riviT  t..  a   iM-anhful   -rove.  iw..  niih-s  from   Washin^'- 
lon.     Whih-  ihcn-  all  ha<l  an  oppoiiunitv  to  visit  the 
public  bnihiintjs  an.l  places  of  interest  and  they  thor- 
<.n;;hlv  enjoved  it.     Meant iim'  mtister-«»ut  n»lls  were  pre- 
panMl".  an.l  im  .luner.tl'.  !>«;:.,  i  he  men  of  theCMie  lliin- 
ilr«Ml  antl   Tourth   then   an.l   th.-r.-  pr.-sent,   w.-r.-  nins- 
tereilont  ..f  the  servi.-e  an.l  armies  ..f  tin-  I'nit.-.l  Stat.-s, 
an.l  l»ecanieaj:ain  private  citizens  .»f  the  j^reat  repnhlh, 
havin;:,  sin.-.-  nnist.'r-in,  An<rnst  liTth.  ISC.L*,  serv.-.l  th.-ir 
.-.Mint  r\  tw..v.'ars,  nin.Miionths  an.l  nine  .lays.    A  mini- 
Iter. »f  men  wh.»  w.-re  si.kinhospitalor  .>n  .l.-ta.-h.-.l  .liiiy 
at  vari.Mjs  p.»ints,  also  some  t  ransf.-i  r.-.l.  w.-r.-  must.-r.-.l 
Milt  a  littl.-.-arli.-r.»r  lat.-r.      (  Hi  .hiiir  Ttii,  isil.".,  th.-  One 
llnn.lr.Ml  ami   r..nrtli  .■mhark.-.l  .iii  the  .ais  for  li.»me. 
n-a.he.l    Haliim.'i-.'   at    m»oii    an.l    to.»k    .linii.*r   at    the 
'*S«.l.li««rs'    Kest."      Th.'    writer   was    invit.-.l    l.y    a    pri- 
val.-  «iti/..Mi  whom  h.-  .li»l  not   know  to  .Iim-  with  him- 
s.-lf    an.l     family,      whi.li      Ik-     «ii.i.       I'ittshiir;;     was 
n-a.li.-.l  ill  th.'  iifl.-riioon    of    th.-    tMli,    an.l    th.'    K.';:i- 
m.Mil    nnM    hy   a   .l<'l<--:alion   of  riti/eiis  ami   a    haml   of 
miisi.-;  nml.-r  ili.'ir  i-s.-ori   wr  niar.  iicij  lo  ih.-  "Sohli.M-s' 
K.-sl,"  when*  a  spl.-mlid  .linn.-r  was  sci\<-.l.     The  .oiii- 
mitt.M'  then  .•sc.uM.mI  us  to  th.'  .l.-poi  ami  u»-  h'ft   Pitts- 
l.iir;:  full  ..f  <:ratitml.-  aii  th.-  warm  r.-.-.-ption  arn.r.l.'.l 
MS.  ""(Ml   .hin.-    HMh   the   ii.'^iim.Mit    arriv.-.l    in   Chi.a-io 
ill  th.'  .-v.-iiiii^',  hut  lin.linj,^  no  om-  in  ni.-.-t  us.  mar.h.Ml 
I.I  ih.'-SoMi.-rs'  K.-st."  wli.'re,  afl.-r  wait  in;:  f.Mir  .u-  liv.- 
lumrs.  siipp.-r  was  s.-rv.-.l.     Thai  iii;:lit  m.»st  of  t lu' hoys 
slept  .111  fh.'  II.MU-  in  .Moiiit.»r  Hall:  s.uii.-  w.-nl  to  li.tl.-ls. 
On  .Inn.'  llth  the  i:.'^inii-ii(    mar.  Ii.-.l  out   io<'ami> 
I'rv,  .III  111.'  muMli  shh*  of  ilu-  <  ii\.  an.l  r.niaim'.l  ih.-r. 
until     .lum-      17th.    wh.'ii      w.'      w.-r.-     pai.l     otT.    l»ut 
.inly     l.»    .hill.'    »itli,     n-r.-iv.'.l  our    f.irmal    .lis.har^i.'s, 
iiiaile     .Mit     in     .liie     form,    ami     tli.-n  w.r.'     fr.M' .nic' 
iii.ir.'.       Th.'     On.'      llun<lr.'.l      aii.l      I'ouiili    K.'-.Miu.'iit 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS. 


327 


Of  Illinois  Voluiileer  IiUamn-,  as  a  n.ilitaiv  „i- 
.iiMiiizatioii,  was  forever  dissolved.  The  nu'iiibers  dis- 
persed to  their  various  iKuiies  bv  the  earliest  trains 
anxious  to  see  the  dear  (.nes  from  wIk.iu  thev  had  been' 
separated  so  loi.o,  J},„  ,„inoh.d  with  the  jo^  was  some- 
what of  a  stran.oeness  of  feeling-  at  the  sudden  tran- 
sitDu  from  soldiers  to  private  citizens,  with  freedom 
from  the  restraint  which  military  authority  and  dis- 
cipline imposes,  and  to  which  all  had  bec.mie  accus- 
tomed. 

Hut  one  more  task  in  writing  the  general  history 
of  the  Ilegiment  remains  for  its  historian  to  perforn'i 
which  is  to  sav,  that,  after  having  thouojit,  i»lauued  ami 
labored  for  over  a  year  uim»u  this  Nyork  he  lias  attained 
the  end  of  this  i>art  of  the  history  with  £rreat  satisfac- 
tion yet  not  unmingled  with  regret,  that  so  much  that 
would  be  of  interest  must  be  left  unrecorded  on  account 
of  the  apse  of  time  since  the  events  occurred,  the  inac- 
cessibility of  records  and  other  causes 


(•iiArTi:i:  x\i. 


H.inli.ls.  .iK-.-H  ..f  nur  First  Thn-  .M..,.i..n  .<..rvUe.  ImluJ. 
Inif  HartKvlUe,  by  Captain  Wllllain  Strawn,  Company  F  — 
H.inlnlHo.ntt'H  ..f  t»w  Allania  Campalifn.  etc.,  by  Henry  Wln- 
i,rm»i.-ldt.  Company  H  -A  Movable  Fort,  by  SerK.ant  William 
H.  Conard.  Company  K— Yankees  Without  Horns,  by  Charles 
Hlce.  Company  I— Narrative  of  Peter  Dinger.  Company  G— 
Narrative  ..f  C.llbert  U.  Conarroe.  Company  B— HeioHectlons 
of  Lieutenant  Kamlolph  and  Others,  etc..  by  Ho»>ert  West.  Com- 
pany H— An  Incident  ..f  Lieutenant  Arnold  of  Company  A— 
ItemlnlHcences  i.f  Kenesaw  Mountain  and  the  Siege  of  Atlanta, 
by  Captain  William  Strawn.  Company  F— Personal  Recol- 
hMtlons   of   the   Army    Hunimer.  by  Jacob  Bane.  Company  I. 

REMINISCKNCES  OF  Ol'R  FIRST  THREE  MONTHS'  SERVICE. 
INCMDlNd  HARTSVII.l.K.  HY  CAPTAIN  WIM.IA.M 
STRAWN.    COMPANY    F. 

TIm'  ( IIuimIiimI   aii.l    I'.Miilli.  nii  ;uri\iii.u  ;M   .Iff- 

frrsuiivilN',  l!iili;iii;i.  Si'IiI.-iiiImt  7.  \S{\'2,  was  ini  n»(lii.-.vl 
to  111*'  iii_vsicri<*s  of  r:mii»  lilr  iiinl  lliat  aiMicIf  «»f  <li»M 
know  II  as  "s.»\\  Im-IIv."  lien-,  lo...  \v«'  w.-rr  fiirnislMMl 
wii  li  1  lie  ( Juvcniiiifiii  iiiiittniii  ami  arms.  IW-iii^  ^r«'«'n, 
all  sii|(i»liril  llh'iiisclv.-s  wiih  ili.-  lull  <»iiilii  olTrrtMl, 
iiMuli  of  it,  liowrviT.  sii|mmI1iioiis.  with  lln'  tlM'nnoiii- 
i'\*-v  staiitliii^  al  «M;:liiv  in  iIm-  sliadf.  coiisiMiufmlv  a 
^'(»o(|  tl«'al  was  llii-owii  awa.v,  wlicii  soon  aft«'r  w«' 
inarrlir«l  a  few  niiirs  iimU-r  a  hioilin^  sun,  ami  luMaiiM' 
till*  |>i«-\  of  icanisiris  ami  tlcintMlalois  ;:«'m'rall,\ .  W  lini 
ill  «ani|»  iioiili  of  tin-  nlijo  a  laiifilialilt-  rirciinistamr 
orciiritMl  one  nielli  wliili-  all  nmmc  asl<M'|i.  A  iiifinlwr 
of  ('oni|ianv  I',  <lr»'aniin^  llial  lln-  irlnis  wiMt-  coniiii;:, 
starlrtl  lip  smiilcniy,  sllontin^^  "U<»vsl  hovs!"  ami  fall- 
in;;  licadlon;:  t»v«M-  Ills  romiatlcs,  awoki-.  But  a  i>any 
wrnt  oil!  to  srairli  I  In*  adjacriit  woo. Is.  limliii'.:.  how  ■ 
i'\*'V,  no  rin'inv.  W  ln'ii  in  a  f«'W  tiavs  we  irailMMl  tin* 
Ohio  it  was  ronsiih-icd  that  wo  w  oi-o  in  tin*  t'lUMnv's 
roiinifv.    ami    as    we    niairlictl    ihioniih    i.oiiisvilh'.    no 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  329 

cue  could  for^iet  with  what  vim  the  boys  sang  patriotic 
songs,  ''.Tolm  Brown,"  etc.  After  spending  a  few  ihiys 
at  ''<'ani]»  (rr:isslio]»]MM""  and  sonic  Time  in  llic  snhnrbs 
of  Louisville,  the  Kegiment  started  for  Frankfort.  That 
march  was  very  fatiguing  and  when  we  halted  the  first 
night  about  twelve.  Company  F  had  but  few  men  left, 
the  rest  having  given  out  owing  to  the  unaccustomed 
exercise.  The  boys  came  straggling  in  all  night.  When 
we  reached  Shelbyville  a  halt  of  a  few  days  was  made 
and  some  of  the  boys  foraged  for  all  there  was  in  it, 
against  orders  and  all  reason.  Shelbyville  was  the 
home  of  a  loyal  colonel  then  in  the  held  with  a  regi- 
ment of  loyal  Kentuckians,  and  his  ])lantation  was 
raided  the  same  as  others,  but  the  facts  in  regard  to 
the  colonel  were  not  known  at  the  time.  I  was  sent 
back  from  Shelbyville  to  bring  u]>  goods  left  at  Louis- 
ville, and  also  the  convalescents  of  the  K(\giment,  ami 
again  joined  the  command  at  Frankfort.  I  then  learned 
of  the  exciting  times  while  at  Shelbyville  over  the 
contraband  (juestion,  in  which  the  Regiment  came  out 
ahead.  At  Frankfort  I  was  detailed  with  a  command 
made  u])  of  men  from  the  several  regiments  of  our 
Brigade.  Colonel  Moore  was  made  commander  of  the 
Brigade,  vice  Colonel  Limberg,  arrested.  My  command 
took  charge  of  the  public  property  at  Frankfort,  and 
Company  F  camped  down  in  the  legislative  halls  of 
the  State  capitol.  From  Frankfort  the  Regiment  found 
itself,  after  a  long  and  tiresome  march  of  one  hundred 
and  sixty  miles,  in  Bowling  Green,  Kentucky.  When 
we  arrived  I  dropped  down  in  my  tracks  from  sheer 
exhaustion  and  lay  there  until  my  fast  friend,  John 
McDougall,  of  Companj'  F,  prepared  a  cup  of  tea,  which 
made  me  almost  as  good  as  new.  We  remained  at 
Bowling  Green  a  few  days  and  were  then  ordered  to 
Glasgow,  Tompkinsville,  and  llartsville.  In  the  mean- 
time Colonel  Scott,  of  the  Nineteenth  Illinois,  had  been 
placed  in  command  of  the  Brigade  by  request  of  Col- 
onel Moore  to  General  Rosecrans,  A  short  time  after 
Colonel  Scott  took  commjind  he  sent  for  me  to  call  upon 
him  at  headquarter.s,  when  he  infoi;med  me  that  Colonel 


S30  THE  ONE  HUNDKKD  AND  FOl'RTH 

Mo<»rf  had  i-»Toiiiun-n<U-il  iii\  .iii|H»iuiiin-m  as  Hri^atU' 
(V)iiiinissarv.  1  «liii  ma  iflisli  iIk*  iilt-a  t>f  bfiiij;  dLMarlird 
fi*i»iii  I  In*  ••••iu|iaiiv  and  r<M|iu*sh'd  tlu*  iuivilr;ii'  of  coii- 
suliin;:  souiv  of  mv  bioiln-i-  «»nicrrs.  Tln-y  said,  "Taki* 
it  by  all  iiu'UHh."  At  rordin};;ly  I  n*iMHti*d  i«>  Coloiud 
Scott,  ii|M»u  whirh  In-  |ir(M«'«-d«'d  to  «;ivi*  iik*  a  U*ii\i  list 
of  iiist rurtions  as  !«•  ln>u  raiilc  slumld  bt*  «lriv«'ii,  ft*d 
and  nianaj^rd  f,Mii»-rall.v.  I  lisi»-iii*d  with  ;:iaviiy  and 
iuntui-nri*.  as  tliMn;;li  tin*  dmifs  rxiMMh'tl  of  nir  \v<*n* 
fUtindy  iu*>v,  and  promised  lo  d<>  tin-  insi  I  «uuld.  nn 
r«*|MH-tin;:  to  t'ulont'l  Moor*'  In*  was  rdiiviilstMl  with 
lan;;lih'i-  at  tin*  romicality  of  t  In*  t  liin;:,  and  in  din-  i  iuir 
infornit'd  Colonrl  S«(»tt  who  1  wiis  ami  all  of  my  anr^s- 
tors  brfiifr  nn*.  Th**  ('o|«»n«'l  brin;;  yonnp;,  ft*ll  that  In* 
had  "|»nt  his  ftmi  In  it"  and  s«*nt  for  inc  at  ontt*,  wlnn 
Ih*  jiinciM'dcd  to  apidn^i/i'  as  f<dh)ws:  *'II«'i»'  1  am,  a 
yonn^'  man  jnsi  past  i  w  «'iny-tiv«',  but  have  bcrn  in  tin* 
army  Ion;;  «*m>ny;h  to  Un»»u  that  scddiris  snITcr  m<»r«* 
fi-om  tin*  inrHiririny  iind  rascality  nf  tpiarit'iniastfrs 
and  «ommissari«*s  than  fi-om  batlh*  ami  nil  <n  hir  <ans»'S. 
I  am  an  ntt«*r  stran^irr  lo  your  Hrii^adc,  and  ("ulonri 
Moorr  boin;;  in  commaml,  I,  of  «oursc,  citiisulird  him, 
but  tho\i;jht  In*  mi;;ht  have  reconniK-mltd  \..ii  as  a  par- 
tiriilar  fri«*nd  without  rrfcrrnci*  i»i  qualiliraiions;  I 
am  bni  too  ;;lad  to  kn<»\v  that  such  was  not  the  case, 
and  you  will  kimlly  ovcrlotd;  my  aticmptcd  insiiuc- 
lions  ami  atiiibutc  luy  cduisc  \n  ilic  proper  iinni\«-s."* 
( >f  cuui-sf  I  IkhI  IK*  laiill  to  liiitj  an  I  iiiniii'dial  cly 
assnnn*«l  couticd  of  commissary  matt<i>.  llui  llaris- 
vilh'  brou;ilH  my  career  as  A.  A.  ( '.  lo  an  uniinu'ly 
end.  dohn  .Mor;;an  clos<'<|  out  the  busim-ss.  At  tin* 
lime  of  the  battle  I  w:fs  abseul  al  (lallalin  with  one 
humlred  and  se\fiiiy  of  ihc  un-ii  of  (ho  lve;:imeni, 
includin;;  teamsters  ami  ^uar<ls  of  the  commissary 
ami  ammuniiioii  (rains.  The  <lay  of  the  bailie  small 
K«piads  of  ca\alry  ihai  had  been  attached  io  the  Hri- 
^ade  be;;an  to  arrive  al  (lallalin  with  ac«ouuls  of  ihe 
battle  and  disasiei*,  and  in  ;.M-andilo<pn*nt  style  told 
how    the   nn*n   of   the  ( Mn*    Mumlred    and    I'ourih    IkhI 

covered    I  lieliisel  \  i-s    willi    L'lorx.    bul    the   d        d    I)ulcll    of 


REGIMENT  ILI^INOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  331 

the  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  iind  One  Iluiidicd  and 
Eighth  had  tlirown  away  their  gnns  and  ran,  but  the 
rebels  had  captured  them  and  they  hoped  woukl  keep 
them.  For  several  days  we  suffered  much  anxiety 
with  regard  to  the  fate  of  the  Regiment  and  oiir  dear 
comrades  who  had  been  killed  and  wounded.  Those 
of  us  in  Gallatin  were  put  on  provost  duty.  While 
there  a  committee  from  Ottawa,  consisting  of  Dr.  Hard, 
Rev.  Zenas  Coleman  and  J.  W.  Calkins  arrived  to  look 
after  the  wounded  and  distribute  comforts  to  them. 
Having  been  ordered  by  General  Paine,  commander  of 
the  post,  to  proceed  to  Hartsville,  under  a  flag  of  truce, 
to  re-bury  the  dead  and  care  for  the  wounded,  the 
committee  and  myself  went  on  our  mission.  A  few 
miles  from  Hartsville  we  met  the  rebel  officer  in  charge 
of  the  vedettes  guarding  the  roads  leading  into  the 
town.  On  learning  our  errand  he  very  courteously 
escorted  us  through  town,  on  the  way  talking  freely 
of  the  events  of  the  battle  and  making  substantially 
the  same  statements  in  regard  to  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth  and  the  German  regiments  that  we  had 
heard  from  the  cavalry.  He  asserted  that  while  the 
guns  and  cartridge  boxes  of  the  Illinois  men  were 
nearly  empty,  those  of  the  Ohio  regiments  had  not 
been  used  at  all.  Among  the  dead  taken  up  and  re- 
buried  in  the  old  cemeter}^,  especiallv  sad  for  me,  were 
the  bodies  of  John  McDougall  and  James  Spencer,  Jr., 
of  Company  F.  The  former,  who  was  the  father  of 
Duncan  McDougall,  of  Ottawa,  was  a  verv  intelligent 
Scotchman,  my  near  neighbor,  who  had  left  an  inter- 
esting family  but  a  few  months  before  at  the  call  of 
duty,  to  serve  his  loved  adopted  country.  He  had 
received  the  fatal  wound  in  his  breast  and  tried  to 
stop  the  flow  of  blood  with  a  handkerchief,  but  it  was 
of  no  avail,  and  he  calmly  and  consciouslv  awaited 
the  end  of  earth.  James  Spencer,  Jr.,  was  in'  the  vigor 
of  youth.  The  committee  returned  to  Gallatin,  but  I 
remained  a  few  days  to  Avait  on  Lieutenant  Milton 
Strawn,  of  Company  E,  who  was  suffering  from  an 
amputated  leg  and  could  not  recover.    While  in  Harts- 


TMK   «iNE    lUNIiUKD   AND  ForUTH 


vilir  tin*  loimw  iiij^  iiiinlciil  «Mrilil<-il  w  lii»  h  i  liilNt* 
oftfu  tluMi-^hl  itf  siiuc  Ourin;;  llu*  hileiil  waiilics  of 
llif  iiif^ht  1  hcanl  tin*  claiilviiiy;  t»f  swords  ami  iiois** 
of  rt'bel  tavalrv  apjiroacliiii;;  tlu*  house  where  1  slopped. 
A  knock  and  in  eanie  one  of  Morj^au'8  eolouels  whose 
farm  I  had  raided  wImmi  Counnissary  a  short  lime 
befon*.  After  in«|niriiij;  who  1  was  ami  why  1  was 
there,  he  handed  me  a  pande  ready  for  siy;naiure  and 
se«*nie<I  surprised  that  I  d<'i-lined  to  siy;n  it,  t»n  the 
ph*a  that  I  was  und«*r  a  lia;;  »)f  truce.  He  advance«l 
all  of  the  ai-^iiiiH-nis  that  he  cuuld  think  of,  hut  linally 
departed,  saNiiij^  that  he  had  iieNer  violated  a  lla;;  of 
truce  and  never  would.  Li«Mitenant  Strawn  dyinj;  soon 
after  1  conveve<l  his  ImmIv  in  an  ambulance  to  (Jallatin. 
Mor;:ain  was  then  <»n  his  way  north  on  his  last  raid.  A 
few  days  later  the  body  of  the  rebel  ((douel  who  had 
treate«l  me  .so  courteously  at  llartsville,  jtassed 
throu^rh  (lallatin  on  its  way  to  burial  in  tiic  llarts- 
ville teiuetery.  I  had  a  feelin^^  of  soiiow  as  for  a 
friend.  IIi>w  true  it  is  that  death  levels  all  distinc- 
tions, silemes  all  animosities.  Uur  life  at  <  Jallatin 
was  very  monot<»nous  and  we  lonp'd  to  Im-  with  the 
Ke;,'iment.  Our  wishes  were  ^n-atitied  and  we  soon 
joined  it  at  <'amj»  honiiias,  when  all  hail  an  oppiu- 
tuniiy  to  see  iheii'  (|.-;ir  JKuiies  auaiii  befol-e  we  h'ft 
for  the  front. 
hkminis('i:nci:s  of    ihh   atla.nta   CAMrAir.N,  etc.    by 

HKNKV  WI.NTKRSCIIKIDT.  COMPANY  H. 

Oil  .lime  JSth,  IStJl,  when  uur  artillery  was  pe|(per- 
in;;  away  at  Kent'saw,  the  <  Mie  Ihimlicti  and  Fourth 
lay  in  front  of  our  batteries  under  tuders  to  be  ready 
at  any  moment  to  ^o  inlti  action.  Ihirin^^  the  liiinu 
a  cannon  explod<'<l  a  shell  just  as  it  issued  from  the 
mu/./Je  of  the  ^un,  and  a  juece  about  four  inches  lon^ 
struck  nu*  a^rainst  my  knapsack,  ;roin;;  thrtMiuh  the 
doubled-up  blanket  and  comin;:  «»ut  at  my  left  side, 
<uttinj:  the  cart  rid^o-box  belt  as  it  emei-Med.  Tin*  force 
of  it  knocked  me  into  the  ditch  and  the  boys  thou;rht 

I   was  badly   hurt,  but    lM*yond  a  ;: I  scare   I   was  all 

ri;:ht.      .^onie  nf   the   boys   had    taken    ilnir   Unapsacivs 


I  ^  REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  333 

off  aiid  were  j^ittiiig  on  them.  My  obedieiiee  to  orders 
in  this  case  saved  my  life.  At  the  same  place  Cap- 
tain Brown,  of  Company  C,  was  standing  on  the  breast- 
works swinging  his  hat  at  the  "Johnnies"  who  were  on 
Kenesaw  about  a  mile  olf.  They  lired  at  him  and  one 
minie  ball  struck  him  in  the  hollow  of  his  elbow. 
He  instantly  clapped  his  other  hand  around  and  caught 
it,  and  suffered  no  further  harm  than  a  black  bruise, 
but  he  made  no  more  demonstrations  of  that  kind. 

A  few  days  befcu-e  that  while  at  Pea  Vine  Creek 
the  Regiment  remained  in  line  of  battle  seven  days 
and  nights  in  succession,  carrying  on  heavy  skirmish- 
ing all  the  time,  but  this  hardly  kept  us  awake.  On 
the  seventh  day  nothing  but  the  roaring  of  the  artil- 
lery made  us  open  our  eyes,  and  Avhen  at  last  we  were 
relieved  in  the  evening  it  seemed  tlie  most  welcome 
thing  that  ever  occurred. 

One  day  near  Kenesaw  our  Regiment  and  the  reb- 
els were  so  near  together  that  we  could  talk  to  them. 
Both  sides  Avere  behind  breastworks.  One  of  our  men 
called  out,  "Hello,  Johnny,  how  far  is  it  to  Atlanta?" 
Johnny  replied:  "It  is  so  d — d  far  you  will  never  get 
there."  Yank  replied:  "Yes,  we  will  get  there  and 
'  have  a  big  dance  with  your  sister."  The  reply  to  this 
came  in  the  shape  of  a  hundred  minie  balls. 

At  Peach  Tree  Creek,  near  Atlanta,  Hood's  w^hole 
army  made  a  grand  charge  on  us  about  four  p.  m.  of 
July  20th.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  without 
any  near  support.  The  underbrush  was  so  thick  one 
could  not  see  two  rods  ahead.  The  rebels  swung  around 
and  compelled  us  to  retreat  a  short  distance.  At  this 
point  an  orderly  came  from  General  Carlin  and  called 
out,  "The  (reneral  commands  that  not  another  step 
backw^ard  be  taken  from  here."  We  held  the  posi- 
tion, and  here  I  was  shot  through  the  left  thigh. 
In  limping  back  I  ran  up  against  Major  Widmer  and 
said,  "I'm  Avounded,  Major."  He  replied,  "Well,  then 
go  to  the  rear."  Before  the  sun  went  down  the  rebels 
were  whipped,  but  our  loss  was  heavy. 

About  two  Aveeks  after  this  I  w\is  sent  with  a  train 


THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 


r^     —  ---  4  ^ 

"lU'iirv,  vnii  will  have  to  lnnrr  up  or  von  will  tlif." 
<ioo(l  i-onstil:iii«iii  for  mr.  Aficr  Immh*^  in  liospitnl  U>v 
two  nioiit  lis  t  he  wtiiM  liv  iliutur  sfiit  mm-  IcnU  i<»  Ai  lain;i. 
laiiM' and  St  ill  soir.  Tlir  Kt'^iiiinMH  i  lini  follow  nl  IIoimI 
n«trlli  for  twn  w«M*ks  ami  aj^Jiiii  n*tmin*<l  to  Atlanta  ti* 
takf  up  tlu*  march  to  the  si'a.  While  near  Savannah 
w«'  HMMMNcd  onU'i's  our  niy:ht  to  chai-^ir  and  sni|ijis(* 
tin*  ndn'ls,  who  wrir  acioss  some  lloodrd  ri<«*  planta- 


At  Sister's  Ferry,  South  Carolina,  the  ( )ne  Hun- 
dred and  I'ourth  was  sent  across  the  )i\<r  to  cut  dowu 
t  r«H's  for  a  corduroy  road.  Tlie  w  ater  stood  on  i  he  hoi- 
toni  lands  waist  deej)  and  in  i  his  we  had  to  stand.  Half 
an  hour  was  as  lonj;;  as  anyone  cotild  stand  it,  lIuMi 
wi'  went  to  a  small  dry  place  where  there  was  a  tire  to 
dry  ofT  and  warm  up  a  little.  (Mi  one  occasion  the 
hoys  ctit  a  tree,  which  fell  w  heic  the  tire  was.  <  ien- 
eral  Slociini  was  also  standiuy;  there.  All  jumi»ed  into 
the  watei-  and  ljoI  away  safely  «'xcepi  one  j»oor  fellow, 
who  was  ciushed  l>y  the  tree. 

A  MOVAIU.K  I'OIt'I"  HV  SKUr.KANT  WILI.IA.M  11.  ("ONAUD. 
COMPANY  E. 
On  the  ;{(lih  day  of  .May,  IStH,  while  near  Halias, 
(M'or;:ia,  our  Company  dO)  was  on  the  skirmish  line. 
.\fiei-  leavinj,^  our  line  (»f  works  and  ^ioiu;;  stuue  thirty 
rods  we  came  to  an  open  field  that  slo|»ed  olT  ^'ently 
from  t  he  ed;ie  of  t  he  w  oods  W  here  We  w  el-e  in  t  he  direc- 
tion of  the  enemy,  who  lay  in  the  woods  on  the  oppo- 
site side.  We  cfuild  a«lvanc«'  a  little  ways  without 
much  dan;:er,  hut  the  rebels  soon  Ii;id  a  fair  si;:lit  of 
us.  In  flout  of  the  com|>a!iy  lav  at  a  ^^liort  distame  a 
lo<i  about  twenty  inches  in  diameter.     The  lo;;  lay  etid- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  335 

ways  to  us.  I  saw  at  once  that  if  1  could  gain  it  1 
would  have  an  advanced  and  safe  iwsition  against 
niinie  balls,  so  I  ran  and  reached  it  safely.  I  found  it 
was  about  ten  feet  long  and  could  be  moved.  1  then 
beckoned  Joe  Wilson,  who  was  nearest,  to  come,  which 
he  did,  and  we  moved  the  log  around  broadside  to 
the  foe.  Win.  M.  Wilson,  John  Nattinger  and  John 
W.  Hart  next  closed  in  on  the  log.  We  then  advanced 
slowly  rolling  the  log  before  us,  keeping  close  behind 
it  anil  tiring  by  volley  whenever  we  saw  any  rebels. 
They  were  concealed  in  the  edge  of  the  woods,  and  it 
was  hard  to  get  sight  of  them.  Charley  Kuger,  who 
was  one  of  the  bravest  of  the  brave  and  was  in  the  line 
on  the  left,  got  sight  of  a  rebel,  jumped  u]>  and  blazed 
away.  He  drew  their  lire  and  I  thought  would  be  killed 
before  he  could  lie  down.  This  enabled  us  to  know 
just  where  the  rebels  were  and  we  steered  our  fort 
toward  them,  continuing  to  tire  by  volley  at  every 
chance,  until  Captain  Doty  thought  it  time  to  charge. 
When  the  rest  of  the  line  arrived  we  joined  it  and 
drove  the  rebels  from  the  woods.  In  this  charge  James 
C.  8choonover  was  mortally  wounded.  Samuel  A.  Fisk 
ventured  into  the  woods  too  far  and  came  near  being- 
taken  prisoner,  having  passed  beyond  some  Johnnies, 
but  his  legs  saved  him, 

YANKEES  WITHOUT  HORNS.     AN   INCIDENT.     BY  CHARLES 
RICE,   COMPANY   I. 

While  we  were  on  the  march  through  South  Car- 
olina, after  we  had  gone  into  camp  for  the  night,  I  went 
over  to  a  house  not  far  away  and  found  that  the  only 
occupants  were  an  old  lady,  a  younger  one  and  a  small 
boy  six  or  seven  years  old,  who  was  the  son  of  the  lat- 
ter. The  old  lady  said:  "I  never  seen  so  many  people 
in  all  my  born  days  and  no  horns  either;  where  did  you 
all  come  from?"  Having  satisfied  liA'  on  this  point, 
the  younger  woman  remarked,  "We  had  always  been 
told  that  if  ever  the  Yankees  got  into  South  Carolina 
every  boy's  throat  would  be  cut  and  everything  de- 
stroyed, so  when  we  saw  your  soldiers  passing  this 
morning,  I  was  very  much  scared.    One  of  them  came 


SM  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

iu,  ralliMl  iiiv  bov  it>  hiiu,  tt»ok  hiiu  u|»  •»!»  his  kiu*e 
ziud  put  his  liainl  iu  his  pockcl.  Scn-iuj;  this  uiy  h«*art 
WfUl  u|»  iuio  uiv  ihioal,  as  1  was  sure  he  was  getliug 
out  his  kuif«%  but  iusii'a«i  hr  took  ttui  sninc  silviT 
chauj;r  au<l  ii:i\*'  my  b«»v,  and  aft<-r  that  all  uiy  U-dva 
were  j;ou«'. ' 

NAHKATIVK   OF   I'KTIIK    1»1Nc;i:K,   CUMl'ANY    (J.      A    NAlUtUW 

ESCAPE. 

Aftrr  Sheruiau's  aruiy  h-fl  Atlanta  «»n  the  uiarth 
111  the  st-a,  1  was  (h'tailcd  as  a  fuiii;j;fr  ami  (MintinutMl 
as  surh  until  wr  airivrtl  at  Savannah.  <  Mi  ihe  taui- 
|»ai;:n  tlirMnj;^h  tin*  Caiolinas  1  was  ai^ain  a  l'<na;:;(*r 
and  ftMiinl  the  ui»  iipatiun  nnnh  nnu-e  (hui^fioiis  ilian 
heretofore.  When  oiir  tlnail  under  (.'ajiiain  W  illiam 
Sirawu,  of  Coinjtany  1\  airiscd  at  llif  (inai  IN'dre 
Kivrr.  w»*  waited  fur  iln-  I'ttui-iccni  li  ('iti|is  ami  ihe 
|Mint<>iins  to  (-(Miie  \ip.  Thry  arrived  al>«tut  dark  and 
\\«*  rowrd  oursrlvfs  arr(»ss  in  «U(k*r  to  <;»*l  ahead  of  the 
eavalry.  Captain  Slrawn  ha«l  orders  to  procred  to 
Korkin;:liani.  twenty  miles  disianl,  and  i)ilr  f<»raj:e  for 
tin*  Koinifrni  li  ( "orps.  .Maitliin!:;  all  nii,dii  we  rearlnMl 
our  destiiuition  at  sunrise,  l»iit  ran  into  a  cauiit  of  rebel 
lavalry  and  thin;;s  !»e<;;an  i«>  lotdi  serious.  However, 
Kilpat riek's  ravalry  an-iv«Ml  just  in  t inie,  having;  crossed 
the  river  diiiin;;  ilie  nij^lit,  an<l  altacUin;:  the  rebels, 
laptured  or  killed  the  whole  lot.  Kilpatriik  had  orders 
for  <'a|»tain  Strawii  stating;  that  the  Fourteeutli  Corps 
Would  not  ;:o  to  Korkin;;:liani,  but  would  tak«'tlu'  next 
r<»ad,  twenty  miles  <listant.  (>ut  of  the  melee  with  the 
rebels  I  serured  a  uiule,  lojidiii^  him  with  foraj;«*,  sueh 
as  Hour,  m«'at.  shirts,  socks,  etc.,  and  started  in  c«un- 
paiiy  with  ei^dit  others  across  ihe  country  to  the  main 
army.  nn»*  of  our  number  was  a  Lieutenant.  1  was 
the  onlv  member  <>f  uur  Ke^iment  in  the  crowd  and 
in  ranjiiii;:  over»t  he  eiMiniry  had  lost  si;.dit  of  <':ipiain 
Sirawn.  Two  of  ihe  men  belun^'ed  to  the  Thirty-third 
Olijo.  the  rest  I  diil  not  know.  WC  marched  sonie 
ten  miles  and  <amped  f«u'  the  nij^hi.  In  the  mondn;: 
We  loaded  up  iiiir  mules  and  horses  and  were  about 
n*«dy  to  start  when  Wade  Hampton's  eavalry  pounced 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  33T 

down  upon  and  captured  us  all.  At  sight  of  the  forage 
they  were  enraged  and  said  they  would  kill  us.  They 
then  shot  all  down  but  myself  and  were  about  to  shoot 
me  viien  the  second  officer  in  command,  a  young  Lieu- 
tenant,  seeing  that  I  was  very  young,  interfered  and 
pulled  me  up  on  his  horse  and  rode  away.  He  rode 
to  the  Cape  Fear  River,  where  he  left  his  horse  and 
we  crossed  in  a  skiff.  Soon  he  turned  me  over  to  a 
South  Carolina  Colonel  by  the  name  of  Herrington,  as 
a  prisoner  of  war.  We  were  near  Fayetteville  on  the 
morning  of  our  capture  and  while  with  my  protector 
I  could  often  see  our  corps  marching  in  the  distance. 
I  was  sent  to  Libby  Prison,  where  I  remained  until 
Richmond  was  taken,  about  sixty  days.  I  can  never 
forget  my  rescuer  from  the  jaws  of  death. 

THRILLING  NARRATIVE  OF  GILBERT  R.  CONARROE,  COM- 
PANY B,  CAPTURED  AT  HARTSVILLE  AND  TAKEN  FOR  A 
REBEL  DESERTER. 

I  was  taken  prisoner  at  Hartsville  and  when  we 
reached  Murfreesboro  was  singled  out  by  the  rebels 
as  being  one  Mr.  Brown,  a  deserter  from  \heir  ranks. 
A  rebel  Colonel,  a  Sergeant  and  six  men  marched  me 
out  into  the  woods  to  be  shot,  and  had  it  not  been  for 
an  Irishman  they  would  have  carried  out  their  threats. 
I  asked  the  Colonel  what  he  meant  by  bringing  me 
out  alone  and  leaving  all  the  rest  of  m'v  comrades  in 
the  bull  pen  (prison  camp).  He  said,  "Brown,  why  did 
you  desert  us?"  I  replied  that  I  never  belonged  to 
their  ranks,  and  that  Brown  was  not  my  name.  He 
said,  "Brown,  you  denied  your  country,  do  not  for  God's 
sake  deny  your  name;  we  all  know^ou  too  well  for 
you  liD  try  to  play  that  game  on  us."  I  replied  that  I 
never  denied  my  name  or  country  and  that  I  was  an 
Illinois  soldier.  He  then  questioned  me  further  as  to 
my  name,  when  and  where  I  enlisted,  etc.,  to  all  of 
which  I  gave  correct  answers.  He  then,  apparently 
not  satisfied,  questioned  me  further,  when  a  little  rebel 
Irishman,  a  soldier,  said,  "Colonel,  this  is  not  Brown 
at  all,  though  he  looks  exactlv  like  him;  Brown  had 


S38  THE  ONK  HtNliR^D  AND  FOURTH 

U...  Irish  l.n.^;u.-/'    Th.-n  In-an.l  i  1m- i  •..l.m.l  ha.l  a  s.-Mo^ 
ab^Mi!    im-.  Wilt   foit.iiM.  was  oii  luv  si.k.     Dtnin^  ni. 
,lis.„ssion  1  l.snn.M  that   lUuwn  was  iIm-  ""•^^;"^;";; 
„n    rnn-lv    f.u-ml.      Finally    il.-   '->••"••»    I'V'.''.... 
.Mianis  lo'.uaivh  ,„..  IkmU  to  ramp,  f.  wliuh  anan   .- 
tilt   I„..st  willin.Mvass,Mn.M      Uu.tlM.  M.m.M-a^^^^^^ 
not  nst  th.'iv.    WlMMi  w,.  appn.a.h.Ml  Um-  rami,  a  n  1.  1 
;:„anl  sai.l  lo  nm- of  our  Im.vs. -Th.-n.  .  um,-s  a  s  of  a  U 
That   won't  liv,.  with  voM.n.s.'  ami  th.M,  th.-.v  h.-M  an 
an^unH'iil   as  to   wlH-tlur  ih-   Inion  or  .tIm-I   authoi- 
i,ir.s  ha.l  thr  iH-st   rlaim  on  um-.      M.v  situation  m   th,- 
,„.n  was  anvthinjr  but   pl.-asan.   ami   ii     m-^mu  to  h.ok 
ihMunv  for  m...  as  it   was  nois,Ml  al.oui   ,  Im-  n-lM-l  .a  up 

that    niown.   tin-  .h-s.-itrf.   ha.l    I u   .uu-ihi    with   tlu- 

Yank.M.s.aml  I  was  poiut-.l  out  to  all  of  t  h.-iu  wlmn-vr,- 
1  w.M.i.     Soon  afi.T  ilM-  (MM-  llun.ln-.!  am     V;"'"'      "" 
llumln.l  an.l  Sixth  aiul  Om'  llun.liv.l  ami  hi-hth  O  no 
W..IV  ralhMl   up  in   liim  two  tih-s  .h-.-p.  whru  tin;  n-hrl 
<V,h,m-l  lo.h-  up  an.l  .h.wn  ih.-  lai.ks,  an.l  s.niilm:^  ni<' 
,„„  „,.i,,,..i  „„.  t..  f..How  him.     1  .li.l  so.  hut  his  Imrs,. 
b,.in-  in  iM-M.-r  pli-ht   than  mys.-M    1  asU.-.l  him  f.  -o 
a   lit'lh-  sh.w.M-,  as   mv   sho.-s   w.-n-   wiih..ut    s..h-s  aiul 
mv  f(H-t  bhMMlin-     Tlmrnhuu-l  luiuiui:  Ins  wi.k.'.l  ..>rs 
to*a  rrhrl  -uanl  onh-n-.l  him  to  tak.-  .haii:.-  ..f  m.'  ami 
if  I  n...v.-.l  t..  sh.M.i   MM-  .lowM.     Th..«'..hm.-I  th.-n  w.-ui 
ofT    iM.t   ivtunuMl  s.M.n  will,  a  .h-tail  of  six  m.-n  an.l  a 
8ri-.rrant.     (Ml.-  ..f  th.'  -uar.ls  sahl   t..  m.',  -nn.wn.    1 
^vouhlm.t  -iv.-n.u.h  for  vo' .hai..-.-."     1  i  l..n  ask.-.l  t  h- 
<r„anl   what    th.-  TuIoih-I   m.-aui    to  .|o.      11.-  n-plm.  .      I 
rias.-n't  talk  t..  v..u-uns."      I  was  th-n  k-pt  .^iuanh-l  lor 
awhih-,  hut  t..  mv  j..vful  surpris.-  was  a-a.n  s.-ut  ba.k 
tr,  our  ramp.    Thm.  h.-in- th..r..u-hlv  alarnw-.l.  I  tra.h-.i 
nlT  mv  him-  arinv  hhuis.-  an.l  my  hat  to  an  ..hi  (H'finan 
of  thr  (Ml.-  llumir.-.l  an.l  Kii:l.ih  Ohi..  f-.r  an  .>1.1  -n-asy 
uv.-r.-..at    witlu.ut    a   skirt,  an.l   an  ..hi   hat.  ami  th.'n- 
aft.T  kopt  out  ..f  si;;lit  as  nni.h  as  ]...ssil.l.'.      I  h-  r.-h.-l 
Mr   Hn.wn  ha.l  .lisapp.'atv.l.  hut  th.-  n-h.-ls  hunt.-.l  for 
„„.  „,„il  aft.-r  w.-  w.-n-  par..l.-.l   a.i.l   until   w.-  pass.-.l 
ihr..u-h  th.-ir  lim-s.     T..  .lay  1  woiil.l  -iv.-  my  h.-st  suit 
of  hliH-  for  that  ohl  -jnasv  ..v.'r.-..at   ami  .ap.  as  tln'V 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  339 

helped   me  to   gain   my  freedom   and   to   follow   "Old 
Glory"  to  the  end  of  the  war. 

BECOLLECTIONS  OF  LIEUTENANT  RANDOLPH  AND  OTHERS; 
INCIDENTS  OF  THE  SIEGE  OF  CHATTANOOGA;  PLASTER 
OF  PARIS  BISCUITS,  ETC.   BY  ROBERT  WEST,  COMPANY  B. 

Lieutenant  Kandolph,  who  had  been  absent,  re- 
turned to  us  on  I)<^<«Mnber  1st  at  ITartsville,  and  was 
on  duty  for  the  first  time  on  the  5th.  lie  was  on 
picket  dut}^  when  the  rebels  attacked.  Tlio  night  of 
the  6th  was  cold  and  snow  on  the  ground.  The  hogs 
came  grunting  around  our  line,  but  the  boys  were 
afraid  to  kill  them,  as  the  Lieutenant,  being  a  lu'cacher, 
just  from  home,  forbade  it.  However,  when  relieved 
early  on  the  morning  of  the  Tth,  several  went  into  camp 
with  sides  of  pork  on  their  bayonets.  In  the  battle, 
Lieutenant  Randolph,  who  wore  a  black  suit  with  a 
plume  on  his  hat,  was  mortally  wounded,  carried  from 
the  field  and  died  not  long  after.  Eight  others  of  Com- 
pany B  were  also  killed  or  mortally  wounded  on  that 
fatal  day. 

At  the  battle  of  Chickamauga  David  McCampbell, 
Fife-Major,  and  Joseph  Wheat,  Drum-Major,  were 
attending  to  the  wounded  and  captured.  McCamp- 
bell died  ill  Audersouville.  Wheat  finally  escaped  and 
after  the  war  went  west.  Warnock  and  Hutchinson 
were  missing  at  Chickamauga  and  probably  killed. 
Joseph  Chance  w^as  severely  wounded  in  the  thigh  and 
carried  b3^  Sergeant  Bassett  and  the  writer  to  Ross- 
ville,  and  from  there  removed  to  Chattanooga,  where 
he  died  a  week  later. 

The  experience  of  the  Regiment  during  the  siege 
of  Chattanooga  was  a  severe  one  from  the  scarcity  of 
food.  I  saw  a  young  soldier  in  Company  A  cry  like  a 
child.  He  said  that  he  had  enlisted  to  fight  and  was 
w  illing  to  do  it,  but  did  not  like  to  starve  to  death. 
One  day  I  obtained  a  pass  to  cross  the  river  for  the 
purpose  of  visiting  our  boys  in  the  convalescent  camp. 
There  was  a  sutler  there  and  I  went  to  see  how  his 
horse  was  and  observed  that  he  had  some  corn,  so  I 


MO 


III.     \  V  I  .    l«  >r|{TH 


|M«rs»i;Ml»Ml  hiiii  !«•  «li\i.lr  ii  wiui  ua:  I  \\u-\i  ir;ul»Ml 
this  wiih  I  lit-  sitk  Tmi-  hanl  i;nk.  Tht-y  s;ii<l  afu-iw  anl 
that  lh»'  torn  pairhtMl  iliil  ihi-in  iiion'  ;i«MMl  ihan  all  the 
jiurtiir's  iiuMliriiii*.  Whrii  1  n*tuni«Ml  i..  Hn-  iiv«T  the 
wa«;<»ii  iraiu  was  in  fr«>iii  Hri(l«;e|niri  ami  I  lM»u;;ht  some 
lianl  lark  fiMin  mii«-  of  the  ;iiiar(ls.  Aii«»ili<'r  ;;uard 
t«>M  (he  selh-r  that  he  wuuhl  vet  be  soirv  In-  ha«l  parted 
with  his  rations.  «  hi  aiiivin«r  in  «anii»  I  Mivitled  up 
with  my  mess.  Tin-  ne\i  day  we  went  «>n  pirUri  for 
fortyi*i;:ht  hours,  leavin;:  no  rations  in  ramp.  I  ofi»ii 
hiokiMl  at  the  dead  animals  which  had  died  from  starva- 
tion and  were  taken  to  iln-  «'di-  of  the  ri\«'r  to  Ihiat 
ofT  on  the  spriii*;  rise.  At  on.-  liuM-  I  «oiiiiiiil  iliree 
hundred  within  half  a  mile. 

W'hih'  emampt'd  |»y  ilic  Ti  innNst-r  IJImm-  southwest 
of  tlje  town.  \\i-  had  to  '^f\  all  of  our  wood  frtuu  the 
opposite  sidt'  iu  a  siuall  IhkK.  (Mi  fo^;:\  days  the  hoys 
Would  try  to  <  loss,  liui  always  rame  hark  on  the  same 
sidf  and  ;:a\e  it  up. 

When,  on  NttM-mln'i-  I'lili.  ilu-  (Mu-  lluudrcd  an<l 
Fourth  rliiulM'd  up  LooUoin  io  rcjufoi-cc  I  looker.  < '<uu- 
paiiies  A  and  H  w  «m«-  in  i  he  crllar  of  i  he  (  lavcu  I  louse, 
niid  some  of  them  discovered  a  half  barrel  of  what  wais 
supposed  to  bf  flour.  They  |uo(c«Mh'd  to  make  a  lot 
of  biscuit  and  baked  ihem.  \\  hen  the  projx'r  time  had 
ehipseil  a  Ser;;eant  tri«*d  one  veiy  ea«;:erly.  but  wa8 
sur|irised  at  I  Im*  ;^ril  tiuoss  ami  lastelessness.  I'uiihcr 
in\est i^at ion  i«'\oaled  the  fact  thai  the  biscuits  wore 
rom|M»sed  of  plaster  of  jiaris.  an  ariicic  thai  old  man 
i'raven  had  bought  to  use  as  a  rcriili/ci-  lui  his  stony 
farm.     Tie-  Iau;:h  wasa;;jlinsi  us. 

AN   INCIDK.NT  CI'   L!i:iTK|<ANT   AU.NOl.h.   ("O.MI'ANV    A. 

An  incident  after  the  capture  of  the  (Mic  Hundred 
and  I'ourthai  I  laitsvilh- illusirah-s  t  he  spirit  thai  aui- 
iiiati-d  ihc  UHMibcis  of  the  Kc^inieiit  ihroULihoui.  c\«ri 
to  the  youn;iest  aiuou^'  them.  While  they  were  in  the 
<'oUrt     Mouse  al    .M  Ulfleesbol-o    bein;;   paioled,   <'(U|iol-al 

S.  v.  .\rnold.  of  t'ompany  .\,  was  awailiu;:  his  turn 
and  in  boyish  biaxado  spiaiiL:  ii|i  on  ihc  balustraile  of 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  341 

the  staircase  ami  r('a(liin<^  as  liij^li  as  lie  «'oul(l,  wrote 
in  the  bold  and  distinct  hand  that  distinguishes  his 
penmanship  to  this  day,  "The  Union  must  and  shall  be 
preserved."  As  he  stepped  down  the  Captain  of  the 
First  Louisiana  Tigers,  who  was  guarding  them,  said, 
"Do  you  believe  that?''  His  reply  was,  ''I  «io,  and  some 
day  I  will  be  here  a  free  man  and  see  my  name  on  the 
walh"  The  Captain  thought  for  a  moment  an<l  an- 
swered, ''Well,  may  be  you  are  right." 

The  Corporal  saw  his  name  there  when  he  was  a 
free  man  and  belonged,  to  a  victorious  army. 

REMINISCENCES  OF  KENESAW  MOUNTAIN  AND  THE  SIEGE 
OF  ATLANTA.  AMUSING  INCIDENTS.  BY  CAPTAIN  WIL- 
LIAM STRAWN,   COMPANY  F. 

After  Johnston  withdrew  his  army  from  New  Hope 
Church  we  again  advanced  and  abotit  the  10th  of  June 
found  ourselves  confronting  him  at  Kenesaw  Moun- 
tain, where  his  lines  were  strongly  intrenched.  Our 
army  was  gradually  pushed  up  closer  and  closer  to 
the  foot  of  the  great  natural  fortress,  made  more  im- 
pregnable by  vast  earthworks  built  by  the  rebels.  At 
last  portions  of  our  line  effected  a  lodgment  behind 
intrenchments  within  a  few  j-ards  of  the  enemy's  works. 
It  is  said  that  our  closest  lines  were  as  follows:  A  sol- 
dier would  take  an  empty  cracker-box,  till  it  with  dirt, 
then  lying  down,  push  it  before  him  in  the  night  as 
close  to  the  enemy  as  he  dared,  then  crawl  back  and 
give  place  to  others,  so  that  by  morning  the  rebels  were 
greatly  astonished  to  find  our  ranks  right  under  their 
noses.  This  operation,  however,  removed  the  parties 
temporarily  from  the  list  of  fighters,  for  while  they 
occupied  these  extremely  close  quarters,  no  one  dared 
to  show  a  finger  above  the  works.  Whether  true  or 
not  the  story  is  told  of  a  rebel  desiring  a  furlough,  that 
sticking  up  a  hand  with  the  trigger  finger  extended  he 
said,  "Here's  for  a  furlough."  Scarcely  had  he  spoken 
when  he  shouted,  "A  discharge,  by  hookey."  One  of 
our  boys  had  shattered  his  hand.  While'  our  Regi- 
ment occupied  nearly  as  close  quarters  to  the  enemy, 


S«2  THE  ONE  HTNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

1  lost  iiiv  tirst  mail,  Ktlwanl  Klu-rhart,  v«»uii«;  aii<l  lov- 
abli*  and  a  jiood  soldier.  Stnuk  by  a  rrhel  bullei  he 
liviil  only  b»n;:  ••n<Mi«;li  io  (•(Ter  a  word  of  prayer  i<> 
Jesus  to  recei\i*  his  sjtiril.  All  fell  inexpressibly  sad 
itxt'V  his  h»ss.  ( Mie  niyht  a  tb'lerniined  jissauh  was 
niadi*  <»ii  thi»  rebel  w  orks  awaiy  to  our  rihy:t,  rfsultinjr  iu 
a  lepulN*'  with  many  of  our  lu'ave  soldiers  killed  «>r 
woumled.  Ibit  <ieneral  Sherman  was  not  idle  and  was 
proseruiin;;  his  llankin;:  operalions,  whi«h  in  a  few 
days  resulted  in  anoih«*i-  w  iilidi  awal  «>f  Johnston's 
army  beyond  Marieiia  lo  the  <  liallahoochee  Ki\t*r. 
Sherman*>  army  follow  in;;  sal  down  before  ih«' enemy's 
ini  renchmenis  as  neai-  as  was  piiideni.  The  weather 
beeame  intensely  hot  so  that  we  hail  lo  seek  any  avail- 
able shatje.  While  here  si-veral  amusin;::  inridents 
oreuried.  I  was  making;  a  rail  one  day  al  bri^iade 
ln'adi|iiariers.  whirh  was  also  head<|iiarlers  of  the  I'if- 
leeiiih  Keniiifkv  Infaiiliy.  The  ( "hapiain  wasreadin;; 
and  an  Irisli  soldier  was  siiiin;:  near  on  a  lo;:  smokin;; 
a  pi|te.  Snildeidy  ihet'haplain  lhon;:ln  he  fell  some- 
iliiii;:  siin;;  him  between  the  shoulders,  ami  investi;:ai- 
in;;,  out  dr«»p|M'd  one  of  ihose  slimy,  shinin;:  lizards 
roiiiinon  in  that  «  liman-  and  t-alle<l  by  the  natives 
"swifts."  li  seudded  over  the  Irishman  like  a  tlasli. 
His  eyes  bul;:in;:  oni,  he  exclaimed,  "lloly  Moses, 
pliwat's  thai?"  The  onlookers  lan;^hed  lieariily,  to 
Pat's  «lis«;:iiKt.  Ai  i  his  plaie  some  new  i-erruiis  arriveil 
from  Illinois.  Anion;:  lln-m  was  a  (all,  ;:ood  lookin;^ 
youn;:  man  dress«M|  in  i  he  hei;:lil  of  fashion,  a  bluo 
frork  eoat,  pants  to  match,  faultless  boots,  and  to 
crow  II  all.  I<t  the  dis;:usl  of  the  Nt'Ieian  soldiers,  he 
hatl  on  a  clean  w  hite  shin  and  collar.  The  boys  tM';;an 
t«»  ;:u_\    him.     "Sonny,  does  your  nioihei-  know    you're 

out."  and  many  kindred  s| lies,  with  which  i  hey  were 

always  well  stocked.  The  fellow  soon  l:oi  mad  all  o\er 
and  intimated  thai  he  couhl  tlirash  ihe  whole  <  rowd. 
This  was  all  l  he  more  fun  foi-  i  he  boys.  If  he  had  taken 
it  ;:ood  natnredh  they  wiuild  ha\e  said,  **^'ou  are  all 
ri;:lil,  and  a  vet.  shake,"  and  thai  w<»uld  have  ended 
the  mallei-.      Rut   his  leiuiM-r  was  up  and  selectiii;:  ihe 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  843 

saiK'iest  one  of  the  crowd  be  gave  him  a  good  thrash- 
ing. It  is  iieedh^ss  to  say  that  he  was  all  right  with 
the  b(»ys  after  that.  During  the  siege  of  Atlanta  our 
Brigade  wus  moved  gradually  from  one  position  to 
another  south  and  west  of  the  city,  always  facing  the 
rebel  intren<hments.  The  desperate  fighting  by  large 
bodies  of  uKMi  liad  ceased,  but  a  constant  fusilade  of 
small  arms  and  jucket  firing  was  kept  ui)  day  and 
night  on  some  part  of  the  line.  The  rebels  extended 
their  lines  west  and  south  to  protect  their  railroad 
communications  with  the  Ccmfederacy  and  we  had  to 
watch,  meet  and  rcMider  their  efforts  abortive  at  every 
op])ortunity.  Kains  were  freijuent  and  heavy  a  ])or- 
tion  of  the  time,  which  added  greatly  to  our  discom- 
fort. At  the  conclusion  of  one  of  the  movements  of  the 
Regiment  to  the  right  in  rain  and  pitchy  darkness,  we 
encami>ed  in  an  <dd  field  and  gathered  rails  to  lie  on, 
but  many  could  ii<»t  in  the  intense  darkness  find  any 
and  awoke  in  the  morning  to  find  themselves  half  cov- 
ered with  water  and  mud.  Things  of  this  kind  occurred 
freciuently.  We  lay  several  days  behind  breastworks 
of  earth  su])posed  to  be  strong  enough  To  break  the 
force  of  cannon  balls.  Our  picket  lines  were  placed 
some  distance  in  front.  We  were  upon  a  high  ridge. 
The  rebels  were  upon  another  facing  us,  their  pickets 
in  fr<uit  and  a  br<»ad  bushy  valley  between  the  two 
lines.  The  oi»i)osing  pickets  being  within  speaking  dis- 
tance frequently  agreed  to  a  truce  and  leaving  their 
arms  behind  met  on  the  neutral  ground  in  the  valley, 
had  a  friendly  conference  and  exchanged  coifee,  to- 
bacco, etc.  It  was  not  unusual  after  one  of  these  con- 
ferences ff)r  us  to  receive  numbers  of  deserters  from 
the  rebel  lines.  The  rebel  offii^ers  forbade  these  meet- 
ings under  heavy  penalties,  but  from  time  to  time  they 
were  held  as  they  always  had  been,  *'on  the  sly."  I 
remember  that  on  one  occasion  there  was  a  wholesale 
desertion  from  the  rebel  picket  lines,  our  men  rushing 
forward  and  taking  possession  of  the  rebel  rifie  pits. 
When  the  rebel  main  lines  discovered  this  they  opened 
up  with  artillery  on  the  fugitives  and  (uir  men,  but 


3«4  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

were  aiisweretl  vi^onmslv.  Mattei-s  haviiij;  quieted 
«io\vn  sniiU'what  t\\«)  of  my  hoys  jjot  into  a  wraiijijle 
4>v«T  soiiH-  trivial  matter.  Um*  of  tlnMii  sjn-aii;;  at  tlie 
other  w  hi'ii  ahmj:  «aiiM'  a  slirll,  hiiryiii;;  itsrif  in  our 
breast  w<»rkf<  and  hurst  in;;,  rov«*io(i  us  all  with  thr  ird 
dirt.  The  two  b«»y8  who  had  clinched  fell  ajtaii  so 
8udd<Mdy  an«l  tuinl)hMl  head  over  ln'els  into  tin'  ditrh 
xo  (juirkly  that  wc  tlmui^dit  they  were  kille<j.  As  it 
ttirn^tl  t»ut  they  were  only  suipiised  and  soon  foij^ot 
nil  about  their  little  "tilT."  The  ht>ys  enjoyed  a  heaiiy 
lau;;h  at   their  expense.      This  and  maii\   siiiiilar  ludi- 

<TOUS    affairs    helped    U>    while    a  way    ihe    lime    helWeeli 

active  operations. 

PEIU50NAI.    RECOLLECTIONS   OF    THE    ARMY    BUMMHK       BY 
JACOB    BANE,    COMPANY    I. 

iMirin;;  the  late  war  there  were  many  de\  e|n|iiiientH 
inadt*,  hut  none  so  important  as  the  army  hummer. 
lie  supplied  I  he  missin^;  jink  l>etween  hun«;«M-  and 
plenty  to  eai.  lie  liioke  ihe  monotony  many  limes 
wh»*n  he  entered  a  rhickeii  roosi  ai  tin-  dead  hour  of 
iii;;ht.  The  hummer  was  iio  ordinary  soldier:  he  had 
abilities  whiih  nothinj^  hut  army  life  could  develop. 
He  had  the  ability  of  ex|doiiii^  and  loid;  ipiite  an 
active  part  in  ex|dorln}j;  <-ertain  |o<alii  ies;  i  he  localit  ies 
■which  he  most  delij.:hted  to  explore  and  visit  were  the 
Hinoke,  the  sprin;i  and  the  chicken  house.  The  hummer 
was  a  very  peculiar  fellow,  lie  had  his  «»wn  peculiar- 
ities, ami  ihe\  roMJil  uot  he  imitated.  No  otVner  from 
<ieneral  to  ("orporal  could  keej>  him  in  camji  or  the 
ranks.  When  his  name  would  he  called  for  ;,niard  or 
picket  duty  he  was  always  absent  on  some  missi«)n 
exclusively  his  own.  'J'he  ;;enius  of  military  tactics 
<'ould  be  exhausted  in  its  elTorts  lo  loiiirid  him.  To 
^lujtlicaie  him  by  a  proeess  of  military  tactics  was  im- 
possilde,  as  the  buiumer  was  the  out;;i'owth  of  army 
life.  On  the  march  he  was  scarcely  ever  seen  by  his 
command  except  at  ni^rht,  and  tln-n  not  unlil  all  details 
liad  been  made.  Me  was  always  up  and  on  his  journey 
befoie  if  was  linii'  for  makiu^'  details.     The  olijeci  and 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  345 

tho  mission  of  the  buminer  was  never  fully  known  to 
the  citizen;  but  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  section  of 
country  which  he  chanced  to  pass  through  his  mission 
was  fully  realizedj  and  fully  appreciated  and  enjoyed 
by  the  boys  when  he  came  into  camp  at  night  and 
unloaded  what  had  stuck  to  him  during  the  day.  As 
near  as  could  be  ascertained  the  bummer  went  in  for 
anything-  he  could  get  away  with.  His  intentions  were 
mostly  concealed  from  view  and  clothed  in  mystery. 
In  fact  the  bummer  was  never  known  to  miss  a  meal 
or  b<^  present  for  duty.  You  could  not  tell  anything 
about  him  with  much  certainty.  You  might  have  had 
an  impression  amounting  to  a  sure  thing,  as  you 
thought,  and  you  might  have  formulated  a  theory  that 
seemed  to  show  that  the  bummer  was  doing  more  good 
than  a  deacon  at  a  camp  meeting,  but  you  could  not 
prove  it  by  any  tactics  known  to  the  military  or  the 
moral  law.  In  calculations  concerning  the  bummer 
military  knowledge  could  not  be  depended  upon.  The 
bummer  was  as  unreliable  as  a  woman's  watch  or  the 
business  end  of  a  mule.  He  never  turned  out  to  be  what 
you  took  him  for.  It  is  a  little  curious,  but  still  it  is 
an  absolute,  petrified  fact,  that  a  bummer  well  loaded 
down  would  lie  like  sin  and  stick  to  it  until  he  got 
into  camp.  The  man  or  woman  who  believed  all  the 
bummer  said  and  staked  his  or  her  hopes  or  affections 
on  his  veracity,  got  badly  and  very  often  sadly  left. 
Sometimes  the  bummer  would  pose  himself  as  a  mis- 
sionary, and  before  he  left  they  would  sorely 
realize  his  mission  by  the  loss  of  some  valuable  article. 
Sometimes  the  bummer  was  disappointed  and  did  not 
get  what  he  expected  and  attempted  to  surround,  and 
in  consequence  of  this  his  load  was  light.  And  then 
again  he  was  actually  heavier  loaded  than  his  outward 
appearance  would  indicate.  That  the  bummer  was  a 
puzzle  to  the  owner  of  a  well-filled  smoke,  spring  or 
chicken  house  which  he  chanced  to  visit,  was  no 
wonder. 

The  bummer  established   a  reputation   which   he 
was   proud   of,   and   which   it   was  the  height  of  his 


844  THE  ONE  Hl'NDRED  AND  FOURTH 

aiiiiliitiiiii  !«»  iiiaiiitaiii  ami  ktM*i»  «;«mh1,  Ihii  for  all  this 
vuii  «Mul(I  ikH  «Ic|m>ihI  oil  him.  If  tlit-rt-  was  a  family 
l{il»l«'  on  ilir  t«Mitf|-  lalih-  ami  a  ham  in  the  sinoUt-- 
lioiisf.  or  a  fhifkt'ii  on  I  In-  roost  In*  wonhl  thMcivt*  his 
own  ;^'ran«hnollnM-  ami  ;;h»ry  in  it.  too,  whih*  his  i-om- 
rauh'S  wm*  ;;ftlin;i  away  with  lin-m.  Even  if  a  Imm- 
nn-r  slnnihl  art  hoin'sily,  he  |»ossfSs»'«l  so  mnrh  tlrn-p- 
lioii  thai  In*  j:oi  no  t  riMlii  foi- ii.  Hnt  ciiMlii  was  some- 
Ihinji:  tin*  linmm*'r  n<\«i-  asUiMJ  for.  as  In*  always  had 
sonn'ihin;:  to  i*x«han;;c  for  tin*  n«*r«*ssari»*s  t»f  life,  li 
was  no  nm-oinmon  «MM-nrr»*nci*  t«>  stM*  tin*  bnmnn*!-  toni- 
in;:  into  ranip  loa<l«'il  <low  ii.  holding  in  om*  hand  a  ro|K', 
and  aitacln-d  to  iln*  oiln*r  md  a  mnh*  loaded  dttwn 
with  tin*  n«*r«*ssaii«s  of  Hf«*.  Ask  a  hummt-i-  u  ln*ri*  he 
jfoi  his  sn|»plics  and  his  answrr  wonhl  In*  nnnr  drlnsive 
than  a  dream  hook,  ami  his  loa<l  sonn'thin<j:  lik<*  the 
nnknowii  ijnantiiy  in  al^^fhra.  li  nii;:ht  im-jucscih  a 
;;ood  d«'al  or  v«*iy  lilth*,  a  litlh*  of  cn  ciyt  hin;:.  fioni  a 
ln*«*dii\»*  to  a  s|>rin«;  rhickcii;  and  ytm  lia<l  to  Im-  ron- 
t«*nl  w  it  h  tin*  <*\|  da  nation  In*  ;:;av»'  yo»i.  as  it  w  as  \imh*r- 
sto(M|  hy  all  tin*  hoys  that  then'  was  m>  pdnj:  iH-himl 
tin*  n*tniiis  of  a  hnmnn*r.  Tin'  hnmnn'r  was  a  liln*ial- 
ln*art<*d  iM'in;^.  y«*(  In*  adhficd  siiirijy  io  th<*  laws  of 
his  or<;ani/at  ion.  whit  h  wnc  hasi-d  on  iln-  old  da«k- 
stinian  doriiiin-,  "lo  tin*  \i»lors  hflon;;  tin*  s]»oils:""  y<*t 
in  his  dist  lihntion  of  tln*m  In*  show«'d  no  jioliiiral  or 
Kcitarian  iin*f«*r«*mrs.  Tln*n*  an*  two  thin;;?*  »<nnH*ri«*(l 
with  army  lif«*  which  ohl  sohlirrs  will  always  i<nnni- 
bcr,  vi/.,  tin*  hnmnn'r  an«l  tin-  old  armv  mule. 


CHAPTER  XXII. 


Reminiscences  of  the  Kentucky  Campaign,  Hartsville  and  Ellc 
River,  by  Lieutenant  A.  Prescott,  Company  A — My  Experi- 
ence at  Stroud's  Mill,  or  Fishing-  Creek,  S.  C,  by  John  E. 
Merritt,  Company  H — Incidents  of  Chickamauga,  the  Atlanta 
Campaign  and  Raleigh,  by  Corporal  D.  L.  Mitchell,  Company 
C — Who  Had  the  Nightmare  at  Hillsboro  and  Chattanooga? 
by  Sergeant  Andrew  MofRtt,  Company  I — Milking  Cows,  by 
Oscar  Slagle,  Company  D — Reminiscence  of  Tompkinsville  and 
Mission  Ridge,  by  Edgar  L.  Stevens,  Company  C — My 
Experience  at  Chickamauga,  by  Philip  A.  Hawk,  Company 
G — Reminiscence  of  Glasgow,  Ky.,  by  Captain  Willard  Proc- 
tor, Company  I — The  Experience  of  Company  I  in  the  Skir- 
mish Before  Atlanta,  July  22nd,  1864,  by  Captain  Willard 
Proctor,  Company  I — Recollections  of  Utoy  Creek,  Ga.,  by 
Captain  Willard  Proctor,  Company  I— Extracts  from  Captain 
Leighton's  Diary  as  to  the  Operations  of  the  Regiment  Around 
Dallas.  Pumpkin  Vine  Creek  and  New  Hope  Church — Recol- 
lections of  the  Siege  of  Chattanooga  and  the  Battle  of  Look- 
out   Mountain,    by    Captain  William  Strawn. 


REMINISCENCES  OF  THE  KENTUCKY  CAMPAIGN— HARTS- 
VILLE AND  ELK  RIVER— BY  LIEUTENANT  A.  PRES- 
COTT, COMPANY  A. 

While  the  One  Hundred  and  Foiuth  lay  at  Frank- 
fort I  was  detailed  to  take  Company  A  and  two  com- 
panies ot  the  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  and  One  Hun- 
dred and  Eighth  Ohio  and  march  to  Lawrenceburg  to 
support  a  battery.  My  orders  were  received  from  Col- 
onel Timberg,  commanding  our  Brigade.  On  arrival 
no  battery  was  found,  but  an  orderly  soon  came  and 
said  it  was  a  mistake.  We  then  marched  back  and  so 
quickly  that  the  shortdegged  Dutchmen  had  to  stretch 
their  legs  and  do  some  tall  swearing.  At  Bowling 
Green  I  was  detailed  to  take  a  i)arty  an<l  teams  and 
forage  for  the  Division,  After  going  for  miles  where 
nothing  was  to  be  seen  but  the  desolation  of  war,  such 
as  is  produced  by  armies,  and  was  about  des])airiiig  of 
finding  anything,  we  cjime  suddenly  to  a  well-kei)t  field 
full  of  corn  in  the  shock.    This  surprised  me,  but  when 


348  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FoUHTll 

1  rftlfitrtl  that  all  ih«*i»tln'r  |>laiilatioiis  Wf  liatl  i>ass«Ml 
Wfii-  as  bait*  nf  Vf}j:rlalioii  as  iln*  licatls  of  til»l  mvn 
in  ilu*  fr«»m  scats  «»f  a  ihi-atfi-  arr  of  liair,  ilit-  iiivsi«*ry 
was  fXplaiiUMl.  1  roinliHl«Ml  ilial  iln*  uwiu-r  iiiusi  be 
j*n»t«MiiMl  l»\  tin*  <  ioviMMiiifiM.  aii*l  Immiij;  cuiiri  ami 
jurv,  I  jvasi»in*«l  thai  tin*  armv  haviiiy:  <oiin*  tli«i<'  i<» 
])n>t«Ml  tlir  laiitl  and  sustain  law.  wr  ninst  In*  fcil,  Itoili 
mm  and  lirasis.  \\  r  |irtM«M'tl«M|  in  litad  I  In*  wagons,  and 
uliilr  doin;;  SM,  1,  nnaniiiiM'.  watrliin;:  M|MM'al  inns  from 
mv  Innsf,  a  man  slmuifd  in  a  ;:rnlT  voice  from  tin? 
W(»ods  on  tin*  opposite  side  of  tin*  lield,  "Wliai  are  you 
doin^  llieie?"  I.ookin;;  oxer  1  saw  a  ;itM»d  jookin;;: 
Sperinien  of  llie  <j:elllls  **l»ni  I  eiinu  "  silting  on  iiis  hoise 
ami  replied,  'M'an'i  you  se«?"  ••\es,  hut  yt»u  have  no 
rij^hl  to  tourh  that  rorn;  it  is  itiotecieil  hy  (Joveiii- 
jneiit."  1  said.  "All  ri;;ht,  that's  my  nnat."  "<  "unie  o\»'r 
here,"  says  hutternut.  "Not  any  for  m«','*  1  replied;  "if 
you  wish  to  talk  roi-n  come  over  here."  lie  came  ami 
informed  mm-  tliai  Ik-  had  proieciimi  pM|tcis  fnim  <icn- 
eral  .Mc<'ook.  1  said,  "1  am  takinj^  this  coin  hy  orders 
from  I'mle  Sam,  who  will  jiay  for  it  il  the  owner  is 
all  ii;:hi."  I  lia\<'  m-vcr  hlaiiicil  invscir  U>\-  ihai  de- 
cision. 

On  the  iiiar<h  sMinh  riom  'roiii|tlviiis\illt'  I  was 
dftailed  on  the  ihii-d  day  hy  <  'ohuiel  Scot  i  lo  t;ikf  i  hirty 
men  with  an  o\  team  and  forage  for  provisions,  .\fter 
wamleriii;;  all  ni^ht  ahm;;  hy  roads  and  in  tin*  woods 
we  found  an  old  mill  on  a  small  stream,  secured  some 
Hour,  then  fidlowed  the  Hri^ade,  o\criakinix  it  at  id^ht. 
\N'e  marched  throu;:h  <ioose<'reek  N'alley.  which  no 
one  will  ever  foijret,  and  linally  reached  I  larts\  ill*-, 
Tenn.  ('oinpany  .\  acted  as  I'l-oMtsi  <iuaids  ai  i  he 
villa;:e.  The  nri;,'adc  weiii  into  camp  on  the  haidvs  of 
the  < 'uinherland,  a  mile  distant.  The  petiple  of  llarts- 
\ilh'  were  pronounced  rebels,  all  the  youn^  and  able- 
bodied  men  Were  in  the  rebel  army,  many  of  them  with 
.I<din  Morgan,  who  attacked  iis  hecember  Tih,  \siV2. 
Three  or  four  days   pre\iously   a    iie^in   iurormed    me 

that  we  were  to  be  attacked.  1  told  ('.iImiii'I  Moore, 
who  had  as>uiiiet|  conimaud  of  ihe  llij^iade  on  the  '_M, 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  349 

Colonel  Scott  having  left;  and  I  said  I  believed  it  was 
reliable  from  certain  indications  of  tlie  old  men  of 
the  village.  1  also  suggested  that  some  baii'icades  or 
intrenchments  would  be  a  good  thing,  but  he  did  not 
seem  to  wake  up  to  the  emergency.  On  the  night  of 
December  5th  our  company  was  on  picket  duty  on  the 
road  near  the  camp.  1  was  in  command  of  our  ])ickets 
and  it  was  very  dark.  A  horseman  attempted  to  pass 
toward  the  village  and  paid  no  regard  to  the  chal- 
lenge; pretty  soon  three  shots  were  fired  and  the  hors<' 
and  rider  came  tearing  back.  I  challenged  him,  when 
he  went  over  the  fence;  taking  the  guard's  gun  I  fired; 
he  made  a  momentary  halt  and  then  Aveut  on.  The 
man  was  no  doubt  a  spy.  The  next  morning  his  horse 
was  found  wounded.  When  the  battle  was  over  and 
we  were  prisoners  waiting  to  cross  the  river,  one  of  the 
men  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  went  up  to  one 
of  Morgan's  men,  a  big  fat  fellow,  and  said:  "Hello, 
Bill,  I  thought  the  devil  had  got  you  long  ago."  He 
was  his  brother!  One  of  the  sergeants  of  my  com- 
pany found  two  of  his  cousins  with  Morgan,  and  they 
gave  him  something  to  eat.  One  of  the  men  of  the 
Regiment  was  taken  by  the  rebels  for  a  deserter,  but 
afterward  released.  When  we  were  captured,  Mrs. 
Captain  Ellis,  wife  of  Morgan's  Quartermaster,  took 
my  sword  and  sash  and  said  she  would  take  care  of  it; 
she  did  so  and  gave  it  to  our  forces  when  they  occupied 
Hartsville,  and  I  received  it  at  Gallatin  as  we  were 
passing  through.  When  we  approached  Murfreesboro 
as  prisoners  the  column  was  halted  and  the  men 
strip])ed  of  their  overcoats,  and  fearing  their  valuables 
would  be  taken  also,  I  filled  my  long  boots  and  my 
pockets  with  their  watches  and  money.  However,  the 
rebels  did  not  disturb  them.  In  due  time  we  were  pa- 
roled, sent  into  our  lines  at  Nashville  and  to  Columbus, 
from  there  to  Camp  Douglas  to  guard  prisoners.  In 
April,  1863,  we  returned  to  the  front,  and  under  Kose- 
crans  marched  on  the  TuUahoma  campaign,  which  was 
short,  brilliant  and  exciting.  Though  sick  all  the  time 
I  did  not  stay  behind.    At  Elk  River,  where  our  Brigade 


MO  THE  ONK  HrN'I>RKD  AND  FOrRTH 

raiiM*  iiilo  ;iili»»ii,  ( "oiii|i;iii v  A  was  mi  ilir  left  of  the 
batt»*n  ami  vvlnA  sharpshoot«*rH  \v«*n'  iM*;r;,Mii«;  away, 
iifiirial  lliMtfy  ihliii;:  up  ordrnMl  iin*  lo  s«'inl  a  f«'\v 
iiHMi  aliraM  lt»  try  ami  |iirk  tlnin  t>tT.  Tin*  fari  of  my 
Kli;;litly  tuniiii;;  my  li«'a«l  lln-r«-  savnl  ii.  as  a  iiiiiin-  l>all 
raiiH'  wlii/./iii;;  l»y  my  fai-.  .hisl  iImmi  a  ithfl  sIm-II 
took  off  tin*  lira«l  of  a  luittfiy  liorsf  ami  i  In-  I'nlcr  mllrd 
ai^aiiisi  a  tire.  Iiiit  was  only  stiiiim-d  liy  ilir  fall.  I 
askril  ('apiaiii  Ih'wiit  if  li**  (-oiiM  hit  aii,\  i  liiii;^.  lie 
8ai»l.  "Vou  s«M*  that  rliimm*y  alu-ad:  wattli  ii."  A  uuii 
was  IIiimI  and  d«»wii  ramc  tin*  cliimm-y.  TIk-  K<';iimt'nt 
was  movi'd  soon  after  l)\  ilic  ri<:;lit  tIanU  ami  t-aim*  into 
line  in  fiont  of  tlie  lionse,  wliirli  was  hit  l>y  a  shell. 
Then  some  women  rame  ont,  one  id'  them  with  hei-  aim 
"Wounded,  and  made  for  the  woods.  I  saw  i  hem  no 
more.  A  little  ;;ifl  came  lainnin;:  down  the  hill  sneam- 
ini;  and  j;ot  hehiml  a  t  tee,  when  she  ceased  riving. 
There  was  sonn-  shar|»  skirmishing  all  ahmji.  i'inally, 
when  the  enemy  had  'teen  dri\en  hack  across  the  lOlk, 
they  openetl  auain  with  artilh-ry  from  the  IdiilT  and 
wei-e  re])lied  to  so  vi^mronsly  liy  onr  liatteries  that 
one  or  two  of  theii-  ^nns  were  dismonnted  and  they 
withdrew.  Al'it-r  ihai  we  rrosseil  ihe  river,  Imt  the 
enemy  w  iM*e  lin-n  well  on  iheir  way  o\er  tin-  iiMHin- 
tains.  near  the  base  of  which  we  lay.  Willi  the  till  of 
Jnly  came  tin*  news  of  the  snrreiider  td"  \'i(  kshiir;^  and 
the  victory  at  <  let  tyshnr^.  which  ci-eated  ;j;ieat  enihn- 
siasm.     We  then  went   into  lamj)  ai    l>eiliei-d.  Tenn. 

MY    KXIM:i{n:;s("K   .\T   STHOIDS   .MIM..   oh    FI.SHINd   CHKKK. 

s.  ('..  i'i:niUAiiv  un.  istjs.    hv  joh.n  i:.  mi:ui{ITT.  co.m- 

PANY   H 

\\'hile  the  |{e;,dinent  was  marchin;:  thron;^h  Sonth 
<'ar<dina  hi;:h  watei-  in  the  tiieai  I'edee  detained  ns 
three  da\s,  and  as  provisions  weif  herominu^  scaire, 
<'aptain  IJoss  was  sent  out  wiih  a  deiail  of  one  mm 
from  earh  company  on  a  fma;:!?!;:  expedii  ion.  |  wiis 
■detailed  from  <'ompan\  II.  ( )n  the  wa\  others  joimd 
UH,  ami  not  lon;^  after  i;eitinir  away  from  onr  lines 
We  were  piet  t  \  Well  mounted  on  miihs  pressed  into 
the  sei\  ire   from    I  In-   plantations.      We   went    into   the 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  V'OLUNTEERS.  351 

country  some  ten  oi*  twelve  miles  and  occasionally 
exchanged  shots  with  rebel  cavalry  whi<-li  hovered 
about  watching-  our  movements.  When  they  got  too 
near  we  would  stop,  have  a  skirmish  with  them  until 
they  drew  oil",  and  then  we  would  move  on  again  lively 
for  several  miles.  However,  we  had  loadc<l  our  mules 
well.  I  remember  having  one  hundred  pounds  of  Hour 
and  two  hams  on  my  mule.  Vs'e  had  to  stop  and  skir- 
mish several  times  and  the  numbers  of  the  enemy  kept 
increasing  Avhen  they  pressed  us  closer  and  drove  us 
down  on  a  creek  bottom  Avith  a  A'ery  steej)  bluff  on  the 
opposite  side.  The  Captain  said  he  proposed  to  tight, 
as  it  w^as  too  hazardous  scaling  the  bluff.  The  result 
was  the  final  surrender  of  most  of  the  party  after  loss 
to  the  rebels.  I  forced  my  mule  into  the  creek,  which 
was  about  five  rods  wide,  and  the  first  step  he  went 
over  his  head,  but  he  came  up  all  right  and  made  good 
time  for  the  opposite  shore.  After  crossing  I  looked 
back  and  it  seemed  to  me  that  the  whole  Southern  Con- 
federacy was  after  us.  I  laid  low,  put  spurs  to  my 
mule  and  was  not  long  in  reaching  the  top  of  the  bluff, 
but  from  the  way  the  bullets  zipped  around  me  and 
struck  the  earth,  it  looked  bilious  for  me.  AY  hen  I  had 
reached  cover  I  found  that  I  had*  a  companion,  Xic. 
McCormick,  of  Company  B.  He  had  sAvam  across  the 
creek  and  was  wounded  in  the  wrist.  I  bound  up  the 
wound  with  a  silk  handkerchief  and  we  hurried  on 
with  all  the  mules  that  the  rest  of  the  command  had 
dismounted.  They  seeing  us  cross  the  creek  had,  as 
mules  will  when  frightened,  followed  us.  We  did  not 
let  the  grass  grow  under  our  feet,  but  made  for  our 
army  and  found  the  Regiment  after  dark.  The  experi- 
ence was  the  most  exciting  one  I  had  had  and  will 
never  be  forgotten  by  me. 

INCIDENTS  OF  CHICKAMAUGA,  THE  ATLANTA  CAMPAIGN, 
AND  RALEIGH.  BY  CORPORAL  D.  L.  MITCHELL,  COM- 
PANY C. 

On  the  Friday  evening  preceding    the    battle    of 
"Chickamauga  our  Regiment  had  been  sent  to  guard 


9U 


Tin.   o.Nj;    111    .NKKI.l'    .\M>    »«>l    UTH 


a  ford,  and  Captain  l-Ml/.sinini«tns  had  (oiiiiiiaud  of  (»ur 
pit  kft  linr.  I  WiiH  ont*  of  tin*  two  nontoiiiunssioni'd 
t»fti««Ts  «»n  tin*  lt*ft.  AH  was  t|iii»*l  durin;:  the  reiiiaindtT 
of  tin- nijihl  and  u  o  ifinahnMl  thnr  during  tin*  artillfiv 
dn«d  id  tin*  I'.Mli,  wai«liin;i  the  front  and  «*\|uMnn^^  fur- 
ther ord«Ts.  Finally  (lu*  pirkris  wrn*  »alh*d  in.  bnt 
tlu' t»rdcr  faih'd  to  n-arli  us  on  t|H*l«'fi.  On  ^^oin;;  down 
til*'  line  I  disrowriMl  that  in«>st  of  ihc  men  had  «lisa|»- 
jK-ait'd  and  i«*|»ort«*d  it  to  th«*  Captain,  who  iniin«MH- 
atelv  sent  a  man  to  «anip.  lie  felurned  <|ui(kly  and 
Kaid  the  nii;;ade  had  j^one.  About  this  time  we  saw 
the  rebel  <avalrv  erossinj;  Chi«kamau;;a  Creek  in  frt>nt 
(»f  tis.  The  Captain  then  ^Mvin«i  an  order  for  every  man 
to  hmk  o\it  f«»r  himself,  it  was  promptly  executed  in 
double  <|ui«k  time  to  ih«'  rear.  'rii«'i«'  were  seven  or 
nint'  of  us.  In  a  short  time  our  eyrs  were  •;huldeue<l 
by  s«M'in;:  oui-  own  ra\alr.\  approarhin;;,  but  ln/fore 
they  had  jzout-  forty  rods  furllnM-  they  were  en;,M;ied 
with  tin*  eiHMny.  Niuht  was  coming  on  and  we  did 
not  tinil  our  Ke^^imenl  until  Sunday  mornin;:,  when 
the  ISri^'ade  mairlied  so«»n  after  to  our  extrenu'  left 
and  ln'came  eii^a;;ed  very  shoitly  in  the  tierre  contlit-l 
of  tin*  -(Mil.  During;  the  li;;lit  I  was  hit  on  my  knap- 
Huek  strap  and  knocked  <low  n,  rausin;;  me  to  spit  blood, 
also  causinj;  a  bruise.  'I'lic  Atlanta  (-ampai^n  was  an 
almost  t-ontinuoiis  baitif  ;iiid  the  Ke;:iment  under  tir<' 
one  hundred  «lays.  dust  before  we  rearhed  Keuesaw 
-Mountain  Cui|iurai  dames  Lo^^an.  of  my  Coiujiany.  w  ho 
had  been  uiili   me  at    Lexington.  .Mi»..  was  killed.      !!-• 

and  a  dohiiuy  both  wanted  the  same  tr n  the  skit 

mi  si  I  line,  but  t  he  d  oh  uuy  ;iot  t  he  ad\  anta;:«'  and  a  uood 
soldier  fell.  At  KeliesaW  t  he  rebel  Woiks  a  lid  ours  W  «•!  e 
onl\  about  oiie  hundred  and  lifty  feet  ajtart.  We 
relieved  a  ri*;;imeni  (»f  le^iulars.  Tin-  bieast  works  had 
been  thrown  up  in  the  iii^lit,  b\  what  troo|)s  I  do  not 
know,  but  w  hen  ^^e  went  in  the  re^^iilars  said  we  would 
have  to  lay  low.  Wash.  Parker  and  myself  weredetailed 
as  sharpshooters  and  one  hundred  ituimls  of  (•aririd;:es 
plareil  by  each  of  us.  When  dayli;:lit  came  tin*  rebels 
hailed  us  and  said.  "N'aiik.  \oii  have  ;:ot  a  dilTei-eiit  lot 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  353 

of  nion  over  there,  haven't  you?"  That  day  they  kepr 
their  hea<ls  (h>\vn.  I  think  (Jeneral  Polk  was  klHed  the 
same  day.  At  Peach  Tree  Creek  Company  C  lost  somi.^  of 
her  best  men,  ann)n«>-  them  Parker,  Mnnson  and  Captain 
Kynearson.  That  was  my  last  battle.  I  was  wounded 
in  the  hand,  but  rejoined  the  Ke.iiinient  in  18().">  at 
(ioldsb(U'o,  and  inarched  to  lvalei<.ili  and  Washin«;ton. 
Our  Rejiiment  was  the  first  to  enter  Raleigh  and  our 
General,  ridinjjj  up,  said  to  Major  Widmer,  then  eom- 
manding:  "Yonr  flag  is  entitled  to  go  on  the  State 
House  oi'  North  Carolina,  but  there  is  so  little  left  to 
show  what  it  represents  that  I  shall  have  to  take  that 
of  the  Forty-second  Indiana."  That  Regiment  had 
been  home  on  veteran  furlough  and  had  a  new  i!ag. 
The  unequaled  march  to  Richmond  and  the  grand 
review  were  events  I  can  never  forget. 

WHO  HAD  THE  NIGHTMARE  AT  HILLSBORO  AND  CHATTA- 
NOOGA ?     BY  SERGEANT  ANDREW  MOFFITT,  COMPANY  I. 

During  the  Tullahoma  campaign,  while  Ave  lay  at 
Manchester,  Tenn.,  General  Beatty  was  ordered  to  take 
our  Brigade  and  march  to  Hillsboro,  eight  or  ten  miles 
distant,  in  support  of  General  Wilder's  movement 
against  the  right  flank  of  the  retreating  rebel  army. 
AVe  arrived  there  Sunday  night  after  a  tedious  march 
through  the  mud  and  bivouacked  near  the  old  village 
in  a  grove  of  young  timber.  The  position  was  a  dan- 
gerous one  as  we  had  no  supports  near  and  the  rebels 
were  not  far  in  front.  The  orders  were  to  lay  on  our 
arms  with  accoutrements  on  and  to  be  ready  at  a  mo- 
ment's notice  for  an  attack.  General  Beatty  and  our 
Brigade  had  been  selected  for  the  expedition  on 
account  of  their  fighting  reputation.  A  strong  picket 
line  had  been  thrown  out  in  front,  the  night  was 
intensely  dark  and  rainy,  and  our  pup  tents  not  much 
protection.  We  went  to  sleep,  but  a  nervous,  fitful 
sleep  for  many.  All  at  once  I  was  awakened  by  the 
most  unearthly  yell,  howl  and  shriek,  all  in  one,  that  it 
is  possible  to  conceive  of.  I  jumped  np,  grabbed  my 
musket  and  took  a  position  behind  a  tree  that  stood 


S&4 


THE  ONK  HL  NDHKl*  AM»  F«»l  ICTil 


lu'iir.  I  ilioujihi  ihf  ivhel  tavalrv  was  ridiii;;  ovor  the 
Ki'*;iiiM'iil  slaviiij;  im  t-vrrv  liainl.  'l*>  add  («»  llie  cou- 
fusiuii  ihf  pirki'ts  lM*«;an  liriii^  and  my  hair  i»usUed 
iifi  (In*  rap  oil  tiiv  head.  It  \>as  su  dark  mik*  cuiild  not 
sif  his  hand  hrforr  his  fart*.  The  Uii^adc  was  f«niiMMl 
in  liiu*  and  ihe  ininirdiatc  cause  of  th<*  start*  asrer- 
laiintMl.  Thr  Major  raiiir  ah»nj;  v<»win;i  thai  if  he  couhl 
tind  lh«*  fi'How  Uv  woiihl  have  him  shot.  Uiii  ihi-  |iirk- 
«*ts  liaNiii;:  Imm'U  liitti  mt  wf  stood  in  liiu*  iiiiiil  «Uiv- 
Ii;;hl.  .V  siiuihir  iiiridciit  (Mciirird  in  front  of  ("hatta- 
iioopi  in  whirh  I  «'njo\fd  tin-  fun.  Somh  afn-r  the  l>ai- 
tlt»  of  ( 'hitkanian;:a  u«*  wfii*  on  pirUrt.  The  liins  on 
«*ith«'r  sid«'  had  not  been  well  d«'liiud  as  vt-i,  and  the 
two  armies  were  skirmishing;  for  the  best  |»ositions  to 
establish  thi-ir  liiifs  and  |»irkfi  p(»sts.  (Ifin  ral  |{os«*- 
erans  had  sent  nni  a  liri-^adc  to  src  \\h<'r«'  lh<*  n-bt-ls 
were,  btil  they  wer«' soon  driven  back  and  then  Ura;;;^: 
siMit  out  a  <li\ision  to  ascertain  our  ]Misitioii.  and  he 
fiMHld  oii(.  for  We  speedily  dloNc  it  bark.  .M  V  relief 
was  on   the  line  when  the  atta<k  was  imnle  and  after 

the     ne\I     relief     Went     on     UC    Were    at     the    picket     post, 

which  was  down  in  a  nice  little  «o\e.  As  it  was  rold 
we  had  a   lire  and  it    was  ipiite  li;;ht.     The  boys  bein;c 

Very    tired    and    worn    out    dro|iped    ulT    to    slee|t.    some    of 

them  coM-rin;:  their  heads  with  their  blanUeis.  I  was 
in  a  position  to  take  in  the  whole  situation  and  liaji- 
peiied  to  be  loukin;;  at  the  time  when  thai  same  o|i| 
yell  broke  the  stillness  of  the  ni^dii.  Ii  was  better 
than  a  circus  to  see  the  men  run  in  e\ery  direrijon, 
some  with  the  blankets  over  their  heatls  trvin;:  to  run, 
and  some  craw  liii;.:  <dT  on  hamis  and  knees.  There  were 
but  few  who  did  not  move  and  i|uickly.  I  think  the 
author  of  the  trouble  must  ha\f  been  the  sann-  on<» 
wh<)  scared  us  at  llillsboio. 

.MII.KINC;      cows.     IIY      ('{)UIM)|{.\I.      O.^CAIt      Sl.ACU:.      ("O.M- 

I'.WY  I). 

\\   jieli     llie     liatlle    nf     IlalM>\ille    nciliried      |.     wllil     a 

detail  of  <  I  lie  half  of  our  <  'oiu]  tan  \  and  one  half  of  (  um- 
paiiy  I',  were  with  the  sujiply  train  as  'guards  at  <ial- 

latV.-.      'I'elin..    co||Se<|l|ent  ly    WeilJd     Il<<l     rellllll    l<i    1 1  a  ft  s- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  SoS- 

ville,  but  were  put  on  provost  duty  aud  (juartered  in 
the  Court  Bouse.  Our  duties  were  guarding;  prisoners^ 
private  ju-operty,  aud  |iatr«>Iiug  tlie  streets  of  the  towu^ 
three  hours  on  duty  aud  nine  olf,  except  when  we  coukl 
play  sick.  While  thus  employed  we  became  tired  of 
our  daily  fare  and  hankered  for  a  change  of  diet,  but 
could  not  obtain  anything  inside  of  the  guard  lineSy 
as  all  was  closely  watclied.  80  we  fre(]nently  took 
midnight  rambles  after  coining  ofC  duty  in  the  early 
part  of  the  night,  and  being  in  possession  of  the  coun- 
tersign could  go  where  we  pleased.  On  one  of  these 
excursions  in  company  with  J,  C.  and  L.  K.  Hutton^ 
we  came  across  some  cows  which  we  thouglit  needed 
milking,  but  my  comrades  could  not  milk,  their  fingers 
being  achipted  to  catching  chickens,  etc.,  so  it  was 
agree<l  that  they  should  corner  the  coavs  and  I  shoukl 
do  the  milking.  This  was  done.  I  had  milked  three 
and  had  a  good  suppl}^  of  milk,  enough,  1  thought,  but 
the  boys  said  there  was  one  more  cow  and  we  had 
better  make  a  clean  job  of  it.  It  was  pretty  dark,  but 
the  cow  was  white,  so  I  told  them  to  corner  her  up,, 
which  with  some  trouble  they  did.  I  then  proceeded 
to  milk  her,  putting  out  my  hand  for  the  purpose.  Just 
then  something  struck  me  broadside  and  I  went  sprawl- 
ing. When  I  recovered  sufficiently  to  speak  I  blurted 
out,  "That's  a  steer !"  The  boys  were  so  convulsed  withi 
laughter  that  I  did  not  get  any  sympathy  from  them, 
and  I  have  a  belief  to  this  day  that  it  was  a  put  up- 
job  on  their  part. 

REMINISCENCES   OF  TOMPKINSVILLE  AND   MISSION  RIDGE^ 
BY  EDGAR  L.  STEVENS,  COMPANY  C. 

While  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  in  camp 
at  Tompkinsville,  Ky.,  I  was  taken  sick  and  unable 
to  be  removed  when  the  Regiment  suddenly  left  one 
night.  So  I  was  carried  in  the  rain  and  darkness  tO' 
a  house  near  by  and  put  to  bed  in  a  chamber  with 
another  man  of  the  command  who  was  also  very  sick. 
The  exposure  had  been  so  great  that  in  a  few  hours  I 
sank  into  unconsciousness  and  remained  in  that  con- 


nC  THE  ONK   111  MUtKD  AM>  Ft  H  KTH 

dilioii  for  tfii  ilavs,  1  Miring  that  linn*  tin*  toinrade 
who  was  w  iih  lue  died  and  was  burit'd.  li  was  nearly 
two  luoiitliH  bt'fore  1  could  set  up,  ami  tlirti'  before  1 
was  Well  eiioit^li  to  leavi*.  Fi»rt iniatelv  my  ln>sis  w<*re 
kin«lliearied.  tliMu^li  slaveludders,  and  in  syiiipalhy 
with  llie  S»»uth.  They  nursed  me  back  t<»  health,  call- 
in;;  in  their  family  physician  to  ;;ive  me  treatment. 
^\'hile  in  Tompkiusville  several  <  'onfederate  commands 

jKlssed  thluii;:h  and  a  few  weeks  after  the  battle  of 
llartsvillf  .Mor^ian's  whole  army  mairlieil  by  the  hous'* 
where  1  was  staying;  and  1  saw  it  fitun  the  chamlH  r 
window.  Several  relations  of  my  host  wcif  anntii;;  i  Im* 
number  and  stopped  fur  dinii<r.  TIm-  ik-m  day  out-  of 
them  was  killed  and  br<>ii;;hi  to  ToiiipkinsN  ille  for  bur- 
ial. One  «lark  and  tloudy  ni;;ht  in  I'ebruary,  a  little 
])asi  oiif,  I  hli  iJM'  house  Mild  friends  who  had  proven 
to  Im'  such  ;:ood  Samaritans,  to  make  uiy  way  to  tin* 
Federal  lines,  sixty  miles  distant.  .Much  of  the  way 
was  infested  liv  ( "oiifeijeraie  ca\alrv.  Afh-i-  four  days 
and  ni;:hts  of  skMlkiii>:,  hiding  and  windinu  around 
fields  and  opeiiin;;s  in  order  to  keep  in  the  (oxer  **f 
Woods,  creeks  ami  ;;ullies.  I  reached  our  lines  near 
Nash\llle.  exhausted.  Auxlous  to  jiet  back  north  and 
tliere  axNait  the  exchanp*  of  the  ( )ne  lluntlr«'d  and 
Fourth,  1  made  my  \\:\y  across  Kentuck\  in  altont  two 
Weeks  and  in  a  few  days  ai'iived  home  in  llarhille, 
whi*re  1  found  t  hat  I  had  been  ^dven  up  for  dead,  .\fier 
H|)endin;;  ji  few  days  at  home  I  rejoined  the  Ke^imeut 
at  Camp  Douglas  and  wt-ni  with  it  to  the  front.  i»ar- 
takinir  in  all  its  marches  and  battles  until  af^er  the 
capture  of  Atlanta,  when  hearing:  of  my  father's  sick- 
ness 1  went  home  on  fnrlou;:h.  \\  In-n  I  h;id  reached 
"Nashville  on  my  lei  mn  Shc'inan  had  siarieij  for  tin* 
Hon.  and  thus  T  took  paii  in  ilie  baiih-  of  Nashville 
ami  the  action  at  necalur.  bul  rejoined  the  lve;^im<'nt 
at  Cioldsboro,  \.  < '.  The  following;  personal  incident 
which  occurred  to  me  at  Mission  Kid^re,  shows  how 
ntistakes  may  sometimes  be  made  atid  an  iniusti««* 
ibme.  In  the  •.M-and  char;re  I  found  mvself  one  of  the 
first    lUi    oui"   jiarl    of   the  line   scnlin^    the   eart  liw  <u-ks 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  357 

on  the  to])  (►f  the  ridiic  To  my  left  a  few  yai-ds  dis- 
tant, one  of  the  ollicers  of  the  Ke^inient  mounted  tlie 
works  at  about  the  same  instant;  as  he  did  so  a  rebel 
soldier  raised  his  ^un  to  shoot  him  and  notiein^  his 
puri)ose  1  sjM-anji-  toward  him  with  my  bayonet,  whicli 
so  diconcerted  him  tliat  he  missed  the  ofhcer  when  he 
tired.  The  rebel  then  threw  down  his  gun  and  sur- 
rendered. I  was  weak  enough  to  regret  for  some  time 
tluit  T  did  not  use  cold  steel  on  him,  Imt  i-ebels  were 
so  thick  then  that  I  turned  my  attention  to  others  who 
had  arms  in  their  hands.  lloweA'er,  the  ridge  was  soon 
in  our  possession  and  the  rebels  running.  John  Cook, 
Fred  Hess  and  myself  ])ursued  them  down  the  east  side 
of  the  ridge  into  the  woods  and  tired  as  they  ran  across 
a  <-learing.  We  then  returned  to  tlie  top  and  found 
our  men  had  formed  line  and  stacked  arms.  Instead 
of  halting  I  continued  on  down  the  ridge  Ave  had 
charged  up  for  the  purpose  of  learning  who  of  Com- 
pany C  had  been  killed  and  w^ounded.  While  search- 
ing them  out  a  Sergeant  approached  and  accused  me 
of  skulking,  stating  that  he  had  orders  to  arrest  all 
such.  Feeling  that  I  had  done  my  full  share  in  gain- 
ing the  victory  and  being  then  on  a  volunteer  mission 
of  mercy,  I  was  very  angry  and  retorted  that  he  was 
too  much  of  a  coward  to  effect  the  arrest.  At  the  same 
time  I  brought  my  musket  to  a  ready,  but  lie  turned 
away  and  nothing  more  came  of  it,  though  I  expected 
to  be  arrested. 

MY  EXPERIENCE  AT  CHICKAMAUGA.     BY  PHILIP  A.  HAWK, 

COMPANY  G. 

When  our  Regiment  fell  back  on  the  20th  of  Sep- 
tember, 18()3,  at  Chickamauga,  F.  L.  Pound,  J.  F.  I)i(dil, 
Ham,  Campbell,  J.  C.  Deegan  and  myself  h(d])ed  to 
remove  some  of  the  guns  of  Bridge's  Battery,  the  horses 
having  been  killed  or  disabled.  I  helped  to  work  the 
brass  gun,  but  we  were  obliged  to  leave  it.  I  then  ran 
to  the  next  gun  with  my  arms  full  of  cones,  but  that 
being  a  steel  gun  my  cone  fruit  Avas  of  no  account.  I 
threw  it  down  and  ran  back  to  the  brass  gun  with  the 


JM  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

intention  of  spikin;:  ii  :>inl  whilr  in  iIm-  ;ui  of  <l«»iii^r 
s«»  was  slmt  in  tin*  fan*  m\«m-  tin-  irfi  fv«-;  tlu-n  1  siaried 
for  tin-  V'nv,  but  lia«i  ;ioii»'  uniy  a  slmrt  distaure  when 
1  was  wouh«I«m1  in  tin*  l»*ft  U-^  l»y  a  siM-ni  IkiII,  wliirh 
Htrnck  with  fon-r  rnoiijili  to  iMii«'r  tin-  llt*slj  an«l  nia<i«* 
thf  IiNmhI  run  fni'ly.  1  did  ni>t  tln-n  wait  for  an  tn-dt^r 
to  ;.'ii.  hut  wrnt  al  olirr.  Soon  afl«T  1  Was  hit  in  tln' 
<alf  «»f  my  ri;^'lit  U"^  l»y  a  pirrf  of  sIm-II.  I'roni  that 
tinio  on  I  outran  llw  liulhMs  until  1  hrou;:ht  up  near 
an  old  \i*ii  liani  used  as  a  hospital.  Th«*  relM-ls  l»«*;:aii 
to  shell  the  liuildin^'  and  1  lelii-aied  over  a  hill,  where 
I  foiMul  an  <>hio  iriiiimMit  en;:a^ed  in  slopping  the 
8tra«;;;lers.  The  t'oloiu'l  washed  my  fa««'  with  water 
from  his  eanteen  and  told  uh*  to  stay  tlu-re  until  an 
amlmlam-e  ranie  alon;:.  The  oidy  our  that  passed 
"Would  not  slop.     The  ()liii»  r«*;;iment   m<»ved  up  on  the 

hill,  so,  as  the  walking:  was  '^ I  and  thai   pari  of  the 

rountry  did  not  seem  to  a^Mee  with  mo,  I  turned  my 
bark  to  the  army  and  started  for  <  "hallanooM^a.  It 
was  slow  work  with  two  lame  le;,'s  and  a  sore  head 
to  j;et  alon;;,  hut  1  reached  liossvillo  at  sundown  and 
"was  sent  the  next  day  to  tin*  hospital  in  <'liattanoo};a; 
llien  an  onler  romin;;  for  jill  who  could  walk  to  jjo  over 
the  rivei-  I  <rossed,  hut  <ould  <::•»  no  furl  her.  In  a  few 
<lays  I  rejojiK-il  iIk-  lIciiiiiifMl   near  I•^'^t   Xe;;lev. 

RKMINISCENUE  OF   (II.ASdOW,    KY.      HY   CAPTAIN   WIl.LARD 
PROCTOH.  ro.MPANY   I. 

I  will  ucNcr  foi;^<-t  the  march  from  IJowlin^  <lrrcn 
to  <;iasj:ow,  for,  on  arrivin;;,  mysolf  and  several  others 
Avere  taken  sick  and  nearly  all  the  hoys  who  died  in 
Tompkinsvilh'  wcic  liisi  sirickcn  at  <Ilas;;ow.  \\  In-n 
the  I{e;:imenl  left  ihe  ordeis  Were  for  all  the  sick  to 
lie  |mt  in  and»ulances.  hut  <'aptain  W'adlei^h  refused 
to  have  me  taken  alonj;,  as  he  thoujihl  it  would  he  sure 
death,  so  he  found  a  rnion  man  who  consented  to  lake 
i'are  of  nie.  I  was  cairied  lo  his  hous«'  on  a  str«'lcher 
and  left  there,  with  Ser;:eant  \\'ri;:ht  to  nurse  and  care 
for  me.  and  with  the  help  of  the  I'nion  family  1  soon 
bo;;an  to  ;,'et    lien«r,  and   was  ahle  to  rejoin  the  Kei^i- 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  359 

moot  witli  a  (l<'tail  that  was  sent  back  from  Toiiii)kiiis- 
villo  for  supplies.  While  in  Glasgow  a  number  of 
Union  ladies  came  to  see  me,  among  them  the  wife  of 
Major  Wolfort  (afterAvard  Colonel,  and  now  a  member 
of  Congress).  This  lady  kept  me  posted  as  to  the  move- 
ments of  the  rebels  around  Glasgow.  One  day  she 
said  it  was  ro])ort(Ml  Ihat  the  rebel  cavalry  was  about 
to  visit  ns  and  juobably  we  would  be  gobbled  up.  I 
did  not  like  the  idea,  but  was  too  sick  to  be  moved. 
I  accepted  her  offer  to  take  charge  of  my  arms  and 
uniform,  but  the  relxds  <lid  not  come  and  the  scare 
bh'W  over.  The  house  of  our  friend  was  a  little  back 
from  the  main  street  and  one  day  after  I  had  partially 
recovered  I  proposed  to  Wright  that  we  go  up  town, 
lie  said,  "All  right,"  but  insisted  on  carrying  his  mus- 
ket. As  we  were  crossing  over  the  main  street  some 
one  shot  at  ns  from  anu)ng  the  buildings,  the  ball  just 
missing  ns  and  lodging  in  the  fence  at  our  side.  It 
made  Wright  Aery  mad,  but  I  told  him  it  must  have 
been  an  acci<lent,  as  we  could  see  no  one  at  tlie  time. 
We  Avere  rejoiced  to  get  back  to  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fourth. 

THE  EXPERIENCE  OF  COMPANY  I  IN  THE  SKIRMISH  BEFORE 
ATLANTA,  JULY  22,  1864.  BY  CAPTAIN  WILLARD  PROC- 
TOR, COMPANY  I. 

After  the  battle  of  I'each  Tree  Creek  our  Brigade 
bad  the  adA^ance  on  the  right  of  the  Fourteenth  Corps. 
The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  w^as  leading  when  we 
ai)i)roached  the  outer  Avorks  of  the  enemy  around 
Atlanta.  W>  had  halted  AA'hen  an  aide-de-camp,  as 
he  Avas  supposed  to  be,  rode  out  of  the  Avoods  and 
delivered  a  verbal  order  to  General  Thomas  to  hurry 
up,  as  the  enemy  were  leaving  the  city  on  the  other 
side.  The  aide  turned  and  rode  back  into  the  Avoods. 
General  Johnson,  our  Division  Commander,  ordered  a 
skirmish  line  throAvn  out,  also  a  section  of  Dilgei*'s 
("Buckskin's")  Battery  to  advance  and  see  Avhat  was  in 
our  front.  The  rest  of  the  Brigade  halted.  Soon  the 
artillery  came  back.     Major  Wldmer  again  had  com- 


IWn 


THK  <»NK  HLNDHKI-   ANI»   l-'olKTH 


iiiaiKl  mI  I  ill-  skiiiiiisli  liiu*  ami  ruiii|iaii\  E  of  llu*  Oik* 
lliiiiili-«-i|  aii«l  I'ourlli  lia«l  ^«mh'  oiii,  wliilr  ilif  irsl  of 
lilt'  K«';:iiiM'iii  awailiMl  Wt-vclopniciils.  Soon,  <'o|oii(*l 
lIa|M'iiiai)  «-aiii<*  aloii^  and  ^a\ c  iiic  orders  to  take  ( 'otii- 
paiiv  I  aiitl  n-pori  to  .Major  \\i«liinT  «»ii  tlic  skirmish 
liiir,  which  I  ilid,  although  it  was  not  my  tnin  to  ;;o. 
1  fonnd  th«*  Major  and  h«-  jtointrd  ont  the  position  1 
was  to  ofiMipy,  fonmMtin-i  on  iht-  ri^ht  with  thf  Fif- 
t«M»nth  K<'ntn(ky  and  on  th«*  hMi  with  ihr  l'<ii  i  \  s«Mon<l 
Indiana.  Thf  position  was  in  si;;ht  of  the  icIm'!  skir- 
mish lim-  which  was  on  risin;;  ;^ronnd  lu'ViHid  a  torii- 
iitdd  and  well  proii'ttiMl  hy  a  ft-m**  an<l  a  honst*  fnll  of 
sharpshooter^.  I  woiihl  ha\<-  to  mar<  h  my  mm 
throii;:h  thf  rointichl  in  full  si;:ht  of  their  line.  I 
«U'|doycd  my  mm  and  adNamed,  Init  the  shot  eame  so 
thick  ami  fast  ihai  I  saw  ai  onre  ihai  i  would  lost' 
half  of  m\  m<  II  il  I  went  across,  so  I  i;a\e  Mie  order, 
"l-en  face,  close  orilef  on  I  lie  left,  march!"  This 
l»roii;;hi  IIS  into  thi<k  hriish  and  woods,  nearly  out  of 
si;iht  of  the  enemy,  and  in  rear  of  the  ri;:lit  of  the  I'oi- 
ly-secoiid  Indiana  skirmishers.  I  iheii  niaii  lied  niy 
in«*n  to  the  lijiht  of  the  l-'oily-second.  and  ue  then  went 
a<ioss  the  open  space  one  at  a  time  nntil  we  con- 
iM'ctejl  with  I  he  I'ifteenth  KenttK-ky  lines.  We  then 
made  the   lust    sUiinish    pits   we  could    with    rails  and 

dill,    I  III  I    U  el-e   limlel-   I  lie  ejielll  \  's    ill  e  all    1  lie   I  line.       Tilt' 

•Major  came  alon;^  and  was  satislied  with  the  arryiiLre- 
ment.  NN'e  tried  to  pay  the  t'liemy  hack  for  the  extra 
ironldeihey  had  ;iiven  iis.  .Mmhm  dark  when  all  was 
«|uiei  the  rehels  l>e;xJiii  to  |»oiir  ill  a  heav\  lire  and 
atteni|»ted  to  advance  their  lines;  so  sudden  and  impet- 
Moiis  was  the  attack  that  the  lim*  on  my  left  ^^ave  way 
and  fell  hack  to  uiir  rear;  this  made  my  men  fear  a 
Ilank  mo\eiiieiii  lt\  ihe  enemy,  Imii  I  i^axe  oidt-is  for 
<*veiy  man  to  stand  to  his  |»ost.  and  we  held  our  p<»si- 
tion  that  he  ot  no  credit  for  it.  lint  credit  was  sonie- 
lim«*  and  ajon;;  iniM  ihe  nijrhl.  .\fter  a  tiim-  we  dis- 
covei-ed  that   the  men  mi  the  riLjIit   had  i:i\en  way  and 

^one     III     the     re;ir.         We     Were       relieved       alioill       cleNell 

o'clock,     hill     coiild    iioi    liiid    the    lie;:imeni,    il    having 


REGIMENT   ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  361 

mov^ed  to  the  riiiht.  In  the  moniiiin'  when  avc  r<\j(»iiied 
the  lveji,iineiit  the  FifU^Mith  KcmiIikUv  was  in  line  near 
it  and  Colonel  Taylor  was  j^ivinji;  his  men  a  sharp  lec- 
ture for  leaving'  the  skirmish  line.  We  Avere  com- 
mended for  holding'  the  position  nnder  such  discour- 
aging circumstances. 

RECOLLECTIONS  OF  UTOY  CREEK,  GEORGIA.  BY  CAPTAIN 
WILLARD  PROCTOR,  COMPANY  I. 

The  Ttli  of  August,  1864,  will  not  be  soon  forgot- 
ten, as  on  that  day  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was 
under  a  severe  and  heavy  tire  from  the  enemy  while 
advancing  its  lines  and  throwing  up  works  in  the  new 
position,  losing  in  the  operation  several  valuable  lives 
and  having  a  number  wounded.  ('a])tain  Fitzsimmons 
was  with  his  comj)any  on  the  skirmish  line  and  had 
halted.  lie  was  trying  to  get  the  positicui  of  the  enemy 
when  he  was  shot  in  the  head  and  instantly  killed. 
SergeantAV.  TT.  Craig,  of  K,  was  also  killed  in  rlie  same 
place  and  manner  a  few  moments  aftei-.  iiasset,  of  B, 
Graves,  of  H,  and  Winslow,  of  A,  soon  fell,  and  A.  11. 
Lane,  of  D,  was  mortally  wounded.  Ten  men  were 
w^ouuded.  Rebel  sharpshooters  did  the  work.  The 
works  were  thrown  u]>  under  a  heavy  artillery  tire  and 
it  was  wcu'se  than  a  hornet's  nest  for  a  wiiile.  Com- 
pany K  being  left  without  a  commissioned  otjlcer,  Col- 
onel Ilapeman  ordered  me  to  take  charge  of  the  com- 
pany for  the  time.  We  held  our  works  which  we  had 
built  in  sight  of  the  rebels.  While  on  the  line  of  Utoy 
Creek  large  numbers  of  rebel  soldiers  deserted  and 
came  into  our  lines.  There  was  an  understanding  that 
w^e  should  at  a  certain  time  advance  our  lines,  while 
the  rebel  soldiers  should  fire  over  our  heads,  so  that 
it  would  appear  all  right  to  their  officers,  of  whom 
they  stood  in  fear.  The  plan  w^as  carried  out  August 
13tli.  Our  line  was  about  a  half  mile  in  length.  Part 
of  the  line  captured  was  in  front  of  our  Brigade,  part 
in  front  of  the  one  to  our  left.  The  skirmishers  from 
our  Brigade  were  from  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth^ 
and  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Rood,  of  Company  G. 


3tt  THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

lu  tin*  afliTiiooii  I  nli«'V«Ml  him  wiili  auoilu-r  «h'tail 
from  oiir  K«'j;im«ut.  Hffon*  iii^hi  au  ulVurr  «aiin' 
aioiiml  aii«l  «n«liMtM|  m«*  tj»  simhI  bark  «*v«m\v  iliiitl  man 
III  li«-l|»  form  a  lim-  in  tin*  i»*ai-.  1  km-w  this  poiMfmh'tl 
an  aiiatk  on  mv  lim*  an«l  it  rann-  w  iihin  an  !n»nr.  'Pin- 
i*«*h<>ls  o|)cii(Mi  on  ns  from  a  hatlrrv  i  lose  by  vn-y  heavily 
ami  kiiockfM  ont  th*-  hrail  h>i;s  of  •>nr  rith*  )»its.  hiii  we 
h«l<l  th«-  jiosition.  I  had  two  mm  woMmh-ti.  <  Mi  the 
sam«'  day  ( Iror^^'  Srhw  ••ij;aii.  of  ( 'om|»any  K,  was  kilh'l 
and  four  moit*.  mcmhcis  of  ( 'om|»ani«'s  K  and  D,  \vti-.* 
^^•onnd^•d.  W  <•  rnnainrd  thn-c  iiiiiil  An^nist  LMlili,  wiih 
skirmishin;;  j;<»in;;  on  daily. 

EXTUACT.S  FROM  CATTAIN  LKKIHTON  S  DIARY  AS  TO  THE 
OPERATIONS  OF  THE  ONE  HINDRED  AND  FOIRTH 
AROIND  DALLAS.  I'lMPKIN  VINE  CREEK.  AND  NEW 
HOPE  (MURCH. 

May  'JTili.  l>ti  I.  Hk-  IJ<';:im<-ni  was  foniMMl  in  lin«* 
of  hall  h"  a  I  To  i  if  a.  m.  W  <-  movrd  I  hr<M-  mih-s  lo  ih<-  h-fl 
al  D-ii  and  halD-d  h>n;:  ciioiiMh  fur  dimwr.  AfD-r  ihai 
w«'  krpi  movinjx.  hnl  wt-rt'  hrhl  in  n'scivc.  Heavy  li^hi- 
in^  was  Lioini;  on  in  oiii*  froni  all  tlay,  our  forrr.v  driv- 
in*:  ihf  i-u.-uiy  hark.  \\<'  lay  in  a  raviiif  unlil  niuf 
p.  III.,  iJM-n  w«'r«*  ordered  u|»  and  tlouhled<|uiiked  lo 
rhetk  ihe  lelu-j  advance  on  our  ii;:hl.  We  had  lo  uade 
I  Ml  m  I  d;  ill  \' i  lie  (  reek.  ;  he  w  aier  rtuiiin^  aho\  e  oiii-  knees 
and  it  was  eold.  We  la\  in  line  of  hallh-  all  ni;:ht 
and  shivered  fiom  i  In-  w  i-i  and  <  <dd.  A I  i  hiee  a.  in.  of 
the  'Jsi  h.  line  of  hat  lie  was  formed  on  a  ridue  east  of  the 
IMimidviii  Nine.  We  had  eolTee  and  al  halljiasi  four 
mo\ed  to  I  he  from  near  i  he  enemy's  hieasl  woi-ks.  Soi.u 
after  !no\ed  to  ihe  left  two  hundred  yards  and  in- 
ireiiehed.  Ill  half  all  hour  the  Keuinieiil  advam  e«l  ihiee 
hundred  yards  to  .heck  the  lehels  moving:  toward  ns. 
TIm-v  drove  our  skirmislieis  hut  were  checked  hy  the 
lire  of  two  leMiuieuis  on  oiii-  ri^ilit  and  lied  to  ihe  rear. 
We  then  liuill  hreasiworks  and  lay  heliind  them  all 
dav,  hut  the  hiilleis  wer«'  tlyin;..^  over  us  every  few 
nuMuents.  The  'JUili  was  s|ieui  within  our  works, 
which  we  siren;:!  heiied  in  the  afternoon  as  a  report 
eame  that    the  rebels  wiM-e  ;;oin^'  to  advance  in   ftu-r«». 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  363 

At  nine  p.  m.  heavy  firing  began  on  the  skirinish  line 
and  we  stood  in  line  ready  to  receive  the  enemy,  but 
they  had  failed  to  dislodge  the  skirmishers  and  did  not 
eome.  We  lay  on  our  arms  all  niglit.  May  oOth  we 
felh^l  trees  and  further  streugtheiK'd  the  breastworks. 
Skinuishing-  was  going  on  all  day  and  we  remained 
in  liu<'  of  battle  until  midnight,  then  lay  down  with 
accoutrements  on  and  arms  by  our  sides.  A  shai'p 
skirmish  was  ke]>t  up  all  night.  On  the  31st  brisk  skir- 
mishing Avas  going  on  at  <laylight,  and  at  seven  the 
rebels  drove  in  our  pickets  and  skirmishers  and  ad- 
vanced boldly  for  a  mile  in  length,  but  were  repulsed 
at  every  point  with  heavy  loss.  1  rclieA^ed  <'a])tain 
l^itzsimmons'  company  on  the  picket  line  with  Com- 
pany A  at  six.  We  skirmished  with  the  enemy  on  the 
31st  and  were  relieved  from  picket  on  June  1st  at  six 
a.  m.,  when  we  took  our  place  in  line  behind  the  works, 
licstod  on  our  arms  all  day.  On  June  2<1  we  advance<l 
by  i-ight  of  companies  fii  cdicloH  and  built  works  three 
hundrcMl  yards  in  advance  of  the  former  ones.  On  the 
3d  the  Regiment  advanced  at  eleven.  All  quiet  to-day. 
My  wound  now  became  so  bad  that  T  was  removed  to  a 
house,  lio])ing  to  return  soon. 


Note. — The  Captain  was  sent  to  the  hospital  on  June  5th  and  re- 
signed September  29th,  1964. 

RECOLLECTIONS  OF  THE  SIEGE  OF  CHATTANOOGA  AND 
THE  BATTLE  OF  LOOKOUT  MOUNTAIN.  BY  CAPTAIN 
WILLIAM  STRAWN,  COMPANY  F. 

The  weary  two  months  that  we  were  besieged, 
coo])ed  up  and  nearly  starved  in  Chattanooga  can  never 
be  forgotten  while  any  soldier  lives  who  endured  it. 
Many  incidents,  both  comic  and  serious,  occurred.  The 
Regiment  was  stationed  close  up  to  Fort  Negley  in  plain 
view  of  Lookout  Mountain.  The  rebels  often  amused 
themselves  in  throwing  ten-]^ouud  shot  at  the  fort  and 
us  without  any  serious  injury,  but  we  considere<l  it 
somewhat  discourteous.  At  times  the  weather  was 
very  bad.    The  general  discomfort  of  our  situation  was 


U4  THK  UNE  HUNDRED  AND  FOURTH 

iiiinh  relieved  l»v  the  sI«tii  (let«*niiiiiati«)n  <if  all  «;:nuk's 
of  our  aniiv  ti»  Imld  on  to  ilu«  ritv  that  had  r«.si  us  so 
Iinirli  hIniMl  to  ai*i|ini-e. 

A  |ni\at«*  ill  ('oiii|iaiiy  K  voiced  the  uiiiveisal  feel- 
iiij:  ill  the  fnllMNxiii;:  vi;;oitMis  si  vh-:  Some  tuie  said  to 
him,  "We  iiia\  Im«  stai\  ed  out  and  roiu|»elhMl  to  reiieat.*' 
lie  leplied:  "Ndt  h\  a  d  <l  si;;ht  ;  I  woiihl  lather  livr- 
on  ;;rits  tlire«*  muullis;  it  ^^^>s{  ton  mucii  t«t  ^et  her»-  to 
ever  ;;i\«'  it  u|t."  This  man  was  tin*  rhaiiiitiou  ^mwler 
oft'oiupaiiv  I^,  hut  t  he  e\i^«'iuies  of  the  (  ase  fuuiul  hiiu 
ii^lit  oil  this  i|uestio!i.  iMiriii;:  the  siej;e  oni«ers.  pri- 
vates and  the  jM»or  dumh  luiites  alike  sulTered  f«ir  want 
of  food.  .Men  crawled  o\fr  the  ;;round  where  luuses 
and  mules  had  heeii  fed  to  ^^et  the  chance  ;;rains  of 
corn  the  animals  h:id  wasted.  Where  the  sUinny  cat- 
tle were  slaujihlei  cd  heads  snjd  foi-  i  w  u  dollars  and  a 
half  apiece.  These  wcie  scalded  like  a  lion's,  so  that 
e\en  the  hide  was  not  wasted.  The  paumh  was  soused 
in  iheri\erand  Iteiiii:  |Uepar«*d  was  considered  an  esp«*- 
ciallx    dainty  morsel.      I    have  eaten  poi'tions  of  altout 

•  •vi'iy  part  <d  a  1 f.  e\cc|it   i  he  horns  and  hoefs,  and 

all  was  ;: I.     The  days  seemed  huijier  and  ;:;r«'W   more 

inonoioiious.  The  u|i|>erm(»st  thouuhl  was  how  to  ^et 
soniei  hiiiL:  to  cat.  The  animals  had  lo  l»c  ^^uarded  while 
eatin;;  the  few  eais  of  corn  allowed  tiuMu.  I  i  <(|iuiii  jy 
a  man  came  hack  with  an  eai-  tU'  tw»»  of  (uni.  I'ti  olTci- 
him  a  <juarier  ft>r  half  of  it  would  he  tti  insult  him. 
lie  mi;:lit  ;:ive  it  to  a  cttmrade,  howe\er.  The  cnni  had 
heeii  fora^'ed  from  a  mule,  of  course,  hut  a  luan  was 
of  mole  value  than  a  mule.  .\i  last  w  lu-u  (irani  and 
Sherman  arrived  our  spirits  he^an  to  rise.  IMnally 
Sln-rman's  army  was  reitorted  crossin;^  tin*  river  alio\e 
the  citx  and  Hooker  closin;^  in  on  Lookout  .Mouuiain. 
On  Noveiuher  L'lih  the  spiteful  soundin;:  canii"»ii  ou 
Moccasin  Point  he;,Mn  to  jday  on  i.o«dvtuit.  (  Mir  Brigade 
and  most  <if  the  jiiiiy  was  in  line  of  hattle  with  little 

to     do    except      watch      llo(dver    dri\e     (he     lelicls    aTouild 

til"  jtoint  td  Lookout.  There  was  rain  and  mist  on  the 
side  of  the  mountain  mixin;:  with  the  smoke  of  liaitle. 
We  f.-lt  like  holdiii"  our  hieMihs  while  hoili  friend  and 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  365 

foe  were  liiddeii  by  it.  The  eombatauts  were  three 
miles  off,  but  we  saw  the  enemy  suUeiily  retreating; 
then  cheer  after  cheer  went  up  from  our  army  in  the 
city.  Late  in  the  afternoon  our  lirigade,  which  had  been 
sent  to  relieve  Hooker,  crossed  Chattanooga  Creek  and 
climbed  the  side  of  Lookout  by  whiitever  supp(jrt  we 
could  get  from  brush,  sai)lings  and  rocks.  About  ten 
we  tiled  into  Hooker's  lines  and  a  desultory  firing  was 
kept  up  until  midnight.  Only  a  few  men  of  our  Bri- 
gade were  wounded.  We  had  little  rest  or  shn^j)  that 
night.  In  the  uu)riiiug  we  beheld  the  i^tars  and  Stripes 
waving  over  the  summit  of  Lookout  and  learned  that 
the  enemy  had  retired  to  Mission  Ilidge.  The  Regiment 
in  marching  over  the  field  saw  some  of  our  dead  foes 
lying  where  they  had  fallen  or  in  the  shelter  of  rocks, 
where  they  had  crept  to  die.  We  soon  after  descended 
to  the  valley  and  at  about  four  p.  m.  of  the  2.jth  partici- 
pated in  the  grand  charge  on  Mission  Kidge. 


CIlAl'TKi:   WIN 


T»H-  Fl.-I.l  and  Slufr-Non-Comml8el<'ii.  a     Man     it- ^-f  i      '•■' 


COLON KL  AIJSALOM  B.  MOORE.  Colonel  Moore  was  l>«ni  m 
New  J.-nM-v.  but  it  has  bti-n  imiK)s«lbIo  to  obtain  the  date  of  h  R 
birth  or.  Indee.J.  any  fa«  ts  In  ..Rani  to  his  career  prcvlou.s  to  his 
advent  In  IlllnolK.  H«'fore  the  war  he  was  in  the  employ  of  the 
Illinois  Central  Uailroad  Company,  and  about  that  time  also,  wa« 
known  a«  a  local  preacher  In  the  Methodist  Kpiscopal  Church  He 
first  iM'came  prominent  in  ]^i  Salle  County  In  the  oxcltinK  i>olltical 
campaign  of  isf.o.  HelnK  nominated  by  the  Republican  party  for 
the  offl.e  of  Clerk  of  the  Circuit  Court,  he  made  an  active  canvass  on 
the  stump  and  was  electe.l  by  a  large  majority.  Thereafter  he  pos- 
Msse.l  for  some  vears  a  power  In  county  politics  that  outlived  his 
militarv  career.  When  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  Regiment  wa« 
recruited  he  became  a  candidate  for  the  colonelcy  and  was  elec  ted 
over  his  brilliant  competitor.  Oliver  C.  C.ray.  by  a  large  majorit>-^ 
Was  commissioned  Colonel,  .\ugust  27.  IS.IJ.  The  facts  in  r^^gar*'  »<> 
his  militarv  service  will  be  found  In  the  general  history  of  the  Re^.1- 
n.ent  an.l  nee.l  not  be  repeated  here.  Colonel  Moore  resigned  hep- 
tember  •♦  is.;3  returned  home  and  resumed  his  duties  as  Circuit 
Clerk  On  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  office,  he  was  elected  Clerk 
of  the  Countv  Court  for  four  years.  He  subsequently  removed  to 
Chicago  an.lhel.l  a  minor  appointment  under  the  Federa  (-ov^rn- 
ment  He  die,l  June  7.  ls7;».  The  remains  were  conveyed  to  Cltta^a 
an  escort  from  Cashman  l^dge.  A..  K.  and  A.  Masons,  and  buried 
n  the  Ottawa  Avenue  CVmetery.  June  1..  1S79.  by  Occidental  Ix)dge. 
No  40  \  F  and  A.  Masons,  of  which  the  .lecea.sed  was  a  member. 
C-olonelMoore  was  a  man  who  had  many  friends  and  some  enemies 
bu  was  possesse.l  of  a  warm  heart  and  never  turned  a  deaf  ear  to 
,he  crv  ofTstress.  He  was  also  noted  in  the  .lays  of  his  prosperity 
for  manv  benefactions  that  are  still  remembered. 

cIhoNKL  DorCH.AS  HAPKMAN.  Colonel  Hapemnn  was  born 
,„  Fph  .tab.  Fulton  County,  N.  Y..  January  15.  1839  and  descended 
rotn  ennanv  ancestry.  In  184r.  the  family  removed  to  Illinois  and 
sl-a  led  in  thetownship  of  Karl,  I.a  Salle  County,  where  young  Hape- 
man  remained  on  his  father's  farm  until  he  was  ten  years  of  age 
At  Oie  Ke  of  thirteen  he  entered  the  ofll.e  of  the  "Free  Tra.ler  at 
Cmawa  ?o  tm  he  printers  tra.le.  Applying  himself  falthfu  ly 
lur  ng  the  foUowlng  years  the  outbreak  of  the  Rebellion  found  him 
thoroughlv   verse.l   in   all   the  .letalls  of  business  In   what   was  then 

largest  newspaiH-r  and  publlhhlng  house  In  the  county  an.l  master 

wS   he   inten.led   Hb..ul.l   be  hIs  life   vocation.     While  thus  em- 

,  oved  In  the  "Art  preservative  of  all  arts"  the  thunders  of  Sumter  s 

.  innon   awoke  the   Nation   from   its  .leluslve   dreams  of  peace  and 


REGIMENT  ILLINOIS   VOLUNTEERS.  36r 

ushered  in  the  Great  Rebellion.  Closely  following  came  the  call  to 
arms,  and  anmng  the  hundreds  of  thousands  of  ifyS  patHot^c  and 
brave  stood  young  Hapeman.  He  enlisted  April  14  861  o  three 
months-  service  in  what  became  Company  H  Eleventh  Illinois  n^ 
w^  J;/  ',^S'"^^"t  first  commanded  by  the  immortal  WH  L 
Wallace,  who  impressed  upon  it  the  character  of  his  own  mil  tar^ 
genius,  skill  and  bravery,  and  made  every  member  proud  to  sav 
ant  of'Sfr'n"  ""  Eleventh."  Hapeman  was  elected  LcondLeu  en: 
ant  of  his  company  and  commissioned  April  23  1861  The  Eleven  h 
was  stationed  at  Villa  Ridge,  111.,  watching  the  enemv  ac^-oss  the 
river  and  making  occasional  marches  upon  rumors  of  his  approach 
but  vas  m  no  engagements  larger  than  a  skirmish.  Under  the  sldUed 
harid  of  General  Wallace  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  T.  EG  Ransom 
(afterward  the  distinguished  general  and  commander  of  divisions 
and  army  corps),  the  Eleventh  attained  that  high  .legree  of  mi li  a?? 

am  SM;U  li;rth'"''  "'?■*'  Imperishable'^renoSn  at  DoneSon 
j^il  ^'i/loh.  Upon  the  expiration  of  the  three  months'  service  the 
Eleventh  was  recruited  and  re-enlisted  for  three  vears.     Lieutenant 

iergrtVdTrv"3oSsr/'H  """^  '^'^   ^'^--»   commS! 

oeing  dated  .Jul.v  30,  1861.    He  participated  in  all  the  various  marches 

ot  lc.(.l  and  1862.  Expeditions  were  made  into  Missouri,  resulting  in 
afsn  n^4'''  Charleston  and  Bloomfield.  Lieutenant  Hap7man  was 
also  in  the  reconnoissance  under  General  Grant  to  Columbus  Kv^  He 
participated  in  the  advance  on  Fort  Henrv  in  Fel°    an     18^^^^^ 

n^nv  at  Fo^H'n''  f°''  ""''  ""T''"'  ""^'  ''''''  '^  commancVof  h  rcom- 
pan>  at  Fort  Donelson  on  the  l.^th,  14th  and  1.5th  of  Februarv    1S69 
vvhere  the  Eleventh  lost  in  killed  and  wounded  339  men    Lm    Lieu: 
tenant    Hapeman's   companv     42     men       The     Re^impnf    TJ^ 
ered  itself  with  glory,  but  was  destined  to  win  s  H    Shter    auiel^ 
at  Shiloh    April  6  and  7.  1862.    Its  losses  there  were  Sv  fiftv  ne, 
cent      Fol  owing  the  fortunes  of  the  Eleventh,  we    next    hear    of 
Lieutenant  Hapeman  at  the  siege  of  Corinth,  Miss.,  where  he  held 
a     field     position  as  Adjutant  of  the  Regiment.     Meantime    in  far 
away  Illinois,  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  Infantry  was  orglniS 
n  La  Salle  County.     The  fame  of  the  Eleventh  and  the  gallant-     o 
its  officers  and  men  was  well  known  to  the  people  of  the  c?unt^    from 
which  many  of  them  had  enlisted.     In  the  nionth  of  Auguir  186^ 
Lieutenant  Hapeman,   then   in  the  field    was  unexnecteHiv^^'  l       ' 
self,  tendei-ed  the  position  of  Lieutenant-cXneroT  he  One  h,-'^^^^^^^ 
and  Fourth,  the  crack  regiment  of  the  county.     He  accepted    va^ 
discharged  for  promotion.'"  returned  home,  was  commissioned  Lief 
tenant-Colonel  for  gallant  services  in  the  field    AiTuTt  S    1869   anri 
mustered  October  3d.     On  September  6.  1862,  tht  Se  Hun  S  and 
Fourth     Lieutenant-Colonel   Hapeman   commanding   (Colonel    Moo^-e 
being  sick  .  left  for  the  front  at  Louisville,  near  wh!ch  the  Re-fn^eit 
remained  for  about  five  weeks  in  various  camps.     Majo    wrdmer  no 
arriving  until  October,  the  task  of  teaching  ine  thousand  newind 
mosly  raw  Officers  and  men  the  rudiments  of  militar     Hfe      HU  ?nd 
discipline,  fell  upon  Lieutenant-Colonel  Hapeman  vL-  Margelv    he 
being  the  only  experienced  field  officer  present.    That  he  then  and  -fl 
ways,  devoted  himself  and  his  energies  to  the  interests  nfihro 
Hundred  and  Fourth,  is  well  known.  %ut  events  we'  rhLtenint  Jnd 
General  Bragg  thi.ndering  at  the  gates  of  Louisville.    In  Octobef  thl 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth,  still  but  imperfectly  drilled,  began  its  long- 


3(8  THE  ONE  HL'NDRED  AND  FOURTH 

iMTieH  of  nmrrhpn.  tamimlKHh  ami  baltles,  first  followiiii,'  HraRB  to- 
ward   PerryvUle   and    with   oiIlt   Hoops.   o<tu|>>  ii»K    Fninkforl.   the 
capital  of  Kfnttirkv.     Th.-  U.-Ktmeul  i.Mnaln»-d  Hum.-  boiiu-  time  and 
Colontd   Moore   being  appolntt-d   to  .ommand   the  Thirty-ninih   Hri- 
gade     Lieutenant-Colonel    Hapeman   «omnianded    the   One   Hundred 
and    Fourth,    employintc    all   the  time  pow*il.le  in   drillins   it.      1  he 
Uegiujent   Koon   after   l.enan   the   niar.h   to   Itowlinn   (;reen   and   the 
TenneHs.-*-  .amiwilKn.     Lieutenant-Colonel  Hapeman  eomman.led  the 
One  Hun.lred  and   Fourth   in  the   Imtlle  of   Harlsville  with  lourane 
and   skill    diduK  all   that   a   brave  soldier  eould   .lo   to  win   sueeess. 
Hut   he    with   the  tomniand.   became  prisoners  of   war.  and   he   waj 
eonfined  In  prison  at  Atlanta  and  Rhhmond  for  some  months,    lleing 
releas.«d  in  the  spring  of  lx«;3.  he  rejolne.l  the  HeKiment  at  Hieni- 
wood    Tenn     May  21st.     The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  was  ordend 
to  MurfreeslHiro  soon  after  and  asslgne.l  to  •nKlitlnn"  (Jen.-ral  JoMi 
Ik-attvs  Hrlgade  (First  Urlgade.  Second  Divlhion.  Fourteenth  Army 
Corps     Armv   of   the   Cumberlamll.     The   Tullahoma   campaign   was 
on  the  eve  of  opening  and  Lleuieiumt -Colonel  llaiMinan  pariuipated 
In   It    b«'lng   pr.senl   at    KIk    Kiver  ami   wherever  hghling  oc<  urred. 
Uo  t^k  part  in  the  Chlckamauga  campaign  and  was  in  the  remark- 
able action  of  Davis  Cross  Roads.  September  H.  \M:1    Colonel  Moore, 
who  had  resigned  some  time  previous,  left  the  Regiment  on  t he  1.  h 
and    Lieutenant-Colonel    Hapeman  succeeding   him.  commanded   the 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth  In  the  great  battle  of  Chlckamauga.  Sep- 
tember ruth  and  I'oih.  and  the  engagements  of  the  Jlst.  near  Uoss- 
vllle      For  meritorious  services  there  he  was  commissioned  (  olonel 
of  the  Regiment   in  September.     Colonel  Hapeman  was  In  the  siege 
of  Chattanooga,  cheerfully  enduring  all  the  privations  of  that  tiylng 
time    onlv  solicitous  for  the  welfare  of  his  men.  but  the  boys  claim 
that  "the  Colonels  favorite  horse  sometimes  lost  an  ear  of  corn  from 
his  s<antv  allowance     so  great  was  their  hunger.     In  the  battles  of 
lx)okout  .Mountain  and  Mission  Rl.lge.  the  One  Hundre.l  an.l  lourlh 
was  le.l  bv  Colonel  Hapeman  with  a  distinguished  bravery  and  skill 
that   was  remarked.     In  the  latter  battle  he  Inspired  his  men   both 
bv  words  an«l  example  to  the  great  deeds  that  followed  and  crowned 
e;erv  man   with  a  wreath  of  glory.     Following  that   battle.  (  olonc 
Hapeman  led  the  Regiment   In   pursuit  of  Mraggs  fleeing  army  and 
was  engaged  at  C.ravsviHe  and  Ringgold.     In  the  Atlanta  campaign, 
becinning  Mav  2    ls»;4.  Colonel   Hiipeman  commanded  the  One  Hun- 
•ire.l   and    Fo.irth    In    the   four   months   of   marches,   skirmishes  and 
battles    and   there   was  sel.lom  a  day   when   he  was  not   under  ttre. 
He   was  present  at    Ro.ky   Face,  the  terrific   battles  at   Resaca.  the 
engagements  on   I'umpkln   Vine  Creek,  near  Dallas,  and  the  battles 
around   New    Hope  Church;   the  siege  and   battles  around   Kenesnw 
Mountain  and  the  actions  on  the  Chattahoochee.    At  the  bloody  battle 
of  I'each  Tree  Creek.  Julv  20.  18»;4.  when  one-half  of  the  right   wing 
of  the  Regiment  had  been  killed  an.l  wounded  an<l  further  disaster 
Kr.eme,l  Imminent.  Colonel  Hap.-man.  ably  supportd  by  Major  W.d- 
mer    rallied  the  remainder  of  th.-  Regiment  and  hurled  It   upon  the 
foe  in   vlctorv      One  of  the  boys  who  had   his  right   shoulder  shat- 
tered there   siivs  m  a  letter  to  the  writer:     "His  (Colonel  Hapeman  s) 
conduct  on  that  occasion  showed  him  to  have  been    the  bravest   of 
the  brnve'"     Captain  Strawn  sjild  to  the  writer  about   this  buttle: 
"We  ha«l  beconie  so  accustome«l  to  the  coolness  of  our  field  ofilcers 
that  no  demorullwitlon  occurred."     From  that  time,  we  find  Colonel 


Major  John    H.    Widmer 

FROM  A  PHOTOGRAPH  TAKEN   IN    1894. 


REGIMF:XT  ILLINOIS  VOLUNTEERS.  369 

Hapenian  commanding  the  demi-brigade,  or  left  wing,  and  leading  it 
in  the  siege  of  Atlanta,  the  almost  daily